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Local Road Management Manual

Local Road Management Manual 490

CMGP Manuals No. 01: LRM Manual Message from the Secretary 1 Local Road Management Manual for Local Government Units Department of the Interior and Local Government Office of Project Development Services 2018

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Local Road Management Manual for Local Government Units Department of the Interior and Local Government Office of Project Development Services 2018

Local Road Management Manual 6 The Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) is the primary catalyst for excellence in local governance that nurtures self-reliant, progressive, orderly, safe, and globally competitive communities sustained by an empowered citizenry. Learn more at dilg.gov. ph or follow DILG Philippines. Published by: Office of the Project Development Services Conditional Matching Grant to Provinces Department of the Interior and Local Government 24/F DILG-NAPOLCOM Center EDSA corner Quezon Avenue, Quezon City

Message from the Secretary 7 FOREWORD The local road network serves every sector in the community. Along with the changes that are happening in our time is our government’s realization of the irrefutable importance of local roads in bringing positive change and development, even in the most far-flung areas of the country. These roads serve as conduits linking farmers to markets, students to schools and workers to their places of employment. Apart from being an enabler in the execution of robust everyday social and economic activities, good local roads play a vital role in the delivery and provision of emergency services from our government, as manifested during the most recent events in Marawi City and calamities experienced by our countrymen.

Local Road Management Manual 8 That being said, our current administration is committed in ensuring that local roads are rightfully managed, maintained and continually improved to effectively service the citizens. This commitment is shared by our Local Government Units who are in the frontline of local road management. In 2014, the National Government, through the Department of the Interior and Local Government and in partnership with the Australian Government through the Provincial Road Management Facility (PRMF) Program, started developing a Local Roads Management Manual. The manual, which aims to aid the LGUs in performing their crucial role in managing roads, will serve as a guide for their construction, repair, rehabilitation, improvement and maintenance. Today, through the Conditional Matching Grant to Provinces (CGMP) for Road and Bridge Repair, Rehabilitation and Improvement Program, the manual has been enhanced and is ready for dissemination to the Provincial Governments. Inaasahan natin na makakatulong ng lubos ang LRM Manual na ito sa tuloy-tuloy na pagbuo natin ng matatag, patuloy na umuunlad at masasayang mga komunidad sa buong bansa. Eduardo M. Ano Secretary

Preface 9 PREFACE Local roads are key components of the Philippine Road Network. Local roads support the movement of people and goods among communities, production areas, and markets. The development and management of local roads are mandates of Local Government Units (LGUs) by virtue of the Local Government Code of 1991. Local Road Management is considered a critical function of LGUs as these provide access to public goods and services. In pursuit of its function to assist in improving the capabilities of LGUs, the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) has prepared a Local Road Management (LRM) Manual. This has been possible through the technical assistance and support of the Australian Government through the Provincial Road Management Facility (PRMF) Program which ran from 2009— 2016. PRMF was implemented in ten partner provinces in the Visayas (Aklan, Guimaras, and Bohol), and Mindanao (Agusan del Sur, Bukidnon, Davao del Norte, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Occidental, and Surigao del Norte). Currently, DILG, in partnership with DBM, is implementing a Program that took off from the PRMF Program called Conditional Matching Grant to Provinces for Road Repair, Rehabilitation, and Improvement. CMGP is implemented in all Provinces nationwide, and aims to provide assistance to Provinces for provincial road works and institutionalize governance reforms in Local Road Management (LRM) and Public Financial Management (PFM). The LRM Manual aims to provide guidance on the planning, programming, design, construction, and maintenance of local roads. The manual will be a valuable tool for LGUs in sustainably managing their local road network. With this, LGUs could improve its local road management practices which shall result to a more effective and efficient delivery of front-line services. This can only be realized through a well-maintained and responsive local road network that is properly developed and managed by LGUs.

Local Road Management Manual 10 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND FRAMEWORK Introduction. . . . . . . 14 Local Road Management . . . . 16 General Structure of the Manual . . . . 17 Overview of the Philippine Road Network. . . 18 CHAPTER 2: LOCAL ROAD ADMINISTRATION Administrative Classification of Roads. . . . 22 Other Functional Classification of Local Roads. . . 27 Administrative Functions of LGUs over Local Roads. . 29 Right-of-Way (ROW) Widths of Local Roads. . 36 Conversion of Local Roads. . . . 37 Local Engineers’ Offices . . . . . 37 Role of National Government Agencies in Local Road Management . .. . 42 CHAPTER 3: LOCAL ROAD PLANNING Local Development Planning Framework in the Philippines. 49 Local Road Planning Process. . . . . 53 Planning Approaches for Local Road Networks. . . 58 Inventory of Local Roads. . . . . 64 Annual Programming for Local Roads and Local Budgeting Process. . . . . 93

Table of Contents 11 CHAPTER 4: LOCAL ROADS SURFACE TREATMENT OPTIONS Local Road Management Process. . . . . 101 Surface Treatment Options for Local Roads. . . . 108 Recommended Pavement Options for Local Roads. . . 120 Suggested Reference Standards for Local Roads. . . 121 Local Road Safety, , , , , , . 125 Standard Technical Specifications for Local Road Projects, . 129 CHAPTER 5: LOCAL ROAD QUANTITY CALCULATION AND COST ESTIMATION Quantity Calculation and Cost Estimation Process. . . 131 Project Development Cost as a Percentage of Construction Cost. . . . . . . 132 Quantity Calculation. . . . . . . 134 Cost Estimation. . . . . . . 136 CHAPTER 6: LOCAL ROAD CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT Project Cycle for Local Road Construction. . . . 148 Construction Supervision. . . . . . 151 Contract Management. . . . . . . 177 Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC). . . 187 Construction Safety and Health (CSH). . . . . 192 Constructors Performance Evaluation System (CPES). . . 196 CHAPTER 7: LOCAL ROAD MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT Road Maintenance. . . . . . . 201 Asset Management. . . . . . . 201 Types of Maintenance Activities. . . . . . 203 Common Road Distress. . . . . . 206 Elements of a Maintenance Project. . . . . 207 Suggested Minimum Frequency of Maintenance Activities for Local Gravel Roads. . . . . 207 Cost Estimates for Local Road Maintenance. . . . 213 Maintenance of Sealed Pavement (Paved Local Roads). . . 215

Local Road Management Manual 12 CHAPTER 8: LOCAL ROAD ENVIRONMENTAL SAFEGUARDS The Philippine Environmental Impact Statement System (PEISS). . . . . 225 Other Relevant Philippine Environmental Laws. . . 227 Local Government Policies. . . . . 228 The Revised PEISS Manual of Procedures. . . 229 Practical Environmental Guidelines for Local Road Management Activities. . . . . . 234 Environmental Management System (EMS) for Road Network Development. . . . . 237 Climate Change Considerations. . . . 240

Table of Contents 13 ANNEXES Annex 2A : Suggested Outline for Local Road Network Development Plan Annex 2B : DILG Guidelines on the Development of the Local Roads Network Development Plan (LRNDP) Annex 2C : Template for Local Road Inventory Annex 2D : Template for Local Road Inventory Summary Annex 2E : Template for Local Road Traffic Count Annex 3A : Reference Guidelines for Local Gravel Road Rehabilitation Annex 3B : Reference Guidelines for Asphalt Pavement Annex 3C : Reference Guidelines for Concrete Pavement Annex 3D : DPWH Department Order No. 11, Series of 2014 Annex 4A : Quantity Calculation Template Annex 4B : Cost Estimation Template Annex 5 : Activity Standards for Local Gravel Road Maintenance Annex 6 : Road and Bridge Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Guidelines A copy of the Guidelines on the Implementation of Projects under the Conditional Matching Grant to Provinces for Road and Bridge Repair, Rehabilitation, and Improvement can be accessed online at: https://tinyurl.com/cmgpguidelines2020; www.dilg.gov.ph; and www.cmgpprogram.com/ A copy of the Guidelines on the Implementation of Projects under the Special Local Road Fund (SLRF) of the Motor Vehicle Users Charge Law can be accessed online at: tiny.cc/SLRFGUIDELINES

Local Road Management Manual 14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION & FRAMEWORK I. Introduction As a function devolved from the National Government to Local Government Units under the Local Government Code of 1991, the management of local road networks is one of the most important functions undertaken by LGUs. To assist the LGUs in the delivery of their local road management functions, the Department of the Interior Local Government (DILG) has prepared a Local Road Management (LRM) Manual that presents tools, standard practices, technical standards, and recommendations for LGUs to sustainably manage their road assets. The manual aims to impart a deeper knowledge and understanding of how an effective and sustainable local road management contributes to the social and economic well-being of a society, and hopes to impart a deeper appreciation of rehabilitation

Introduction 15 and routine and periodic maintenance of existing local roads as this will help the LGUs ensure that the local road network is sustained in fair-to-good condition, which will facilitate more efficient service to the public. The Manual sets out the conceptual approaches to better local road management, which shall be defined, discussed and presented throughout all chapters. Guidance is given on the planning, design, prioritization, programming, implementation and maintenance of local road projects in consideration of the whole local road network. Guidance is particularly given on the reference standards for the rehabilitation and routine and periodic maintenance of local gravel roads. The LRM Manual adopts established practices, standards and approaches on planning, design, construction and maintenance that are relevant and appropriate for local roads, given the institutional capacity of local governments. The LRM Manual seeks to provide the following benefits to LGUs: • Clarity on responsibilities of LGUs on the administration and management of local roads; • Objective prioritization of local roads; • Linking road planning to work programming and management; • Appropriate engineering interventions to local road conditions; • Reliable estimation of costs for local roads; • Local gravel roads designed and built to standards; • Improve supervision of local road construction; • Longer life span of local roads through proper maintenance; and • Minimize effects of local roads to environment.

Local Road Management Manual 16 II. Local Road Management Local Road Infrastructure, through devolution and decentralization underwritted in the Sections 17 (a) and (b) of the Local Government Code of 1991, are considered as basic facilities that LGUs should provide withing its jurisdiction. As mentioned earlier in this material, local roads are critical infrastructure that provide and accelerate the delivery of public services and goods. The development and management of local road networks is therefore central to this mandate. DILG, as the National Government Agency with oversight functions on Local Government Units, is mandated to provide technical assistance and support to LGUs. Hence, the programs and efforts of the Department to assist LGUs towards the improvement of their institutional capacities in local road management. Local road management is the planning, prioritizing, and sustainably managing the local road network in consideration of the envisioned socioeconomic development of the LGU. In simple terms, local road management is the planning and implementation of investments on local roads based on the function and condition of the local road network as a support to the overall economic development of the LGU. The DILG LRM Manual is a simple technical reference for LGUs on how they can ably plan and manage their local road network.

Introduction 17 III. General Structure of the Manual The Manual aims to assist the local engineering offices in the delivery of local road management functions. It is in this context that this Manual is structured as follows: Chapter 1 – Introduction. This chapter introduces the objectives, rationale and structure of the Manual and a brief overview of the road inventory in the Philippines; Chapter 2 – Local Road Administration. This chapter discusses the basic administrative functions of LGUs for local roads within its administrative jurisdictions; Chapter 3 – Local Road Planning. This chapter discussed planning and programming process for local roads within the context of the over-all local road network. This chapter also deals with the programming and budgeting of local roads; Chapter 4 – Local Road Surface Treatment Options. This chapter explains the basic principles of local road management and appropriate surface treatment interventions for local roads given normal conditions. Annexes to this chapter details reference guidelines for local road with gravel, asphalt and concrete pavements; Chapter 5 – Local Road Quantity Calculation and Cost Estimation. This chapter aims to improve the preparation of the program of work being prepared by the local engineering offices. This should lead to a more realistic and accurate contract cost for road projects; Chapter 6 – Local Road Construction Management. This chapter discusses the standard practices for construction supervision and contract management roles of local engineering offices for typical road projects; Chapter 7 – Local Road Maintenance Management. Road maintenance is an important asset preservation function of the local engineering offices. This chapter details road maintenance activities that the local engineering offices should undertake to preserve their road assets; and

Local Road Management Manual 18 Chapter 8 – Local Road Environmental Safeguards. This chapter discusses environmental management practices to ensure the environmental and social sustainability of local roads. The safeguards are based on the national framework for environmental management of road projects. III. Overview of the Philippine Road Network The Philippine Road Network is an integral component of the country’s transportation infrastructure. Roads are classified as National or Local Roads. Total Length 217,643.57 km

Introduction 19 National Roads

Local Road Management Manual 20 Unpaved Unpaved Unpaved 7,903 11,855 5,400 km For road upgrading For road upgrading For road upgrading fair-to-good Paved fair-to-good Paved fair-to-good Paved paved roads 2,198 paved roads 5,816 paved roads 8,106 km 2,577 1,346 for rehab 2,028 km

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 21 CHAPTER 2 LOCAL ROAD ADMINISTRATION

Local Road Management Manual 22 1. Administrative Classification of Roads As illustrated in the previous chapter, the Philippine Road Network is classified into and managed by different entities. The National Government through the Department of Public Works and Highways has jurisdiction over National Roads, and Local Government Units have jurisdiction over local roads. The administration of roads according to their classification is shown in table 2.1 below: Table 2.1 Administration and Classification of Roads Executive Order No. 113 (EO 113) Series of 1955 formally establishes a system of classification of roads in the Philippines. EO 113 empowers the then Department of Public Works and Communications to recommend to the President the classification of roads and highways into national, provincial, city and municipal roads including prescribing standard widths of right-of-way. The previous Ministry of Public Works and Highways (MPWH) was reorganized into the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) through Executive Order No. 124 (EO 124) Series of 1987. DPWH, by virtue of EO 124, was given the mandate to classify roads and highways into national, regional, provincial, city, municipal,

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 23 and barangay roads and highways, based on objective criteria it shall adopt; and to provide or authorize the conversion of roads and highways from one category to another. The issuance and adoption of the Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards (DGCS) for Public Works and Highways by then MPWH (now DPWH) in 1989 provided a standard classification for national, provincial, city, municipal and barangay roads. The official functional classifications of roads as defined in the actual and specific provisions of EO 113 and the MPWH DGCS are detailed in Table 2.2. These administrative jurisdictions are prior to the implementation of devolution and decentralization of frontline functions to the LGUs. During this time, the National Government still had administrative jurisdiction over local roads. The classification of roads defined in the MPWH DGCS remains the most current government statute specifying the official functional and administrative classification of roads and highways in the country (except the funding allocation which have been devolved to LGUs by virtue of RA 7160).

Local Road Management Manual 24 Table 2.1 Administration and Classification of Roads Road Official Function Classification (Actual Provisions) Classification Executive Order No. 113, Series MPWH (now DPWH) of 1955 Design Guidelines, Criteria, and Standards National Section 1) Section 1.321, Part 3, Roads Volume II) National Roads consist of two (2) classes namely, national Public roads, declared primary and national secondary. as national roads by the National primary forms part President of the Philippines of the main trunk-line system upon recommendation of continuous in extent; roads the Minister of Public Works which are now declared national and Highways satisfying roads except those not forming the conditions set forth parts of the continuous system, under Executive Order such as roads leading to national No. 113, establishing the airports, sea ports and parks, classification of roads. etc., or coast-to-coast roads National roads are classified not forming continuous parts of as primary and secondary the trunk line system; and city roads. The former forms the roads and street forming the part of the main highway secondary trunk line system not trunkline system which is classified as “primary roads”, but continuous in extent; the shall exclude “feeder road”. All latter includes all access national roads, whether primary roads forming a secondary or secondary, shall be declared trunkline system as such by the President of the Philippines upon the recommendation of the Secretary of the Department of the Public Works and Communications. National Roads shall have a right-of-way of not less than twenty (20) meters, provided the Secretary of Public Works and Communications upon the recommendation of the Provincial and City Boards and the Commissioner of Public

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 25 National Roads Highways that a right-of-way of at least 60 meters shall be reserved for roads constructed through unpatented public and and at least one hundred twenty (120) meters reserved through naturally forested areas of aesthetic or scientific value. (Section II) “National Aid” roads are those provincial and city roads of sufficient importance which may be incorporated eventually into the national system and are so declared as such by Provincial (Section III) (Section 1.322, Part 3, Roads Volume II) All roads connecting one municipality with another Roads connecting one municipality, the terminal to municipality to another, the be the public plazas; all roads terminal to be the public extending from a municipality, plaza; roads extending or from a provincial or national from one municipality road to a public wharf or or from a provincial or railway station and any other national road to a public road which may be so called wharf, or railway station. designated by the Secretary of For purposes of allocating Public Works national aid maintenance

Local Road Management Manual 26 and Communications upon funds, a provincial the request of the Provincial road is designated and Board concerned and upon accepted as such by favorable recommendation o the Minister of Public the Commissioner of Public Works and Highways, Highways, provincial roads upon recommendation shall have a right-of-way of not of the Provincial less than fifteen (15) meters, Board (Sangguniang which may be widened to Panlalawigan). twenty (20) meters, provided that a right-of-way of at least sixty (60) meters shall be reserved for roads constructed through unpatented public land. City Roads (Section IV) (Section 1.323, Part 3, All highways not included in the Volume II) above classifications. Municipal Roads/streets within the and city roads shall have a urban area of the city not right-of-way of not less than classified as provincial or ten (10) meters; provided that national roads. the principal streets of town sites located on public lands Municipal Roads shall have a width of sixty (60) (Section 1.324, Part 3, meters and all other streets a Volume II) width of not less than fifteen (15) meters. Roads/streets within Municipal Governments the poblacion area Barangay Council of a municipality not classified as national or provincial roads. Barangay Roads (Section 1.325, Part 3, Volume II) Roads located outside the poblacion area of a municipality or urban area of a city and those outside industrial, commercial, or residential subdivision

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 27 Barangay Roads cont. (access roads to subdivision are not barangay roads), and which act as a feeder from farm-to-market roads, and are not otherwise classified as national, provincial, city, or municipal roads. Barangay roads must have the following: Road right-of-way: 10.00m minimum Width of traveled way: 4.00 minimum Allowable grade: 10% maximum The authority of LGUs to develop and manage the local road network derives from Republic Act No. 7160 (RA 7160), otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991. Sections 17 (b) (1), (2), (3) and (4) of RA 7160 mandates all LGUs to fund, provide and manage frontline basic services and facilities, which include local roads among others. 2. Other functional classification of local roads There is a wide spectrum of development assistance towards local roads financed and implemented by the National Government through its sectoral agencies and Official Development Assistance (ODAs). Local roads are also often classified in accordance to the development objectives by the respective implementing agency. However, such roads are officially still classified as local roads and either as provincial, city, municipal or barangay, depending on which LGUs has administrative jurisdiction thereof.

Local Road Management Manual 28 If such subject roads are within the administrative jurisdiction of an LGU, it is recommended that the provisions of this manual be adopted for all works related to local road management (whether new construction, improvement, rehabilitation, maintenance, etc). Typical functional classifications of local roads outside of administrative jurisdiction are listed in Table 2.3. There may be specific references or guidelines for the design and implementation of such local road projects. It is suggested that such specific guidelines may be compared with the provisions of the manual. Any conflicts arising from differences between these documents may be resolved through a mutual agreement between DILG, the LGU concerned and the relevant implementing government agency. Irrigation National Service and access DPWH Design Service Irrigation roads are roads with Guidelines, and Access Administration irrigation systems, Standards, and Roads (NIA) whether national, Criteria for DPWH- communal or private NIA Projects in nature. National irrigation systems, Philippine Agricultural including services Engineering and access roads, Standards for Farm- are operated and to-Market Roads for maintained by NIA. DA-NIA Projects Irrigators Association operated and maintains communal irrigation systems including service roads. Service roads on embankments of major canals are linked with roads leading to villages or towns. Access roads link the irrigation systems to provincial or national roads. Service and access roads also serve as farm-to-market roads. NIA coordinates with DPWH and DA in road construction and rehabilitation.

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 29 3. Administrative Functions of LGUs over Local Roads The Local Government Code (RA 7160) empowers all LGUs to discharge functions and responsibilities that have been devolved to them, particularly the provision of basic services and facilities. Amongst the functions vested unto the LGUs is the development and management of local roads. Pursuant to Section 17 of the Local Government Code, LGUs are mandated to provide services in relation to local roads, which are summarized in Table 2.4. This table also details other provisions set by RA 7160 on the functions of LGUs toward local road management. The Local Government Code has provisions when a certain local government is unable to deliver local road management services. The national government or the next higher level of local government unit may provide or augment the basic services and facilities assigned to a lower level of local government unit when such services or facilities are not made available or, if made available, are inadequate to meet the requirements of its inhabitants. For instance if a component municipality or city of a province is unable to provide the development or maintenance of a municipal or city road, then the provincial government may provide these local roads or augment the provision of these services. Local Provisions of Republic Act No. 7160 (Local Government Code of Government 1991) Unit Local Road Section Actual Provisions Management Function Barangays Efficient and Section 17 … xxx.. Local government effective (b) (1) (v) units shall likewise exercise provision of such other powers and maintenance of discharge such other functions barangay roads and responsibilities as are necessary, appropriate, or incidental to efficient and effective provision of the basic services and facilities enumerated herein... xxx… xxx… Maintenance of Barangay roads and bridges… xxx…

Local Road Management Manual 30 Local Provisions of Republic Act No. 7160 (Local Government Code Government of 1991) Unit Local Road Section Actual Provisions Management Function Municipalities Efficient and Section 17 … xxx.. Local government units effective (b) (2) (viii) shall likewise exercise such provision, other powers and discharge development such other functions and and responsibilities as are management necessary, appropriate, or of municipal incidental to efficient and roads effective provision of the basic services and facilities enumerated herein... xxx… xxx… Infrastructure facilities intended primarily to service the needs of the residents of the municipality and which are funded out of municipal funds including, but not limited to, municipal roads and bridges… xxx... Cities Efficient and Section 17 … xxx.. Local government effective (b) (4) (vii) units shall likewise exercise provision, such other powers and development discharge such other functions and and responsibilities as are management of necessary, appropriate, or city roads incidental to efficient and effective provision of the basic services and facilities enumerated herein... xxx… xxx … All the services and facilities of the municipality and province… xxx…

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 31 Local Provisions of Republic Act No. 7160 (Local Government Code Government of 1991) Unit Local Road Section Actual Provisions Management Function Provinces Efficient and Section 17 … xxx.. Local government effective (b) (3) (vii) units shall likewise exercise provision, such other powers and development discharge such other functions and and responsibilities as are management necessary, appropriate, or of provincial incidental to efficient and roads effective provision of the basic services and facilities enumerated herein... xxx… xxx… Infrastructure facilities intended primarily to service the needs of the residents of the municipality and which are funded out of provincial funds including, but not limited to, provincial roads and bridges… xxx… Common to Closure and Section 21 … xxx… A local government barangays, opening of (a) unit may, pursuant to an municipalities, roads ordinance, permanently or cities, and temporarily close or open provinces any local road falling within its jurisdiction: Provided, however, that in case of permanent closure, such ordinance must be approved by at least two-thirds (2/3) of all the members of the Sanggunian, and when necessary, an adequate substitute for the public facility that is subject to closure is provided… xxx…

Local Road Management Manual 32 Section 21 … xxx … No such way or (b) place or any part thereof shall be permanently closed without making provisions for the maintenance of public safety therein. A property thus permanently withdrawn from public use may be used or conveyed for any purpose for which other real property belonging to the local government unit concerned may be lawfully used or conveyed… xxx... Common to Section 21 … xxx … Any local road barangays, (a) may be temporarily closed municipalities, during an actual emergency, cities, and or fiesta celebrations, public provinces rallies, agricultural or industrial fairs, or an undertaking of public works and highways, telecommunications, and waterworks projects, the duration of which shall be specified by the local chief executive concerned in a written order: Provided, however, That no local road shall be temporarily closed for athletic, cultural, or civic activities not officially sponsored, recognized, or approved by the local government unit concerned… xxx…

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 33 Common to Closure and Section 21 … xxx… Any city, municipality, barangays, regulation of (d) or Barangay may, by a duly municipalities, use of local enacted local ordinance and cities roads temporarily close and regulate the use of any, street, road, thoroughfare, or any other public place where shopping malls, Sunday, flea or night markets, or shopping areas may be established and where goods, merchandise, foodstuffs, commodities, or articles of commerce may be sold and dispensed to the general public… xxx… Common to Regulation of Section … xxx… Regulate the use municipalities use of local 447 (5) (v); of streets, avenues, alleys, and cities roads Section 458 sidewalks, bridges, parks Common to (5) (v) and other public places and municipalities approve the construction, and cities improvement, repair and maintenance of the same; establish bus and vehicle stops and terminals or regulate the use of the same by privately-owned vehicles which serve the public; regulate garages and the operation of conveyances for hire; designate stands to be occupied by public vehicles when not in use; regulate the putting up of signs, signposts, awnings and awning posts on the streets; and provide for the lighting, cleaning and sprinkling of streets and public places… xxx…

Local Road Management Manual 34 Common to Traffic regulation Section … xxx… Regulate traffic barangays, of local roads 447 (5) (vi); on all streets and bridges; municipalities, Section 458 prohibit encroachments or and cities (5) (vi) obstacles thereon and, when necessary in the interest of public welfare, authorize the removal of encroachments and illegal constructions in public places… xxx… Provision or Section 17 … xxx… The next higher augmentation (f) level of local government of local roads unit may provide or augment management the basic services and services by a facilities assigned to a lower higher LGU to its level of local government component lower unit when such services LGU or facilities are not made available or, if made available, are inadequate to meet the requirements of its inhabitants … xxx… Naming of local Naming of … xxx… The Sangguniang roads local roads Panlalawigan may, in consultation with the Philippine Historical Commission (PHC), change the name of the following within its territorial jurisdiction… xxx… Provincial roads, avenues, boulevards, thorough-fares, and bridges… xxx… … xxx… The Sanggunian of highly urbanized cities and of component cities whose

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 35 Common to charters prohibit their voters barangays, from voting for provincial municipalities, elective officials, hereinafter and cities referred to in this Code as independent component cities, may, in consultation with the Philippine Historical Commission, change the name of the following within its territorial jurisdiction: … xxx… City roads, avenues, boulevards, thorough fares, and bridges… xxx… … xxx… The Sanggunians of component cities and municipalities may, in consultation with the Philippine Historical Commission, change the name of the following within its territorial jurisdiction: … xxx… city, municipal and Barangay roads, avenues, boulevards, thorough fares, and bridges… xxx… Coordination Section … xxx… Ensure that the of Local Road 444 (4) (i); construction and repair of Management Section roads and highways funded 448 (4) (i); by the national government Section shall be, as far as 465(4) (i) practicable, carried out in a spatially contiguous manner and in coordination with the construction and repair of the roads and bridges of the municipality and the province… xxx…

Local Road Management Manual 36 Coordination Section … xxx… Ensure that the of Local Road 444 (4) (i); construction and repair of Management Section roads and highways funded 448 (4) (i); by the national government Section shall be, as far as 465(4) (i) practicable, carried out in a spatially contiguous manner and in coordination with the construction and repair of the roads and bridges of the city, and in the case of component cities, of the city and of the province… xxx… … xxx… Ensure that the construction and repair of roads and highways funded by the national government shall be, as far as practicable, carried out in a spatially contiguous manner and in coordination with the construction and repair of the roads and bridges of the province and of its component cities and municipalities… xxx… 4. Right-of-Way (ROW) Widths of Local Roads The Commonwealth Act No. 141 also known as the Public Land Act of 1936 (Section 112) mandated a reservation of strip of land not exceeding twenty (20) meters in width for public highways and railroads. Executive Order No. 113 was issued in 1955 prescribing the following provision for provincial, city, and municipal roads: a. Provincial Roads. Provincial roads shall have a right-of-way of not

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 37 less than fifteen (15) meters, which may be widened to twenty (20) meter, provided that a right-of-way at least sixty (60) meters shall be reserved for roads constructed through unpatented public land; and b. City and Municipal Roads. Municipal and city roads shall have a right-of-way of no less than ten (10) meters, provided that the principal streets of town sites located on public lands shall have a width of sixty (60) meters and all other streets a width of no less than fifteen (15) meters. Section 1.325, Part 3, Volume II of the Design Guidelines, Criteria, and Standards of then MPWH (now DPWH) prescribe the specifications of barangay roads as follows: a. Road right-of-way: 10.00m minimum b. Width of traveled way: 4.00 minimum; and c. Allowable grade: 10% maximum 5. Conversion of Local Roads 5.1 Conversion of Local Roads to National Roads and Vice-Versa The first road classification system in the Philippines was established through Republic Act No. 917, known as the Philippine Highway Act, enacted in 1953 and Executive Order 113 series of 1955, which classifies roads into national roads (national primary and national secondary); “national aid” roads (roads of sufficient importance for eventual reclassification at a later stage); and provincial, city, municipal, and barangay roads. Executive Order No. 124, series of 1987, stipulates that the Minister (now the Secretary) of the Ministry (now Department) of Public Works and Highways shall have the power to “Classify roads and highways into national, regional (interpreted as routes of primary arterial roads), provincial, city, municipal and barangay roads, based on objective criteria it shall adopt; provide or authorize conversion of roads and highways from one category to another.” Local roads may be reclassified into national roads and vice-versa. In June 10, 2009, DPWH issued a memorandum prescribing the criteria/guidelines on road reclassification. The set of guidelines are

Local Road Management Manual 38 now being utilized in the reclassification of local roads into national roads and vice-versa through administrative procedure. The two ways of reclassifying local roads into national roads and vice-versa are the following: • Administrative procedure. By virtue of EO 124, the DPWH is authorized to reclassify local roads into national roads provided that the objective criteria set by DPWH is satisfied. DPWH may also reclassify a national road into a local road upon the request of the local government unit concerned. The design guidelines of these manual shall set the minimum standards for the classification of provincial, city and municipal roads consistent with the standards set by DPWH for its national roads; 5.2 Conversion of Local Roads from one Local Government Unit to Another There is no existing provision in the Local Government Code or any other related statutes for the conversion of local roads from one local government unit to another. For instance, based on the increase of traffic volume, a barangay road could be converted to a city/municipal road; or a city municipal road to a provincial road; and vice versa. A formal reclassification of a local road is essential to ensure that there is adequate fiscal cover for road management of the local government gaining jurisdiction over it. a. Legislative procedure. The Congress and Senate may approve a Republic Act reclassifying a local road into a national road. Upon the request of the Committee on Public Works, DPWH submits to the Congress/Senate comments and recommendations on the subject local road reclassification in accordance to the established guidelines/criteria. The City and Municipal Engineer also act as the Building Official of the City and Municipality, respectively. The Building Official is tasked to enforce and regulate all buildings and structures within the jurisdiction of the city or municipality as the case may be. The Building Official is also tasked to issue Building and Demolition Permits prior to the construction and demolition of buildings and structures, respectively.

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 39 Nevertheless, Section 11 of the Local Government Code has a provision governing the selection and transfer of local government site, offices and facilities. If a local road is defined as a local facility operated and maintained by a local government, then the aforementioned clause can be applied in absence of an operative statute, specifically: “Local government offices and facilities shall not be transferred, relocated, or converted to other uses unless public hearings are first conducted for the purpose and the concurrence of the majority of all the members of the Sanggunian concerned is obtained.” The following conditions are therefore recommended if a certain local road is to be converted from one level of local government to another: a. The functional use of the subject local road should be consistent with the official functional classification of the government as discussed in the previous sections above; b. The width of right-of-way of the converted local road is consistent with the prescribed width for municipal, city or provincial roads as the case may be; c. A public hearing for the affected jurisdiction is conducted on the conversion of local road from one level of local government to another; and d. An ordinance is enacted by both affected Sanggunian concerned (i.e. the transferor and the recipient) for the transfer of the administrative jurisdiction of the subject local road 6. Local Engineering Offices Provinces, cities and municipalities are mandated to have a Local Engineer’s Office, that is, a Provincial Engineer’s Office for Provinces; a City Engineer’s Office for highly urbanized cities and component cities; and a Municipal Engineer’s Office for Municipalities. Section 477 of the Local Government Code provided the qualifications of a local engineer of the provinces, cities and municipalities, namely:

Local Road Management Manual 40 a. A citizen of the Philippines; b. A resident of the local government unit concerned, of good moral character; c. A licensed civil engineer; and d. Have acquired experience in the practice of the profession for at least five (5) years in the case of the provincial or city engineer, and three (3) years in the case of the municipal engineer. The same section of the Local Government Code provided the power and duties of a local engineer, specifically: a. The city and municipal engineer shall also act as the local building official; b. The engineer shall take charge of the engineering office and shall: • Initiate, review and recommend changes in policies and objectives, plans and programs, techniques, procedures and practices in infrastructure development and public works in general of the local government unit concerned; • Advise the governor or mayor, as the case may be, on infrastructure, public works, and other engineering matters; • Administer, coordinate, supervise, and control the construction, maintenance, improvement, and repair of roads, bridges, and other engineering and public works projects of the local government unit concerned; • Provide engineering services to the local government unit concerned, including investigation and survey, engineering designs, feasibility studies, and project management; and • In the case of the provincial engineer, exercise technical supervision over all engineering offices of component cities and municipalities. c. Exercise such other powers and perform such other duties and functions as may be prescribed by law or ordinance. The organizational structures of a local engineering office were assessed by the Local Road Sector Study commissioned by DILG and funded by the Australian Agency for International Development (now under the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade). The said study summarized the typical organizational structures of local engineering offices, which are shown in Figures 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3. For larger LGUs such as provinces and cities, the local engineering office is operated as a department with several

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 41 divisions underneath. These divisions are based on operational functions of a large local engineering office such as the Provincial Engineer’s Office or the City Engineer’s Office. For smaller municipalities, the local engineering office will have a smaller organizational structure. Figure 2.1 Typical Organizational Structure of a Provincial Engineering Office Figure 2.2 Typical Organizational Structure of a City Engineering Office

Local Road Management Manual 42 Figure 2.3 Typical Organizational Structure of a Municipal Engineering Office 7. Role of National Government Agencies over Local Road Management 7.1 General Role of National Government Agencies Consistent with the basic policy of the Local Government Code on local autonomy and devolution, the President shall exercise general supervision over local government units to ensure that their acts are within the scope of their prescribed powers and functions. This functional supervision over the LGUs may be delegated by the Office of the President unto national government agencies having specific jurisdiction over sectoral administration (i.e. Department of Finance over local finance; Department of Budget and Management over local budgeting; Department of the Interior and Local Government over local governance, etc). In particular, the relationships of National Government Agencies over LGUs are as follows: a. National Supervision over Local Government Units i. The President shall exercise general supervision over local government units to ensure that their acts are within the scope of their prescribed powers and functions; ii. National agencies and offices with project implementation functions shall coordinate with one another and with the local government units concerned in the discharge of these functions. They shall ensure the participation of local

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 43 government units both in the planning and implementation of said national projects; iii. The President may, upon request of the local government unit concerned, direct the appropriate national agency to provide financial, technical, or other forms of assistance to the local government unit. Such assistance shall be extended at no extra cost to the local government unit concerned; and iv. National agencies and offices including government-owned or controlled Corporations with field units or branches in a province, city, or municipality shall furnish the local chief executive concerned, for his information and guidance, monthly reports including duly certified budgetary allocations and expenditures. b. Duty of National Government Agencies in the Maintenance of Ecological Balance i. It shall be the duty of every national agency or government- owned or controlled corporation authorizing or involved in the planning and implementation of any project or program that may cause pollution, climatic change, depletion of non-renewable resources, loss of crop land, rangeland, or forest cover, and extinction of animal or plant species, to consult with the local government units, nongovernmental organizations, and other sectors concerned and explain the goals and objectives of project or program, its impact upon the people and the community in terms of environmental or ecological balance, and the measures that will be undertaken to prevent or minimize the adverse effects thereof. c. Required Prior Consultations by National Government Agencies No project or program shall be implemented by government authorities unless the consultations mentioned are complied with, and prior approval of the Sanggunian concerned is obtained: The occupants in areas where such projects are to be implemented shall not be evicted unless appropriate

Local Road Management Manual 44 relocation sites have been provided, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. 7.2 Role of the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) The Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) is the main national government agency of the Republic of the Philippines vested with supervisory and oversight powers over LGUs on local governance and administration, consistent with the abovementioned provisions of the Local Government Code. The Charter of the DILG (Title XII, Book IV, E.O. 292 Administrative Code of 1987) in Section 3 thereof, provides its powers and functions as follows: a. Advise the President on the promulgation of policies, rules, regulations, and other issuances relative to the general supervision of local government units; b. Establish and prescribe rules, regulations and other issuances and implementing laws on the general supervision of local government units and on the promotion of local autonomy and monitor compliance thereof by said units; c. Provide assistance in the preparation of national legislation affecting local government units; d. Establish and prescribe plans, policies, programs and projects to strengthen the administrative, technical and fiscal capabilities of local government offices and personnel; e. Formulate and implement policies, plans, programs and projects to meet national and local emergencies arising from natural and man- made disasters and f. Perform such other functions as may be provided by law. The Administrative Code of 1987 in Section 38, Book IV thereof, defined “supervision and control” to which “control” is “an authority to act directly whenever a specific function is entrusted by law or regulation to a subordinate; direct the performance of duty; restrain the commission of acts; review, approve, reverse or modify acts and decisions of subordinate officials or units; determine priorities in the execution of plans and programs; and prescribe standards, guidelines, plans and programs. Unless a different meaning is explicitly provided in the specific law governing the relationship of particular agencies, the word “control” shall encompass supervision

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 45 and control as defined in this paragraph.” The provision of standards and guidelines over local road management is therefore an exercise of supervision and oversight of DILG over the LGUs. Furthermore, NEDA Board Resolution No. 6 was issued on March 12, 1996, which designated DILG to be the lead national government agency to oversee and administer national government assistance to LGU in implementing devolved infrastructure programs and projects (e.g. local road infrastructure). Devolved infrastructure projects shall be undertaken by the LGU with DILG providing assistance in institution, capacity and capability building, and with DPWH and other technical agencies providing and transferring technical expertise as necessary. 7.37.3 Role of the DILG over the Special Local Road Fund (SLRF)Role of the DILG over the Special Local Road Fund (SLRF) Republic Act No. 8794, otherwise known as the Motor Vehicle Users’ Charge (MVUC) Law, was enacted on June 27, 2000. The MVUC Law declares that it is the policy of the state to provide for and ensure the adequate maintenance of national and provincial roads through sufficient funding for the purpose. The Law provides that the MVUC shall be imposed on every vehicle, which shall be collected from the owner of motor vehicle. All monies collected under the MVUC Law shall be earmarked solely and used exclusively for: a. Road maintenance and improvement of road drainage; b. Installation of adequate and efficient traffic lights and road safety devices; and c. Air pollution control MVUC is collected by the LTO from the annual vehicle registration and deposited in four Special Trust Accounts in the National Treasury. The Four Special Trust Accounts are: a. Fund 151—Special Road Support Fund under DPWH for National Roads (80%); b. Fund 152 – Special Local Road Fund under DPWH for Provincial and City Roads (5%); c. Fund 153 – Special Road Safety Fund under DPWH (7.5%); and d. Fund 154 – Special Vehicle Pollution Control under DOTC

Local Road Management Manual 46 (7.5%). e. Three other members to be appointed for a term of two (2) years by the President of the Philippines upon the recommendation of the DPWH and DOTC from nominations of transport and motorist organizations. Section 7 of RA 8794 provides that five percent (5%) of the monies collected shall be allotted to and placed in a Special Local Road Fund (SLRF), which shall be apportioned to provincial and city governments in accordance with the vehicle population and size of the road network under their respective jurisdictions. SLRF implementation at the LGU level is considered as an enabling strategy to address the above issues and strengthen the local road sector management processes. The SLRF component of the MVUC is administratively supervised and managed by the DILG through a Memorandum of Agreement with DPWH, dated June 24, 2005. This enabled the collaboration between DPWH and DILG relative to the administration of the Special Local Roads Fund covering the planning, programming, apportionment of SLRF to provinces and cities, monitoring and reporting the utilization of the SLRF. Specifically, the roles of DILG towards the administration of SLRF are: a. Collaborate with DPWH Road Program Office (RPO) in administering/ overseeing the implementation and utilization of SLRF at the LGU level in accordance with prescribed policies and standards under the MVUC Law and its IRR; b. Provide DPWH-RPO with LGUs’ road length and vehicle population data as basis for apportionment of SLRF to Provinces and Cities; c. d. Inform Provincial and City Governments of their SLRF annual allocation for the preparation of their Annual Work Programs (AWPs); e. Review, consolidate and submit LGUs Annual Works Program to the Road Board thru DPWH-Road Program Office (RPO); f. Monitor progress, and utilization of SLRF; g. Install and operate Implementation Tracking System with assistance of DPWH-RPO; h. Institutionalize systems and mechanisms on road maintenance management in the LGUs; and i. Represent the LGUs to the Road Board

Chapter 2: Local Road Administration 47 DILG has since issued a number of guidelines on the apportionment and granting of SLRF based on qualified works for local roads. The DILG guidelines for SLRF are attached in this Manual as Annex 1.

Local Road Management Manual 48 CHAPTER 3 LOCAL ROAD PLANNING

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 49 1. Local Development Planning Framework in the Philippines National and local development planning has evolved from a master planning approach towards a more strategic planning process. Anchored on a more consultative process, most government agencies (NGAs) and local government units (LGUs) have adopted the strategic planning approach in their respective planning processes. Strategic planning is a process where the vision of the planning area is defined for the preferred future environment of the locality, which is normally arrived at as a consensus amongst the stakeholders. Strategies are developed to achieve the vision based on opportunities and constraints of the planning environment (see Table 3.1). The strategies are operationalized through policies, programs, projects and activities, which should lead to the attainment of the vision in the long term. There is then monitoring and review of strategies and implemented actions to assess how the strategies are performed based on the planning environment. Local road planning is a component of the over-all local development planning process the local governments as guided and assisted by oversight national government agencies. There are two basic plans that local government units (LGUs) are mandated to prepare in accordance with Republic Act No. 7160 (RA 7160), otherwise known as the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991. These plans are the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) and the Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP). The CLUP is the plan for the management of local territories by LGUs as embodied in the RA7160 (Section 20c, 447, 458, 468). The CDP is the plan with which the LGU promotes the general welfare of its inhabitants in its capacity as a corporate body as mandated in RA 7160 (Sec. 106 and 109). The local development planning process were harmonized under the Joint Memorandum Circular (JMC) No. 1, which was issued on 8 March 2007 by the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG), National Economic and Development

Local Road Management Manual 50 Authority (NEDA), Department of Budget and Management (DBM) and Department of Finance (DOF). JMC No. 1 strengthened the interface between LGUs and national government agencies (with oversight functions on LGUs) including the complementation between and among all LGU levels in local planning, investment programming, revenue administration, budgeting, and expenditure management. Under these harmonization initiatives, the National Government has recommended the integration of CLUP and CDP at the provincial level. The CLUP at the provincial level was referred to before as the Provincial Physical Framework Plan (PPFP). The CDP for provinces was called as the Provincial Development Plan (PDP). The National Government through NEDA has since recommended the integration of PPFP and PDP into the Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan (PDPFP). NEDA in partnership with other oversight agencies has issued a guideline for the preparation of PDPFP (called as the Guidelines for Provincial Local Planning and Expenditure Management [PLPEM]). NEDA has been providing technical assistance to the provinces for the preparation of the PDPFPs. The planning framework of PDPFP using the strategic planning approach as recommended by the NEDA PLPEM Guidelines is shown in Figure 3.1. Components Description Vision Where do you want to be in a particular time? The preferred future environment Existing Condition Where are you now? The existing/current environment/situation Strategy How do you achieve your vision? Policies and actions to achieve the vision based on analysis of opportunities and constraints, and the analysis of projections and scenarios for the future Monitoring How is the strategy performing given changing circumstances? Monitoring and Review Table 3.1 Strategic Planning Framework

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 51 Figure 3.1 Planning Framework of PDPFP (NEDA PLPEM) Cities and municipalities shall continue to prepare CLUP and CDP as advocated by JMC No. 1. DILG has issued the Rationalized Planning Sourcebook (RPS) to guide cities and municipalities in the development and implementation of their CLUP and CDP, respectively. The planning framework for CLUP and CDP as espoused by the DILG RPS is illustrated in Figure 3.2. Likewise, DILG has issued several advisories and memoranda to guide the LGUs in their development planning. Figure 3.2 CLUP and CDP Planning Process (DILG RPS)

Local Road Management Manual 52 In view of the harmonization initiatives for local planning and budgeting, local road planning as a critical function of local road management should be an integral component of the overall CLUP and CDP planning processes for cities and municipalities; and the PDPFP planning framework for provinces. A critical principle in the harmonization process for local planning is ensuring horizontal and vertical linkages amongst development plans across all levels of government (see Figure 3.3). Local planning should be vertically linked and consistent from a lower level of government to the next higher level and vice versa. For instance, the development objectives of a municipality should be congruent with the development objectives of the province. Similarly, within the same level of government, the main plan of the LGU should be horizontally linked and consistent with its sectoral plans and investment programs. To this end, local road planning should be in harmony with the main local development plans of the LGU. Local road planning serves as an input to the development planning of the infrastructure of the LGU. The identified priority road projects under local road planning serve as the investment program for road infrastructure. Figure 3.3 Horizontal and Vertical Linkages of Local Development Plans

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 53 2. Local Road Planning Process National and local development planning has evolved from a master planning approach towards a more strategic planning process. Anchored on a more consultative process, most government agencies (NGAs) and local government units (LGUs) have adopted the strategic planning approach in their respective planning processes. Strategic planning is a process where the vision of the planning area is defined for the preferred future environment of the locality, which is normally arrived at as a consensus amongst the stakeholders. Strategies are developed to achieve the vision based on opportunities and constraints of the planning environment (see Table 3.1). The strategies are operationalized through policies, programs, projects and activities, which should lead to the attainment of the vision in the long term. There is then monitoring and review of strategies and implemented actions to assess how the strategies are performed based on the planning environment. A development plan for local road network is important in assisting the broad-based sustainable social and economic development of the LGU. The local road network development plan should prioritize the development of the local road network based on sound technical, social, economic and environmental criteria. The local road network development plan should be aligned with LGU development priorities toward key policy areas such as poverty reduction, economic development and community support. There should be specifications for the local road network where it will define the extent, classification and condition of the network. The said plan identifies and rank key local road links and bridges requiring appropriate engineering interventions whether rehabilitation or maintenance. It shall also identify and rank any new road links that will support the spatial growth of the LGU. Lastly, the local road network development plan should identify how the services and works for the local road shall be delivered by the LGU. The plan should specify how the LGU will inventory, design, program or budget, procure, supervise, manage and monitor the works and engineering interventions for local roads. Figure 3.4 shows a suggested local road network development planning process, which

Local Road Management Manual 54 follows the planning framework for PDPFP. A recommended outline for a Local Road Network Development Plan is attached as Annex 2A in this Manual. LGU. The plan should specify how the LGU will inventory, design, program or budget, procure, supervise, manage and monitor the works and engineering interventions for local roads. Figure 3.4 shows a suggested local road network development planning process, which follows the planning framework for PDPFP. A recommended outline for a Local Road Network Development Plan is attached as Annex 2A in this Manual. Figure 3.3 Horizontal and Vertical Linkages of Local Development Plans The fundamental steps for the recommended local road planning process follows the strategic planning approach of the PDPFP. Consistent with local development plans, the local road network development plan should follow the same planning period, which is normally six years typical of CLUP, CDP and PDPFP. The steps of the local road network development planning process are: a. Sectoral Development and Spatial Framework. For cities and municipalities, this takes off from their respective Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP). For provinces, this takes off from their Provincial Development and Physical

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 55 Framework Plan (PDPFP). The directions or thrusts of the LGU for sectoral development and spatial framework (e.g land use) are reviewed to support the realization of the development vision of the LGU; b. Local Road Sector Situational Analysis. The baseline conditions of the sectors are analyzed in terms of how the local road network is supporting sectoral development in the present and in the future. The key question is whether the present local road network is lacking or adequate enough to assist the sectoral development of the LGU. The present local road network should be assessed on its capacity to support the social, economic, and physical trends that the LGU intends to proceed based on its development. This situational analysis should result to the following local road planning data: i. Specifications of the Local Road Network. Local roads should support the spatial framework or land use of the LGU. It provides access and mobility to growth centers, production areas, settlements and resource centers. In support of the spatial framework, local roads may be created, upgraded, improved, rehabilitated, maintained or abandoned depending on the function that the road provides. The local road network may be configured by pavement type and geometric design based on the current and projected traffic volume, which relates to the development level of the locality; and ii. Inventory of Local Roads. The individual conditions of the roads should be ascertained in detail as much as practicable. This inventory will help in determining the specific treatment options for local road management that may be applied to a particular leg of the network The surface conditions will tell the local engineering office whether the road is in maintainable condition or not, which will determine the nature, quality and quantity of civil works for the subject road. c. Local Road Development Issues and Targets. Given the situational assessment, the development issues and

Local Road Management Manual 56 constraints toward the local road network should be identified. These issues can be prioritized by the LGU based on its policy directions. From these issues, the LGU can derive goals, objectives and targets for the local road network in support of the development vision; d. Local Road Network Development Strategies. The LGU identifies the strategies to address issues and targets of the local road sector. The broad strategies are translated into programs, projects and activities (PPAs) of the local road sector. These strategies should include the following considerations: i. Options for Local Road Management. This pertains to the type, quality and quantity of engineering measures appropriated for a local road given its network function. In general, there should be regular maintenance works for roads that are identified in good and fair condition. Rehabilitation works will then be applied to roads that are identified to be in poor and bad condition. If the existing road is inadequate or incapable of supporting the current and projected traffic volume, the subject local road may be improved or upgraded. As with any other development projects, local road infrastructure competes for funding against other LGU service deliveries. Engineering measures for local roads are therefore prioritized based on how a local road provides support to the envisioned spatial framework or land use of the LGU. Normally, local roads that are critical to identified growth centers of the LGUs are prioritized for funding and implementation; ii. Programming and Budgeting for Local Roads. Programming for local roads refers to the allocation (programming) of investments for the engineering measures based on the conditions of the road and its investment priority. The investment program may be in terms of planning estimates or programmed cost, which is an approximation of the cost based on a similarity of a typical kilometer of engineering intervention from the previous projects for which cost was updated to current price using price indices from BSP and or DTI-CIAP. The investment program is often multi-year and

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 57 covers the envisioned horizon, which is the period upon which the proposed road network shall provide service in support of the spatial development of the LGU. The annual slice of this investment program can be carried into the annual investment plan of the LGU. The budget for each of these road works is summed up and forms part of the annual appropriation for local road infrastructure; and iii. Local Road Project Implementation. This refers to contracting out the road works through a private firm procured through the default method of procurement; competitive bidding process as mandated in RA 9184. The different project cycle may be undertaken through these modalities, i.e. road design, maybe undertaken through force account if LGUs is capable of doing it. Construction and maintenance works should be undertaken By-Contract with exemption. Normally, the local engineering office does not have the adequate technical capacity to deliver such services, then it would be prudent and easier for that LGU to source out such service deliveries. e. Local Road Infrastructure Investment Program. The main output of a local road network development plan is a rolling multi-year investment program for the local road sector that feeds into the investment program of the development plans of the LGUs (e.g. CLUP for cities and municipalities, PDPFP for provinces). The local road infrastructure investment program is a prioritized list of investments for the local road sector based on the situational analysis and addressing the issues of the local road sector, which should ultimately lead to the LGU attaining its vision; and f. Monitoring and Evaluation. With any other planning process, there should be monitoring and evaluation during and after implementation of the strategies and PPAs. This is to determine how far these actions are effective and efficient, and whether the implementation of the Local Road Network Development Plan (LRNDP) is contributing to the over-all LGU development vision.

Local Road Management Manual 58 3. Planning approaches for the local road network The development and management of local roads is an important mandate of the LGU, for which significant capital investments are required. However, local fiscal capacity is always limited and resources have to be prioritized including those for the local road sector. The configuration of the local road network will greatly assist the LGUs in prioritizing resources for the local road sector. Presently, there are no specific guidelines on planning the road network of an LGU issued by national government agencies having oversight functions over LGUs. However, there are certain principles on local road network planning that have already been proposed in general by other guidelines. 3.1 Basic Functional Hierarchy The local road network of the LGU may be developed in terms of the functional uses that the local roads provide. There are two basic utilities (functions) that a local road may provide: a. Accessibility. This refers to the ability of the road to connect people and goods to a land use or an activity site. If a local road provides connection to a large number of settlements, commerce and industries, then the subject road provides high accessibility; and b. Mobility. This pertains to the ability of the road to move people and goods between different activity sites or land uses. If a road can move people and goods very fast, then the subject road provides high mobility. Levels of access and mobility are inversely related when looking at basic hierarchy of functions of a road. This basic functional road hierarchy as shown in Figure 3.5 may be applied to a local road network.

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 59 Figure 3.5 Levels of Accessibility and Mobility for a Functional Road Hierarchy The development and management of local roads is an important mandate of the LGU, for which significant capital investments are required. However, local fiscal capacity is always limited and resources have to be prioritized including those for the local road sector. The configuration of the local road network will greatly assist the LGUs in prioritizing resources for the local road sector. Presently, there are no specific guidelines on planning the road network of an LGU issued by national government agencies having oversight functions over LGUs. However, there are certain principles on local road network planning that have already been proposed in general by other guidelines. This means that local roads (within an administrative class – provincial, city, municipal or barangay) may be configured into a hierarchal network with varying degree of accessibility and mobility. The local road network may be configured based on the following basic functional hierarchy: a. Arterial Roads. A local road may be classified as an arterial local road if it provides the highest level of service at the greatest speed for the longest uninterrupted distance, with some degree of access control. This means that an arterial

Local Road Management Manual 60 local road provides the highest degree of mobility but the lowest level of accessibility. The main function of an arterial local road is to facilitate the fastest movement of people and goods between land uses. The length of trip for arterial local roads is expected to be long but attained with the highest travel speed; b. Collector Roads. A local road may be classified as a collector local road if it serves as a transition road from an arterial road that provides the highest mobility to an access road that provides the greatest land access. A collector local road provides a less highly developed level of service at a lower speed for shorter distances by collecting traffic from access roads and connecting them with arterial local roads; and c. Access Roads. These are local roads that provide direct access to land with little or no through traffic movement. These consist of all roads not defined as arterial or collector local roads. An access road provides the highest accessibility but the lowest level of mobility. The length of trip of an access road is expected to be short but accomplished with the lowest travel speed. 3.2 Road Hierarchy under the Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan The Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan (PDPFP) is the comprehensive development and land use plan of the provinces to promote spatial and sectoral development to attain its provincial vision. The National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) has since issued a guideline for the preparation and development of the PDPFP. Part of the PDPFP Guidelines provides the configuration of the transport network, which is not only applicable to provinces but also to other levels of local government. The transport networks describe access routes and facilities; and indicate how these relate to the location of settlements, resources, and production activities. A local road network can be

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 61 defined and structured in terms of the following hierarchy: a. External Linkages. These are local roads that facilitates external linkages to the LGU, with the following attributes: i. Access routes to the LGU and key transport infrastructure and facilities; ii. Most important linkages and main functions compared to other similar facilities in other LGUs; iii. Linkages and/or facilities that should be given the highest priority for improvement and likely effects of such improvement; and iv. Describe proposed new external linkages and rationale for these proposed linkages. v. Internal Circulation. These are local roads that provides internal circulation within the LGU having the following attributes: vi. Main internal circulation routes, infrastructure, and facilities of the different modes of road transport; vii. Importance of routes and their significance, main functions, key destinations; viii. Access to urban centers and non-urban production areas; ix. Characteristics of the routes and transport facilities and some indicators of quality, capacity, extent of usage, and road density such as: x. Length of local government roads by surface type; and xi. Percentage of paved roads. xii. Considering settlement trends, physical resources and protection areas, production requirements and identified priority industries: xiii. Priority and rationale for improvement among internal routes; and xiv. Proposed new routes and transport facilities and rationale. 3.3 Core Road Network Approach The core road network of an LGU is the optimum number of roads that contribute most to the transport network in support of the development

Local Road Management Manual 62 objectives of the LGU. A core road network can also be defined as the minimum road network required to support the economic and social development by providing good quality road linkages between the major population, industrial and culturally valuable locations within the LGU. At the national level, the equivalence of a core road network would be the national primary and secondary roads across the country, whether these are arterial, radial or circumferential in nature. For instance, Metro Manila with its web of circumferential and radial roads (e.g. EDSA and Aurora Boulevard, respectively) can be considered as the core road network for the metropolis. And consequently, significant capital investments have been prioritized by DPWH along these arterial roads. In the same vein, an LGU can prioritize its limited resources to a local core road network that contribute most to its envisioned spatial development as embodied in its PDPFP. Developing a core road network requires evaluating each local road to a set of multi-sectoral criteria that contributes most to the over-all spatial and sectoral development of the LGU. The most common criteria to evaluate a local road and determine if it forms part of a core road network are the following: a. Access and connectivity. These refer to local roads that provide general access to land use and connectivity from one land use to another. Access and connectivity as a selection criteria do not differentiate on the nature or type of land use; b. Access to social and health services. These are provincial roads that facilitate social and health services to communities; c. Access/promote economic activities. This pertains to provincial roads that provide access to economic areas (or activities) thereby promoting economic development at the local level. Areas with economic activities may pertain to agro-industrial, production, processing and tourism areas; d. Environment and hazard factors. Provincial roads should avoid environmentally critical areas and locations with

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 63 geo-hazards. Or at the very least, road projects located where the environmental impacts are minimal; e. Road safety concerns. These are provincial roads where there are minimal road safety issues. This also pertains to locating road projects that improves road safety concerns; f. Manageable road right-of-way issues. These are provincial roads that are selected based on the manageability of issues/conflicts in road right-of-way; g. Minimal cultural impact. These are provincial roads where the cultural impact is at a minimum; h. Peace and order conditions. Provincial roads are selected to promote peace and order in the locality; i. Population and settlements. These are provincial roads where the influence area is highest in terms of population. These may also pertain to provincial roads that have the largest number of settlements along its influence area; j. Poverty incidence. These are provincial roads where poverty incidence is the highest and therefore, the largest potential for poverty alleviation activities; k. Road importance. This a combined metric in selecting provincial roads where the more important road is deemed to be those that have higher traffic volume and more commercial and industrial activities; l. Road condition. Provincial roads are selected based on their surface condition whether good, fair, poor and bad; m. Surface type. Provincial roads are selected based on the type of pavement surface in terms of earth, gravel, asphalt and concrete pavement; and n. Traffic volume. This refers to selecting provincial roads with the highest traffic volume or number of vehicles passing through its alignment.

Local Road Management Manual 64 4. Inventory of Local Roads The situational assessment of a local road is important in defining an appropriate engineering intervention of the subject road. An accurate representation of the physical condition of a local road is not only important in planning appropriate engineering measures but more so on prioritizing the necessary investments across local roads. An inventory of a local road will entail two components – the physical condition of the road elements (e.g. pavement, drainage); and the level of service (e.g. traffic volume vis- à-vis road capacity). 4.1. Local Road Condition Rating The condition of the elements of the local road can be rated as good, fair, poor and bad. The templates for local road inventory are detailed in Annex 2B for the local road condition rating, and in Annex 2C for summarizing the results of the local road condition rating. DILG will develop a computerized GIS-based system for local road and bridge inventory. Local roads in good and fair condition are considered as in maintainable condition. In contrast, local roads in poor and bad condition are identified as not in maintainable condition and therefore should first be rehabilitated into maintainable condition. Table 3.2 shows the characterization of rating a local road as good, fair, poor and bad condition as it relates to maintenance condition and possible treatment measures (which will be fully discussed on the chapter for surface treatment options). Table 3.3 lists the specific condition rating indicative of the various road elements and depending on the surface pavement. Sample visual identifiers of condition ratings for local roads are shown in Figures 3.6 to 3.14 for the rating of good, fair, poor and bad condition.

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 65 Condition Maintenance Indicative Treatment Measures Rating Condition Riding Condition Good Maintainable Normal speed Little or no maintenance Condition at 70-80 required but routine kilometer per maintenance hour (Kph) Fair Normal speed Normal speed at 50-60 kph at 50-60 kph Poor Not in Normal speed Extensive full depth repairs Maintainable at 30-40 kph and some replacement of Condition pavement (rehabilitation) Bad Not in Normal speed Full rehabilitation or Maintainable at 20-30 kph Condition replacement of pavement (reconstruction and or improvement) Figure 3.2 General Condition Rating for Local Roads Pavement Condition Field Condition Type/ Road Rating Elements Concrete Good Sound, even, and no cracks or scaling, normal speed ok at 70-80 kph. Fair Even with very minimal hair-like cracks and very minimal surface wearing, normal speed ok at 50-60 kph. Poor Slightly uneven with minor cracks (<=3mm. width) and wearing surface, joint sealant deterioration normal speed ok at 30-40 kph. Bad With major cracks, shattered slabs, joint deterioration and cut/slip, can only travel very slowly, normal speed ok at 20-30 kph.

Local Road Management Manual 66 Figure 3.3 Specific Condition Rating for Local Roads per Pavement Type and Road Asphalt Good Sound, well-shaped, even and waterproof, normal speed ok at 70 to 80 kph. Fair Even with minor patches and very minimal wearing surface but still waterproof, normal speed ok at 50-60 kph. Poor Very uneven and porous, with potholes and cracks (<=3mm. Width) normal speed 30-40 kph. Bad Very broken up, rough, with base failures, edge break, can only travel very slowly, normal speed ok at 20-30 kph. Gravel Good Good shape and surface, does not hold water Fair Flat camber with minor potholes and holding some water Poor Depressions common, drainage impeded Bad Extensive ponding, water tends to flow on the road Earth Good Good shape and surface, does not hold water Fair Flat camber with minor potholes and holding some water Earth Poor Depressions common, drainage impeded Bad Extensive ponding, water tends to flow on the road, impassable when wet Shoulder Good Adequate width, even surface and well- maintained Fair Adequate width, slightly uneven, with few potholes, inadequate maintenance Poor Inadequate width, very uneven or with many edge break and no maintenance

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 67 Bad No effective shoulders, very silted road edge and with plenty of vegetation Side Drain Good Road edge well above side drains, well defined side drains, sufficient depth, sufficient side slopes to drain water Fair Road edge slightly level with side drains, not fully efficient side drains, water can cross the road Poor Road edge slightly below ground level, no side drains or totally blocked side drains, some ponding of water Bad Road edge well below ground level – road serving as a drain to surrounding areas Sidewalk Good Sufficient width, even surface, no vegetation, not holding water Fair Sufficient width, width minimal vegetation and slightly uneven Poor Insufficient width, with ponding of water, insufficient maintenance Bad No maintenance or no sidewalk Figure 3.3 Specific Condition Rating for Local Roads per Pavement Type and Road Figure 3.6 Sample visual identifiers for Local Gravel Roads in Good Condition (1)

Local Road Management Manual 68 Figure 3.7 Sample visual identifiers for Local Gravel Roads in Good Condition (2) Figure 3.8 Sample visual identifiers for Local Gravel Roads in Good Condition (3)

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 69 Figure 3.9 Sample visual identifiers for Local Gravel Roads in Fair Condition (1) Figure 3.10 Sample visual identifiers for Local Gravel Roads in Fair Condition (2)

Local Road Management Manual 70 Figure 3.11 Sample visual identifiers for Local Gravel Roads in Poor Condition (1) Figure 3.12 Sample visual identifiers for Local Gravel Roads in Poor Condition (2)

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 71 Figure 3.13 Sample visual identifiers for Local Gravel Roads in Bad Condition (1) Figure 3.14 Sample visual identifiers for Local Gravel Roads in Bad Condition (2)

Local Road Management Manual 72 4.1.1 Surface distress on unpaved local roads The condition ratings for local roads that are recommended in the preceding section are based on the degree of distress or defects over the gravel pavement of the subject local road. These distresses occur due to the interplay of the quality of road materials, traffic volume, local weather conditions and construction methodology. The degree of distress impacts on the ability of the gravel road to provide access to vehicular traffic. These distresses are normally identified visually as they are evident on the gravel surface. Structural defects on the pavement are harder to ascertain and may require further testing of the sub-grade below the pavement. Table 3.4 illustrates the typical distresses observed on Local Roads, as defined by the Unsealed Roads Manual: Guidelines to Good Practice developed by the Australian Road Research Board (ARRB) Group. Table 3.4 Typical Gravel Pavement Distresses Pavement Definition Sample Visual Identifier Distress Corrugations These are material displacements transverse to the carriageway forming parallel ridges. These may be caused by the dynamic impact of the traffic volume unto base material of insufficient quality. These may be repaired by improving the road alignment; better compaction; use of better binding surface materials; or paving of high stress areas.

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 73 Potholes These are shallow to mid deep holes on the pavement. Water often ponds unto these potholes. These may be caused by retention of surface water due to lack of cross slope, pavement weakness, insufficient compaction, or lack of material quality. These may be repaired by providing the correct cross slope; better compaction; or use of better binding surface materials Rutting These are longitudinal deformations along the traffic direction of the pavement. Rutting often retain surface water thereby further weakening the pavement. These may be caused by the lack of strength of the sub-grade or pavement; wear and tear due to traffic; or compaction by the normal traffic. These may be repaired by getting materials with better properties and strength; providing appropriate compaction and density; stabilization of base course; or providing the appropriate cross slope. Table 3.4 Typical Gravel Pavement Distresses

Local Road Management Manual 74 Table 3.4 Typical Gravel Pavement Distresses Scouring These defects are locally termed as water cuts. These are scouring of water onto the pavement that is longitudinal, transverse or diagonal to the road way. This may be caused by the excessive flow of surface water due to blocked or insufficient drainage; due to eroded surface material; or inappropriate cross slope or grades. These may be repaired by clearing clogged drainage; providing diversionary drainage; appropriate cross slope; or replace surface materials with better properties. Shoving / The condition of the Presence of pavement that exhibits Mud mud-like characteristics. The pavement material shows highly plastic consistency causing excessive surface deformation or slippery mud conditions. This may be due to the plastic deformation of the subgrade; excess ponded surface water; heavy axle loads; shallow water table; excessive fine materials or inappropriate cross slope. These may be repaired by installing the required pavement thickness; providing good surface and side drainage; laying well graded and compacted materials; or providing the correct cross slope.

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 75 Table 3.4 Typical Gravel Pavement Distresses Raveling This refers to the presence of loose materials throughout the carriageway. This may be caused by weak binding of pavement materials due to poor grading and low plasticity. Loose materials may lead to a loss of traction of vehicular traffic. These may be repaired by using well-graded materials mixed with existing loose aggregate binders; or better compaction with the required moisture. Coarse This is the presence of texture large or oversize coarse aggregates in a gravel pavement. In some cases, a rocky sub-grade is exposed. This may be due to the premature loss of fine aggregates from the pavement materials; or the use of oversized base course materials. These may be repaired by using well-graded materials and binders; or improving surface drainage. 4.1.2. Surface Distress on Paved Local Roads There are local roads with sealed pavements that have been constructed and maintained by LGUs or through external assistance (e.g. National Government Assistance, Loan, or Official Development Assistance). The usual sealed pavements are asphalt pavement (AP), Portland cement concrete pavements (PCCP), or

Local Road Management Manual 76 asphalt-concrete pavement (ACP). The mere presence of paved local roads necessitates the adoption of appropriate paved maintenance measures. This can only be fully ascertained once the local engineering offices are able to identify correctly the specific defect or distress over a section of a paved local road. Tables 3.5 and 3.6 show the typical defects or distresses of asphalt concrete pavements (ACP) and Portland Cement Concrete Pavements (PCCP), respectively. These are adopted from the DPWH Guidebook for Road Construction and Maintenance Management. Local roads with the abovementioned pavement materials will likely experience such surface distress. Common repair methods are also listed per type of surface distress for both pavement. The same DPWH guidebook provided illustrations of such typical distresses, which are also shown in Figures 3.15 and 3.16 for ACP and PCCP, respectively. Even if some or most of the local roads are not constructed in DPWH standards, the same nature of pavement distress may occur unto these paved local roads. The characteristics of the paved surface materials exhibit the same properties between national and local roads. Engineering interventions will be based on the nature of the said surface distress.

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 77 Table 3.5 Typical Pavement Distress of Asphalt Concrete Pavements (ACP) Distress Type Major Causes Common Repair Method A.1. Rutting Consolidation and lateral Overlay, mill and resur- movement of AC, base, facing overload (Corrugation and Remove and reconstruct shoving) Lack of AC stability (too or patching plane surface much asphalt, too much and overlay fines, round aggregates, lack of aeration) A.2. Edge Break Insufficient compaction, loss Patching of lateral support, aging A.3. Potholes Weakness in pavement Remove, replace and (little asphalt, spot thickness patching defects, less fine or excess fines, poor drainage) A.4. Surface Aging, weather, improper Overlay (after spot failure Failures application of tack coat repair), Patching (Deterioration, between PCC and AC delamination, overlay, construction on wet edge break) PCC A.5. Wearing Insufficient compaction, Seal coat, Thin over- Failures construction during wet lay (Raveling, season, dirty aggregate, flushing, asphalt overheating, polishing) insufficient asphalt

Local Road Management Manual 78 A.6. Cracking: A.6.1 Edge Lack of lateral support, Overlay, mill and resur- Cracks settlement (poor drainage or facing weak foundation) A.6.2 Reflection of cracks from Remove and reconstruct Reflection underneath (concrete or patching plane surface Cracks pavement joints, SCB and overlay cracks, AC cracks) change in temperature of A.6.3 surface or low compaction of Transverse base materials, low asphalt and penetration in between Longitudinal contraction joint, aging etc. Cracks A.6.4 Cracks Overloads, passing of heavy along ruts vehicles (see rutting) A.6.5 Excessive deflection over Crocodile unstable base and subgrade, cracks/ Fatigue overload, poor drainage, cracks aging A.7. Road Cut/ Slope failure, landslide, Depends on causes and Slip scouring, slip condition A.8. Shoulder Steep slope, lack of Add materials and com- (Erosion, pothole, maintenance, pass of traffic, paction, Sealing, patching, high gap, inadequate cross fall, side grading, grass cut insufficient fill, drainage, lack of surface vegetation) protection, lack of shoulder materials

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 79 Table 3.5 Typical Pavement Distress of Portland Cement Concrete Pavements (PCCP) Distress Type Major Causes Common Repair Method B.1 Shattered Subgrade and/or base Full depth repair (slab Slabs failure, lack of dowel bars replacement) (load transfer problem), insufficient pavement thickness, base and subbase settlement, substandard concrete quality B.2 Scaling Over-finishing, improper Slurry seal, skid resis- curing, unsuitable tance treatment, AC aggregates, chemical overlay action. Substandard concreate mix B.3 Cracking: B.3.1 Corner Traffic loads on Crack sealing, remove cracks unsupported corners, spot and replace weak subgrade/base B.3.2 Diagonal Traffic loads on cracks unsupported slab end, subgrade settlement, pumping B.3.3 Shrinkage of concrete, Longitudinal expansive base or Full depth repair (slab cracks subgrade, loss of support replacement) from edge pumping Overload, repeated B.3.4 Transverse bending on pumping Cracks slabs, failure of foundation, shrinkage B.3.5 Crocodile Improper load transfer Cracks device, base/subgrade weakness, insufficient slab thickness, settlement of base

Local Road Management Manual 80 B.4 Road cut/slip Slope failure, landslide, Depends on causes and scouring, slip condition B.5. Joint Inadequate transfer, Raise of slabs Faulting pumping Drainage improvement, Pumping Free water on or in joint resealing, dowel bar subgrade or base and introduction deflection of slab B.6. Joint Segregation of aggregate, Joint spall repair (Epoxy Spalling improper load transfer patching, AC patching) device, improper joint forming, joint sawing, joint compression B.7 Joint Sealant Aging, low quality, Joint resealing pumping, cracking B.8 Shoulder Steep slope, lack of Add materials and com- (Erosion, pothole, maintenance, pass paction, Sealing, patch- high gap, of traffic, inadequate ing, grading, grass cut insufficient fill, crossfall, side drainage, vegetation) lack of surface protection, lack of shoulder materials

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 81 Figure 3.15 Sample Visual Identifier for Pavement Distress of ACP (L= low, M = Medium, H = High)

Local Road Management Manual 82 Figure 3.15 Sample Visual Identifier for Pavement Distress of PCCP (L= low, M = Medium, H = High)

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 83 4.2. Level of Service for Local Roads 4.2.1 Local Road Traffic Volume Traffic or vehicle volume determines the over-all loading unto the pavement of a local road. It is therefore important to consider the present and future (projected) traffic volume passing unto a local road. An increase in future traffic volume will entail necessary design changes for a local road such as geometric configuration and pavement type. Such design changes should make the local road sufficient to carry the design traffic volume without a drop of level of service. Table 3.7 lists down the vehicle classification used in surveying the traffic volume of a local road. Each vehicle is counted as they pass through a section of a local road. Engineers will often use the number of vehicles passing a point or entering an intersection in the analysis of roadway operations. The two basic methods of collecting data are manual observation and automatic recording. Each has their use and effectiveness depending on the type of information needed for analysis. The traffic data is the basis of all analysis in a traffic impact study and careful consideration should be given to the locations, types of counts and duration of counts. This also the basis for the Geometric improvement of a certain road section and for its pavement design. Table 3.7 Vehicle Classification for Traffic Survey of a Local Road

Local Road Management Manual 84 As mentioned in the previous sections, Annex 2D shows a sample traffic count template for local roads. The procedural steps in conducting a typical manual classified traffic count for a local road are the following: a. The Manual Classified Traffic Count may be one- directional or two-directional; b. The Manual Classified Traffic Count may be undertaken once every three (3) years for a 24-hour manual count starting from 6:00 A.M. and ending at 6:00 A.M. of the following day; c. Identify the Year when the Traffic count is to be conducted; d. Write the Date when the Traffic Count started; e. Identify the Region, Province, the City or Municipality, District and Barangay where the Road being considered for the Traffic count is located; f. Identify the complete Road Name, Road ID, Station, traffic count position and name of the Counting Officer; g. Mobilize the traffic count survey when there are no

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 85 holidays in that particular week and at ideal traffic survey sites; h. Always coordinate with PNP, LGU and other concerned government authorities; i. Whenever vehicles pass by the Traffic Count Station, tally the number of vehicles according to their classification and according to what directional lane (increasing or decreasing Km post) respectively as described in the form; j. Write the sub-total of vehicles per classification per directional lane; k. Calculate the sum of all the number of vehicles per classification in both directional lanes and write it in the Total column provided; and l. By using these data, the Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) can be computed for the subject local road. The tally for Heavy Vehicles is computed as a percentage of the total traffic. As a standard practice, only the average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) is used in the design of roads Performance of a pavement is mostly a function of the total traffic. The traffic- induced deformations of properly designed unpaved roads are restricted to the upper portion of the gravel surfacing. On the other hand, the percentage of heavy vehicles of a traffic volume is used in the design of paved roads (whether ACP or PCCP). As the loads of cars do not contribute significantly to structural damage of paved surfaces, the percentage of heavy vehicles and their axle loadings are considered. This is usually computed as an equivalent 80 kN single axle load (ESAL) per heavy vehicle. 4.2.1.1 Conducting Automatic classified traffic count for a typical road: Most studies of traffic related problems begin with the collection of a good data as foundation of the roadway and traffic conditions. LGUs have difficulties in this endeavor. Any study can only be as accurate as the data it is based on. For this reason, it is important that all traffic studies make

Local Road Management Manual 86 special efforts to be thorough and accurate in the collection of all traffic data. The most common types of data collected for the purposes of traffic engineering are vehicle volume and speed data Reasons for Counting • To know what is happening on the network. • Track trends to assist in the production of annual average daily traffic (AADT). • Assist in the prediction of future trends, e.g. if a new road is constructed. • Basic information used in the economic appraisal of any project. Fundamental base data necessary to rank projects in order of priority. • Basis for determining Road Geometrics for improvements and Pavement thickness. Types of Counters (Automated Traffic Classifiers—ATC) • Basic range of early counters, counted axles only which need to be converted into volumes. Limited uses. • Middle of the range counters, produced volumes, speed and classification counts. Memory constraints meant that these could only collect a limited amount of data. Volume and speed and volume and Class • Automatic Data Recorders, are capable of collecting many types of data for different applications. The increased memory allows for a wide range data collection and length of time. The new counters can be upgraded even further by the insertion of more memory. Capable of being hooked up to a telemetric source such as a mobile phone and sending data back to base automatically. • Photometric range of data recorders. This is called ‘Autoscope’, which uses video imaging and allows the operator the ability to draw imaginary loops on the screen. The software can interpret vehicle movement

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 87 class and speed for the vehicles as they pass the imaginary loop. Types of Data Needed • Volume • Speed • Classification • Headway. Used for special calculations by traffic engineers • Gap. Used for special calculations by traffic engineers • Weigh in Motion (special loop configuration necessary) Data Applications • Benefit Cost Analysis • Design of Pavements • Geometric designs of intersections and curves • Phasing of traffic signals • Traffic management particularly in local areas • More efficient use of resources • Modeling of changes to the network. For example, construction of a new road and the impact on the existing roads The main advantage of the methods of automatic recorders or counting machine is that they can work throughout the day and night for the desired period, recording total hourly volume of traffic. Note: The DPWH has its own classification system that has 12- axle base classes. This can also be adopted by the Local Government Units so that they can also utilized the seasonal factors being generated from the DPWH long duration traffic survey sites to come up with an AADT.

Local Road Management Manual 88 4.2.2 Local Road Traffic Capacity The traffic capacity of a road can be defined as the maximum number of vehicles within an hour that can pass through a given section under prevailing road and traffic conditions. Traffic volume above this capacity will mean that the road is congested forcing vehicles to slow down. In such instances, the road may then be improved by either improving the pavement to a higher quality (i.e. unpaved to paved); or by improving the geometric conditions of the road (i.e. widening the road). The ratio between the hourly design traffic volume and the Basic Hourly Capacity in Car units (BHCC) is called the Volume Capacity Ratio (VCR). It is a measure that indicates the Level of Service (LOS) that a road can provide. Table 3.8 provides the defined VCR for a given LOS and the corresponding traffic condition as adopted from the DPWH Highway Planning Manual. The traffic volume at LOS E means that the traffic volume is roughly equal to the actual Table 3.8 Level of Service of Roads LOS Volume- Traffic Condition Average Speed Capacity (V/C) (kph) Ratio A 0.00 – 0.20 Free flowing traffic 95-110 B 0.21 – 0.50 Relatively free flowing 80—95 traffic C 0.51 – 0.70 Moderate Traffic 64—80 D 0.71 – 0.85 Moderate/Heavy traffic 56—64 E 0.71 – 0.85 Heavy traffic 45—56 F > 1.00 Saturation traffic 0—45 volumes; stop and go

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 89 Traffic volumes are converted into Passenger Car Units (PCU) to ensure that each vehicle is counted in a similar measure. This is done by multiplying the traffic volume of a vehicle with the Passenger Car Equivalent Factors (PCEF), which are related to vehicle type, shoulder width, gradients, road length, lateral obstruction and roadside friction that all contribute or influence to the traffic capacity of the road. The traffic volume by type multiplied by the respective PCEF constitutes the passenger car units (PCU). Table 3.9 provides the PCEF values for typical vehicles as adopted from the DPWH Highway Planning Manual. The rationale behind the PCEF system is as follows: a. Car, passenger van, and owner jeep. PCEF = 1 per definition; b. Motor—tricycle. PCEF = 0.5, because this slow- moving vehicle (25-30 km/hour as normal maximum speed) causes considerable queuing on roads particularly along areas with heavy roadside friction where stopping to load/unload passengers is frequent; shoulders and their condition would have an impact on the PCEF since the presence of a good paved shoulder would attract these slow- moving vehicles. The stopping on the carriageway cause other vehicles to slow down and even stop and therefore the motor-tricycles (and jeepneys and buses) have a reducing effect on road capacity; c. Jeepney and small bus. PCEF = 1.5, because of relatively slow-moving and frequently stopping to load and unload passengers, particularly along heavy roadside friction areas (the heavier the roadside friction the more the potential for passengers and therefore the more stops). Running speed is at least higher than the motor-tricycle; d. Large bus. PCEF = 2.0 in flat terrain. Roadside friction is a factor to consider as for jeepneys, motor- tricycles and small buses. Shoulders normally do not have any impact as large buses usually stop

Local Road Management Manual 90 at will on the pavement. Gradients would have a lowering impact on bus speeds. Carriageway and shoulder widths impact on road capacity for buses and trucks, especially for pavement widths of less than 6 meters. Lack of or limited shoulder and its condition also limit road capacity because it would imply the similarity of lateral obstructions; and e. Trucks. PCEF = 2.0 for a rigid truck and 2.5 for a semi- or trailer-truck combination. As trucks do not stop regularly roadside friction is not a restraining factor but gradients and their lengths have a substantial effect on heavily loaded (or overloaded) trucks. Table 3.9 Typical Passenger Car Equivalent Factors (PCEF) to Convert Traffic Volume into Passenger Car Units (PCU) Vehicle Type Passenger Car Equvalence Factor (PCEF) No. Description Flat Rolling Mountainous 1 Motor-tricycle/Motorcycle 0.5 0.5 0.5 2 Passenger Car 1 1 1 3—5 Passenger and good utili- 1.5 1.73 1.95 ty and small bus 6 Large bus 2 2.3 2.6 7 Rigid truck, 2 axles 2 2.3 2.6 8 Rigid truck, 3+ axles 2.5 2.88 3.25 9 Truck semi—trailer, 3 and 2.5 2.88 3.25 4 axles 10 Truck semi—trailer, 5+ 2.5 2.88 3.25 axles 11 Trailer trucks, 4 axles 2.5 2.88 3.25 12 Trailer trucks, 5 axles 2.5 2.88 3.25

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 91 On the other hand, the capacity of a road in an hour is influenced by the following factors that are present along the same road: a. Number of lanes; b. Carriageway or lane width; c. Shoulder width; d. Gradients and their length; e. Truck and bus percentage of total traffic; f. Lateral obstructions on both or one side of the roadway; and g. Roadside friction The degree of roadside friction has an impact on the capacity of a road. These roadside frictions are described as follows: a. None. Few or no buildings along the roadside; b. Light. Buildings and/or road intersections along and close to the road, 100 -200 meters between these objects, pedestrians and non-motorized traffic observed occasionally; c. Medium. Scattered roadside development, 50-100 meters between buildings and/or road intersections, pedestrians and non-motorized traffic observed frequently; and d. Heavy. Continuous roadside development with less than 50 meters between buildings and/or road intersections, pedestrians and non-motorized traffic tend to disrupt the motor vehicle traffic and reduce travel speed to below 35 km/hr. even at low traffic volume. The Basic Hourly Capacity of a road is given in Table 3.10, which is adopted from the DPWH Highway Planning Manual.

Local Road Management Manual 92 Table 3.10 Basic Hourly Capacity of Roads per Carriageway Width Carriageway Width (all lanes) Hourly Capacity (in PCU) 6.10 meters 1,200 and below 6.10 meters 1,900 6.1-6.7 meters 2,000 6.8 - 7.3 meters 2,400 2x6.7 of 2x7.3 meters 7,200 The VCR is computed as 8% of the Annual Average Daily Traffic (in PCU) divided by the Basic Hourly Car Capacity (BHCC), which is VCR = (0.08 x PCU) / BHCC in equation form. As a summary, the following are the steps in determining the VCR and LOS of a local road: a. Undertake a classified vehicle volume traffic count over the subject road; b. Convert the counted traffic volume into AADT by multiplying seasonality factors (percentage of traffic per week, month or year); c. Convert the traffic count in AADT into PCU for each vehicle type by multiplying the AADT per vehicle with the corresponding PCEF (see Table 3.9); d. Determine the hourly design volume (in PCU) of the road by getting only 8% of the total AADT (in PCU); e. Determine the Basic Hourly Car Capacity (BHCC) of the road corresponding to its total carriageway width (see Table 3.10); f. Determine the VCR by dividing the Hourly Design Volume with the Basic Hourly Car Capacity; g. Determine the LOS corresponding to the VCR (see Table 3.8). If the LOS is between A and D, then the local road has adequate capacity to service the estimated traffic volume. If the LOS is between E and F, then the local road will have to be redesigned either through pavement or geometric improvements.

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 93 Carriageway Width (all lanes) Hourly Capacity (in PCU)5. Annual Programming for Local Roads and the Local Budgeting Process 6.10 meters1,200 and belowTable 3.17 Annual Programming for Local Roads 6.10 meters1,900 6.1-6.7 meters2,000 6.8 - 7.3 meters2,400 2x6.7 of 2x7.3 meters7,200 5.1. Annual Programming for Local Roads Annual programming for local roads refers to the allocation of resources for a given required engineering work for a local road. The implementation of the engineering measure to a road will make it function as intended in

Local Road Management Manual 94 the local road network. The programming of works for a local road should be based on how it is prioritized within the over-all local road network. It is highly likely that roads identified as critical corridors for the development of the LGU will have more programmed works compared to other local roads. Only prioritized programmed works should be budgeted by the LGU for a given fiscal year. The key steps in the annual programming cycle for road rehabilitation, improvement and maintenance are shown in Figure 3.17. This annual work programming is a good approach that the respective local engineering offices can practice in prioritizing road works. The key steps of the annual programming for local roads are: a. Identify, prioritize and select the priority road sections for rehabilitation and maintenance, ensuring wide consultation among LGU departments and other stakeholders such as affected communities, civil society, non-government organizations, private sector and other interested parties; b. Include the selected priority road sections in the Annual Work Program (AWP); Link the AWP to the approved budget for road rehabilitation and maintenance ensuring that the priority road projects are funded; c. Conduct the road condition survey on the priority road sections. This step includes confirming the Road Right of Way (RROW) and identifying any outstanding RROW issues that need to be resolved before road rehabilitation, improvement and maintenance activities can be initiated; d. Based on the results of the Road Condition Survey, prepare the indicative Program of Works (POW) for the priority road rehabilitation, improvement and maintenance projects selected for the year; e. Thereafter, prepare the Road Design plan, Specifications, cost estimates and the Bill of Quantities (BOQ). The road design may be prepared by design consultants commissioned specifically for the task or by the PEO if there is sufficient capability and capacity available to undertake the task;

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 95 f. The actual rehabilitation, improvement and maintenance work shall be done by contract as the default method. If by contract initiate the procurement process, award the contract through a competitive bidding procedures and supervise the implementation of the rehabilitation, improvement and maintenance works; g. The implemented projects should be monitored and evaluated. This step should culminate with the updating of the road inventory and the list of priority road sections for the next year. The key steps are again repeated for the subsequent years Once the works programming for local roads are completed, the LGUs will now proceed to the local budgeting process. The local budget is the principal instrument of the LGU in implementing the Programs, Projects, and Activities (PPAs) identified in Local Development Plans and prioritized in Local Development Investment Programs (LDIP) and Local Annual Investment Programs (AIP). It is considered as a financial plan of the LGU as mandated by the Local Government Code (RA 7160). Ideal local budgeting entails fiscal discipline, efficient allocation of LGU resources and getting value for money in the implementation of PPAs. The local budgeting process has been standardized by the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) through the Unified Budget Operations Manual (UBOM). The NEDA PLPEM Guidelines also has provided a set of guidance to assist the LGUs in its local budgeting process as provided for in Figure 3.18. As illustrated in Figure 3.18, the steps in a typical local budgeting process for which LGUs are required to undertake are the following:

Local Road Management Manual 96 Figure 3.18 The Local Budgeting Process a. Budget Preparation. The Local Finance Committee analyzes the revenues and expenditures of the LGU. Revenue estimates are formulated and expenditure ceilings determined. The budget formulation process also provides the framework against which the implementation of PPAs delineated in the budget will be measured. The budget document will be the benchmark for which the performance of the departments and offices are measured. Subsequently, the budget office consolidates the budget proposals of the different departments and offices and allocates the amount of funding available for new projects/ investments in accordance with priorities set out in the local development investment program and the annual investment program of the LGU; b. Budget Legislation. The local budget is authorized by the local Sanggunian starting from the time the local chief executive presents the proposed executive budget to the Sanggunian for its review. The Committee on Appropriation and Sanggunian then review the draft appropriation ordinance for (a) its consistency with the LGU goals and objectives as expressed in its local development plan; and (b) its conformity with the budgetary provisions of the Local Government Code. On or before the end of the current budget year and after securing the approval from a majority of its members, the local Sanggunian enacts the annual budget for the LGU by passing an appropriation ordinance. The appropriation ordinance is then presented to and signed by the local chief executive;

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 97 c. Budget Execution. Once passed as an appropriation ordinance, the budget is executed by the departments and offices of the LGU. The appropriation is apportioned and the advice of allotment is released by the Budget Officer who essentially defines which part of the appropriation the spending units can use at which time. The expenditures are committed or funds disbursed to spending units as they incur obligations to pay for goods and services necessary in the performance of their duties; and d. Budget Accountability. The last phase in the local budget cycle is budget accountability. It covers the recording, reporting, and auditing of estimated and actual income and expenditures. This also covers the evaluation of local physical and financial accomplishments against set targets. The Local Government Code mandates a semi-annual review and examination of the cost and physical accomplishment of each PPA against targets. Reporting of the local budget is also encouraged to promote wider accountability and transparency. Typical with any other PPAs and investments, a local budget is needed for the development and management of local roads. Section 287 of Republic Act No. 7160 direct LGUs to set aside no less than 20% of their IRA to fund development projects as identified in the LGUs’ development plans. The DBM-DILG Joint Circular No. 1, Series of 2005, prescribes the specific use of the 20% Development Fund for social and economic development, as well as environmental management projects. Construction and rehabilitation of local roads fall within the ambit of economic development, for which the 20% development fund can cover such PPAs. Annual planning is linked towards annual budgeting in terms of the development and management of local roads. Ideally, the budgeting for the development and management of local roads starts with the detailed engineering design. The quantities of work items specified in the engineering design are estimated. The cost estimates are then computed for each item of work, the aggregate of which is the total direct cost. Indirect costs are included in the cost estimates to take into account secondary costs such as material testing, taxes and contractor profit (for projects that are contracted out). The sum of direct and indirect costs will make up the total cost of the

Local Road Management Manual 98 road project, which is the amount specified in the budget proposal of the department (in this case, the local engineer’s office). The budget for a particular road project is included in the local budget preparation (LBP) form that the local engineering offices normally accomplish during the budget preparation. Figure 3.19 shows LBP Form No. 5 and the corresponding instructions as specified by DBM in its UBOM Guidelines for LGUs. LBP Form No. 5 provides a mechanism for performance review of the road project through Column Nos. 4 and 5. These columns will show whether the road project has achieved the output indicators and targets as part of the budget review process. Work programs for local road projects will be summarized into this budget document showing the project objectives, costs, performance indicators, targets and schedule.

Chapter 3: Local Road Planning 99 Table 3.19 Local Budget Preparation Form No. 5

Local Road Management Manual 100 CHAPTER 4 LOCAL ROAD SURFACE TREATMENT OPTIONS

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 101 1. Local Road Management Process Through devolution and decentralization, LGUs have been granted with the local autonomy including the efficient and effective provision of basic services and facilities. Local road infrastructures are considered by the Local Government Code [Sections 17 (a) and (b)] as basic facilities that the LGUs should provide within its jurisdiction. The development and management of the local road network is therefore central to this mandate. As LGUs look to the National Government for guidance, it is paramount that recognized practices for Local Road Management are shared to the LGUs as they fulfill their mandate. Local Road Management (LRM), as the name implies, is planning and sustainably managing the local road network in consideration of the envisioned socioeconomic development of the LGU. Sustainable management of local road infrastructure requires regular maintenance, suitable prioritization and planning, sufficient budget and adequate contracting, financial management and monitoring procedures. In simple terms, Local Road Management (LRM) is the planning and implementation of investments to local roads based on the function and condition of the local road viewed as a network that supports the over- all socioeconomic development of the LGU. The DILG LRM Manual, thus, provides a simple technical reference for LGUs on how they can ably plan and manage their local road network. The local engineering offices will be faced with a series of decisions on what is the appropriate type of investment (or civil works) to a local road and the best method to get this done effectively and efficiently. In this context, an effective provision of a local road infrastructure means that the civil works implemented to the local road functioned as planned, for which the local road is now providing a certain level of service. On the other hand, an efficient provision of local road infrastructure refers to delivering such civil works to a local road at the least cost without sacrificing quality and safety. The local engineering offices can be guided by the local road management process chart shown in Figure 4.1. The stages in this LRM process chart are: a. Configuration of the Local Road Network. All LGUs have an envisioned socioeconomic development that is to be attained

Local Road Management Manual 102 Figure 4.1 Local Road Management Process Chart in the medium or long-term period. The local roads should be configured as a network supporting this envisioned development of the LGU. As discussed in the previous chapter, some local

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 103 roads provide more primary function to the network and some local roads serve secondary roles. Cities and municipalities should refer to their Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP), whereas provinces should refer to their Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan (PDPFP) in configuring their local road network; b. Local Road Condition Inventory. The previous step defines the local road network in terms of which local roads are primary (or critical) and which are secondary (noncritical), the physical conditions of these local roads should be thoroughly inventoried. The detailed condition describes the local road if it is in functioning as intended, if it needs to be rehabilitated or improved first, or if it is already in maintainable condition. The system of local road condition inventory has been discussed in the previous chapter. But in general, local roads in good to fair condition are in maintainable condition. Adequate maintenance works should be planned and implemented to these local roads to prevent rapid deterioration. Meanwhile, local roads classified as in poor to bad condition should be rehabilitated first into a maintainable condition. Local roads in poor to bad condition that have been given maintenance works will certainly lead to rapid deterioration as the level of work items may not be sufficient enough to make the subject road in good to fair condition. The local road condition inventory also includes the determination of the level of traffic volume on a given local road. Obviously, if the capacity of the local road is not sufficient to handle the present and future traffic volume, then investments have to be implemented unto the subject road either by improving the geometric conditions of the road or by upgrading the pavement of the road to accommodate the expected traffic volume. Local road inventories should also include the identification of road right-of-way issues including the appropriate measures to resolve these issues; c. Prioritization of Local Road Investments. Local fiscal resources are always limited. By this nature, LGUs ultimately have to decide what investments to prioritize for a given local road, and looking at the network as a whole, what local roads to prioritize. There are various ways of prioritizing local road investments. However, it should be objective and rational as

Local Road Management Manual 104 much as possible rather than being ad-hoc, political or populist in nature. This is stage upon which the LGU has to decide what local roads to be rehabilitated or maintained based on the local road condition. This step will also identify any major road works needed to complete the local road network such as constructing a new local road, or improving or upgrading a local road. The prioritization of local road investments should be based on the following factors: i. Support to the Land Use Plan (Spatial Development). As noted several times, the local road network should always support the envisioned land use plan (or spatial development) of the LGU. Critical segments of the local road network mean that these local roads are essential to developing the planned growth centers of the LGU. LGUs may focus investments unto these “critical roads” to ensure that the growth centers function as planned. Once additional resources come, which may be realized through these growth centers, the LGU would then be able to channel such additional investments to other less-critical roads. In support of the land use plan, the LGU may also need the construction of new local roads; or the improvement of local roads; ii. Road Condition. The prioritization of local road investment should consider the current physical condition of the local roads. To preserve its road assets, the LGU should only prioritize maintenance works to local roads in good to fair condition. On the other hand, LGUs should first rehabilitate local roads in poor to bad condition. Otherwise, implementing maintenance works unto local roads in poor to bad condition will likely result to rapid and unexpected deterioration. The level of rehabilitation and maintenance should be balanced by the LGU depending on the relative function of a local road to the over-all local road network. This may mean focusing on rehabilitation for local roads identified as critical to the local road network. Programming roads for rehabilitation will obviously entail higher investments. However, as more roads are rehabilitated, the investment costs for local roads will go down in the long run. This is because

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 105 it is cheaper to maintain roads rather than rehabilitating them; and iii. Level of Service. LGUs may prioritize local road investments to corridors where there is an observed or expected increase in traffic volume. This essentially means that the demand for this road has become higher than before. If no interventions will be forthcoming, the subject road will likely provide a decreased level of service, which will result to traffic congestion (and consequently higher travel cost). An increase in traffic volume, either observed or estimated, means that there is now a higher demand for this road due to an increase in economic activity in a particular land use. For such a scenario, the LGU may improve the local road through geometric redesign (e.g. widening) or upgrading the pavement (e.g. unsealed to sealed pavements). In contrast, there may be no engineering interventions needed for local roads whose traffic volume has remained stable other than ensuring the appropriate level of maintenance (to prevent deterioration). d. Appropriate Surface Treatment (Type of Work). Determining the suitable engineering intervention to a local road should always be based on the current physical condition, level of traffic volume and the over-all prioritization for local road investments. Wrong engineering measures will also lead to premature deterioration. Inappropriate provision of surface treatment will mean a costly engineering intervention if proven lacking or ineffective. A very high surface treatment for a local road where there are very few passing vehicles is not only inefficient in cost but takes away needed resources to more critical roads. More importantly, road safety is compromised if the surface treatment is not consistent with the condition of the road. Major local road infrastructure may require a pre-feasibility study to ensure that the LGU is appropriating the right amount of investment to the right project at the right period;

Local Road Management Manual 106 e. Annual Works Program. Each local road will have to be proposed with an appropriate surface treatment, whether maintenance, rehabilitation or improvement. Taken as a whole, these engineering interventions should be programmed in the long-term recognizing that LGU resources are often constrained. The annual slice of this investment program for the local road will constitute what is feasible for the LGU to finance within the current fiscal year. The annual works program contains the initial estimates for a given civil works for a local road. This would also mean that the annual works program is the current priority of the LGU, which is often what is budgeted by the local council for the given fiscal year. f. Implementation Mode. LGUs vary from their capacity and expertise on local road management. Being empowered to generate and utilize local resources, the LGU can execute on its own typical services for local road management, which is commonly referred to as By-Administration or Force Account. In this mode, the LGU uses its own workforce and procures supplies to manage and implement civil works for the local road infrastructure provided that the concern LGUs passes the required Technical Capability Assessment conducted by DPWH. In instances where it does not have the technical capacity or expertise, the LGU needs to contract out local road management services to the private sector; The procurement process should be guided by Republic Act No. 9184 (RA 9184) or Government Procurement Reform Act (GPRA). Under RA 9184 and its IRR the default method pf procurement is Competitive Bidding. Implementation is normally termed as By-Contract. This assumes that the local industry is robust and competitive. Rather than delivering the actual services, the LGU would then manage these contracts in accordance with RA 9184, which will require fewer resources for the LGU. The typical local road management services that can be contracted out are the following (and conversely, the local engineering office can undertake these functions if the technical expertise is present): i. Feasibility Study; ii. Detailed Engineering Design; iii. Construction Supervision and Contract Management including QA/QC;

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 107 iv. Implementation of civil works for local roads, new construction, rehabilitation, improvement and maintenance. g. Road Design and Activity Standards. The quantity and quality of civil works for local road infrastructure should be properly defined and estimated based on actual road conditions, the estimated level of traffic volume and the project design life; whether its five (5), ten (10) or more year design period. This process is called Detailed Engineering Design (or DED), which is prepared for civil works such as rehabilitation, improvement or new construction. This is obviously undertaken prior to procurement and implementation. For maintenance works, activity standards are prepared rather than a detailed design. Activity standards are the quantity and quality of maintenance activities applied to a maintainable local road. These are based on typical conditions and normally have been to be adequate for a given fiscal year. If the implementation of the civil works is contracted out, one the needed output of the Detailed Engineering Design is the Quantity Take off and the Bill of Quantity; the basis for Approved Budget for the Contract; h. Procurement. As discussed above, civil works shall be procured through competitive bidding procedure as mandated in RA 9184. Competitive Bidding is the default methods of procurement. Only budgeted civil works undergoes the procurement process. To start or trigger procurement of works, services and goods, the end user must prepare a Project Procurement Management Plan (PPMP), duly approved by the HOPE or LCE in order for the BAC Secretariat to consolidate the plan to an Annual Procurement Plan (APP), also needed to be duly approved by the HOPE or LCE. The approved APP shall be the basis of the BAC to procure certain project. Local Engineering Offices should take part in the procurement process either as member of the BAC or as TWG, as they are the Technical arm of the LGU. Contractors performance is monitored and evaluated by a separate and independent unit in a system called Constructor Performance Evaluation System (CPES), which is also being mandated by the National Government under the auspices of NEDA, DTI, DILG. CPES is briefly discussed in the chapter on construction management;

Local Road Management Manual 108 i. Implementation and Management. Once properly programmed, budgeted, designed and procured, the civil works are implemented. Whether the civil works are executed By- Administration or By Contract, the local engineering office is in charge in the construction supervision of the project. A unit should be designated to monitor and manage the progress of the project until completion and turn-over; and j. Monitoring and Maintenance. Local road infrastructure should be constantly monitored after completion and turn-over. This is to ensure that defects can be corrected immediately either by the contractor or by the LGU. There should be periodic inspections and monitoring to ensure that appropriate maintenance works are implemented to the right sections at the right time. 2. Surface Treatment for Local Roads 2.1. Common Surface Treatment Options Typical road works being undertaken by LGUS are discussed in this section. To avoid any ambiguity and confusion, it is important to have a clear definition of appropriate treatment options for a given local road condition. The reference guidelines for local gravel road rehabilitation are attached as Annex 3A, while the sealing of asphalt pavement is in Annex 3B, and the sealing for concrete pavement is in Annex 3C. A summary of common surface treatment options for local roads for typical physical conditions are listed in Table 4.1 for gravel pavement, Table 4.2 for asphalt pavement, and Table 4.3 for Portland cement concrete pavement (PCCP). The surface treatment options regardless of pavement type are discussed and defined in detail in the next section.

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 109 Table 4.1 Common Surface Treatment Options for Local Gravel Roads Treatment/ Recommended Scope of Work per Road Condition Good Fair Poor Bad Rehabilita- Not applica- Restoration of gravel pavement tion ble Not applicable Restoration of deteriorated embankment Replacement of deteriorated drainage Patching Spot re- gravelling Routine Shoulders repair Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Culvert repairs Clearing side drains Vegetation Gravel resurfacing Shoulder resurfacing Vegetation Periodic Not applicable control Not applicable Not applicable Drainage clearing Drainage repair Replacement of damaged signs  Note: Regardless of road condition, damages to road sections are repaired after a disaster or accident  Scope of Work: Emergency o Clearing of debris o Repairing washout/subsidence o Traffic accident removal o Repair damaged gravel pavement and o Repair or replace damaged drainage

110 Local Road Management Manual Table 4.2 Common Surface Treatment Options for Local Asphalt Pavement Roads Recommended Scope of Work per Road Treatment/ Condition Good Fair Poor  Note: Regardless of road condition, gravel pavement is not adequate to support current and projected traffic volume (AADT is higher than 400 vehicles)  Scope of Work: Road o Replacement of gravel pavement into asphalt Upgrading pavement or PCCP or ACP o Work items in road improvement: Road extension Road widening Geometric design improvement New, major, raising or expanding earthworks  Scope of Work: New Road o Opening and Construction of new road including Construction all road sections and elements  AADT is less than 400 vehicles per day Bituminous prime or tack coat (asphalt overlay) of entire/ whole section Rehabilitation Not applicable Not applicable Restoration of deteriorated embankment Replacement of deteriorated drainage

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 111 Premix bituminous patching (asphalt patching) Penetration bituminous Routine patching Maintenance (penetration Not applicable Not applicable macadam patching) Sealing of bituminous pavements Shoulders repair Culvert repairs Bituminous tack coat (asphalt overlay) of deteriorated section only Shoulder resurfacing Periodic Vegetation Maintenance Not applicable control Not applicable Drainage clearing Drainage repair Replacement of damaged signs Installation of reflectorized Thermoplastic Pavement

112 Local Road Management Manual  Note: Regardless of road condition, damages to road sections are repaired after a disaster or accident Emergency  Scope of Work: Maintenance o Clearing of debris o Repairing washout/subsidence o Traffic accident removal o Repair damaged gravel pavement and o Repair or replace damaged drainage  Note: Regardless of road condition, existing geometric conditions are not adequate for current and projected traffic volume but retaining the existing pavement type Road  Scope of Work: Improvement o Road extension o Road widening Geometric design improvement New, major, raising or expanding earthworks Major slope protection Widening or improvement of existing local bridge  Note: Regardless of road condition, existing asphalt pavement is not adequate to support current and projected traffic volume  Scope of Work: Replacement of asphalt pavement into Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (PCCP) or Asphalt Concrete Road Pavement(ACP) Upgrading Work items in road improvement: Road extension Road widening Geometric design improvement New, major, raising or expanding earthworks Major slope protection Widening or improvement of existing local bridges New Road  Scope of Work: Construction Construction of new asphalt pavement road including all road sections and elements  AADT is less than 400 vehicles per day

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 113 Table 4.3 Common Surface Treatment Options for Local Concrete Pavement Roads continuation Treatment/ Recommended Scope of Work per Road Condition Interventions Good Fair Poor Bad Bituminous Concrete Surface Course (re blocking of entire/whole Rehabilitation Not applicable Not applicable section) Restoration of deteriorated embankment Replacement of deteriorated Crack and joint sealing of concrete pavements Patching of concrete pavements through asphalt Routine or by penetration Not Not Maintenance patching Not applicable applicable applicable Shoulders repair Culvert repairs Clearing side drains Vegetation control Cleaning of signs Repaint fading pavement markings Patching of concrete pavements through asphalt or penetration patching Shoulder resurfacing Vegetation clearing Drainage clearing Drainage repair Periodic Not applicable Replacement of Not Not Maintenance damaged signs applicable applicable

114 Local Road Management Manual  Note: Regardless of road condition, damages to road sections are repaired after a disaster or accident  Scope of Work: Clearing of debris o Repairing washout/subsidence Emergency o Traffic accident removal Maintenance Repair damage pavement and/or drainage Note: Regardless of road condition, existing geometric conditions are not adequate for current and projected traffic volume but at the same time retaining the existing pavement type Scope of Work: Road extension Road widening Geometric design improvement New, major, raising or expanding earthworks Road Major slope protection Improvement Widening or improvement of existing local bridges Note: Regardless of road condition, existing PCCP is not adequate to support current and projected traffic volume  Scope of Work: Overlaying of asphalt over PCCP making the pavement as Asphalt-Concrete Pavement (ACP) Work items in road improvement Road extension Road widening Geometric design improvement New, major, raising or expanding earthworks Road Major slope protection Upgrading Widening or improvement of existing local bridge Scope of Work: Construction of new road including all road sections and New Road elements Construction  AADT is more than 400 vehicles per day

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 115 2.2. Road Rehabilitation In the context of this Manual, road rehabilitation means the work necessary to restore to “good” condition the existing road pavement that has deteriorated to “poor” or “bad” condition. Road rehabilitation can include the provision of road drainage and other appurtenances. This means repairing, rehabilitating, improving existing drainage and providing new drainage systems if none had previously existed. Road rehabilitation may also be referred to as reconstruction or restoration if looking at the definition of restoring the road into its original condition. Rehabilitation will refer to restoring the existing surface pavement into its original condition whether the pavement is asphalt (resurfacing of asphalt) or concrete (re-blocking of concrete). The starting point for road rehabilitation is to determine how much of the existing road and drainage infrastructure is serviceable and can, perhaps with some cleaning and repair, be incorporated into the rehabilitation works. Beyond this, the work covered by road rehabilitation may include as appropriate, on a case-by-case basis, some or all of the following road work activities. All road works should be carried out in accordance with the appropriate Engineering Design Standards, Technical Specifications and Environmental Safeguards: a. To the extent possible and if practical, existing pavement should be recycled and used for the rehabilitation; b. To the extent possible and if practical, existing shoulder gravel should be recycled and used for the rehabilitation; c. For most local roads, it is expected that side drains will be of earth construction. Limited amounts of lined drains may be necessary in some exceptional circumstances. To the extent possible, existing side drains should be retained, cleaned, reshaped and repaired; d. Cross drains should be in the form of Reinforced Concrete Pipe Culverts (RCPC). In exceptional circumstance, a limited number of Reinforced Concrete Box Culverts (RCBC) may be necessary. To the extent possible existing cross drains

116 Local Road Management Manual should be retained and if necessary cleaned and repaired. If additional drainage capacity is needed, it should be provided by, if possible, duplicating the existing cross drain with a new, parallel pipe culvert. The rehabilitation project should avoid ripping out functioning drainage structures in order to replace them with new and bigger drains; e. Existing headwalls, catch pits and outfalls may be repaired, improved and rehabilitated. New facilities may be provided; f. Road safety devices such as guard rails, warning signs and mandatory signs should be provided; g. For most local road it is expected that side slope protection will be in the form of grass sods, planting and other natural and bio-engineering techniques. It is expected that masonry riprap and other hard engineering techniques will be used only in exceptional circumstances; h. Minor road widening to bring the sub-standard carriageway width up to the minimum standard width; In this case 6.10 meters minimum i. Minor widening of existing road shoulders to bring sub-standard shoulders up to the minimum standard width; one 1.0 meter minimum width j. Minor adjustment of the vertical alignment to regulate the vertical alignment of the carriageway; k. Minor adjustment of the horizontal alignment to regulated the horizontal alignment within the confines of the designated RROW; l. Steep gradients of 10% or greater should be reduced if necessary to lessen the risk of erosion and pavement break due to runoff; m. Road rehabilitation includes bridge and drainage repair works; n. Road rehabilitation does not include the provision of major new earthworks like the extension or provision of embankments and cuttings. This type of major earthworks is considered as road improvement.

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 117 2.3. Road Maintenance Road maintenance means the routine and periodic repairs necessary to keep the road in “fair to good” condition. Routine and periodic maintenance work may be undertaken on local roads that form part of the core road network and have been rehabilitated or are classified as being in good or fair condition. 2.3.1 Routine Maintenance Routine annual road maintenance is carried out to keep the local roads including the road pavement, road shoulders, side drains, cross drains, roadside verges and road safety devices in good condition. Routine road maintenance works may include as appropriate, on a case-to-case basis, some or all of the following activities: Maintenance activities should include control of vegetation along roadside verges to preserve sight lines and drainage channels. Vegetation control may include cutting and trimming of grass, shrubs and trees and the removal and environmentally sustainable disposal of the cuttings and debris; 2.3.2 Periodic Maintenance Periodic road maintenance is usually more extensive work, carried out on a larger scale and at less frequent intervals than routine annual maintenance. The purpose of periodic maintenance is to preserve the quality of the road assets, retard the rate of deterioration and extend the economic life of the road infrastructure. Periodic road maintenance works are usually undertaken at between two (2) and five (5) year intervals depending on the particular facility and may include as appropriate, on a case-by-case basis, some or all of the following activities: a. Replace lost gravel, shape to profile and compact on the shoulders;

118 Local Road Management Manual b. Reshape and clean earth ditches including re- aligning the channel gradient and cross section profile; c. Repair damaged cross drains and drainage structures including RCPC, box culverts, headwalls and catch basins; d. Repair damaged lined canals; e. Replace damaged and obsolete road signs, guardrails and kilometer posts; f. Repair or re-block damaged Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (PCCP) specially on steep gradients including joints and cracks and damaged concrete bays; g. Repair other types of surface used on steep gradients; h. Repair damaged masonry riprap and other forms of slope protection; and i. Repair or retrofit old bridges. 2.3.3 Emergency Maintenance From time to time, road accidents, extreme weather events, landslides, earthquakes and other incidents may occur. These cause unexpected damage to the road network rendering it impassable, unsafe or restricting its use to the travelling public. At such times, emergency maintenance may be needed and this could include: a. Urgent repairs to damaged road surfaces to make them safe for users, e.g. after rainstorm erosion, unauthorized excavation, or earthquake damage; b. Removal of fallen trees, land slide debris or debris dropped from passing vehicles, or unauthorized dumping or fly tipping in the RROW; c. Urgent repairs to bridge following serious accidents or bad weather; and d. Putting up signages and maintenance of emergency diversions (detours). Assistance to police/national defense force as required.

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 119 2.4. Road Improvement Road improvement means any other physical or civil works on the road system that is more than the required scope of work for road rehabilitation or maintenance. The work usually involves improvement of roads to enhance accessibility and mobility. Road improvement may include any or all of the following: a. Road extension; b. Carriageway and road shoulder widening; c. Improvement of road realignment either in the horizontal or vertical directions; d. New or expanded earthworks either embankments or cuttings; for example raising the embankment over a certain height in order to reduce the risk of flooding or increasing the amount of cut in order to widen the carriageway; e. Slope protection on an earthworks; and f. Widening or improvement of existing bridge. 2.5 Road Upgrading Road upgrading shall refer to civil works designed to elevate the current surface condition of the road to the next or higher surface condition. This may mean upgrading the existing gravel pavement to Double Bituminous Surface Treatment, Asphalt Concrete or Concrete. Similarly, the existing DBST to Asphalt pavement may be upgraded to Concrete pavement. The pavement of the provincial road may be upgraded to a higher pavement level if the existing pavement is not adequate to carry the current and/or projected traffic volume. 2.6 New Road Construction As the name implies, new road construction involves the construction of a new road facility where nothing of its type currently exists. This might take the form of a bypass constructed to carry through traffic around an existing town. New road construction may also be needed to create a new access route for new or existing growth centers in the province. The type of pavement to be installed will depend on the nature and volume of vehicle traffic passing over the proposed road, as well as its relevance to the development objectives of the LGU.

Local Road Management Manual 120 3. Recommended Pavement Options for Local Roads The ideal surface pavement of a local road should be able to support the current and future traffic volume along the said road. The ability to support current and projected traffic load should be taken in the context of the design life of the subject roads. Table 4.4 shows the recommended pavement for local roads given the average daily traffic (ADT) of the subject roads, which is based on the DPWH Design Guidelines, Criteria and Standards. Average Daily Recommended Type of Surface Pavement Traffic 400 and below Single or Double Bituminous Surface Bituminous Macadam Pavement, Dense or 401 - 1,000 Open Graded Plant Mix Surface Course, Bitumi- nous Concrete Surface Course 1,000 – 2,000 Bituminous Concrete Surface Course More than 2,000 Bituminous Concrete Surface Course, Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Table 4.5 Recommended Total Minimum Gravel Thickness for Local Gravel Roads Average Daily Recommended Traffic (in both Sub-Grade Soil Classification Total Minimum directions) Thickness of Gravel (mm) A1, A2, A3 Soils or if CBR > 7 200 <200 A4, A5, A6, A7 Soils or if CBR is between 3 and 7 200 A1, A2, A3 Soils or if CBR > 7 200 >200 A4, A5, A6, A7 Soils or if CBR is between 250 3 and 7 Note: the minimum pavement thickness for local road with more than 400 ADT should conform to DPWH DO #11-Series of 2014.

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 121 4. Suggested Reference Standards for Local Roads This Manual provides suggested reference guidelines for local roads. The details of these reference guidelines are attached as Annex 3A for gravel rehabilitation (or new construction), Annex 3B for asphalt pavement (using the flexible pavement design methodology), and Annex 3C for concrete pavement (using the rigid pavement design methodology). For road rehabilitation, it may not be possible to meet all of these standards on all road rehabilitation projects. On sub-standard roads, safety devices like guard rails, mandatory signs and warning signs may be used to mitigate the road safety risks due to the sub-standard road geometry. Three levels of traffic volumes observed in typical local roads are cross-matched with three design classes of 1 to 3. The Guidelines emphasize the reference to traffic volume as a differentiating attribute, although it is possible that the LGU may exhibit a wide range of traffic characteristics. Corresponding design controls may be chosen by the designer from the recommended control values. Table 4.6 shows the minimum design standards for local road rehabilitation adapted from the Local Road Study of DILG-ADB in 2003. This table uses the terrain terminology as Flat (F), Rolling (R), and Mountainous (M). The road in fat terrain is defined as being located in generally flat countryside where the topography causes the carriageway gradient to vary in the narrow range of 0% (flat) up to a maximum of 2%. The road in rolling terrain is defined as being located in countryside where the topography comprises hills, small mountains and valleys that causes the carriageway gradient to vary in the range of 0% (flat) up to a maximum of 8%. The road in mountainous terrain is defined as being located in countryside with high, steep hills and mountains that causes the carriageway gradient to exceed 8%. For local roads, the maximum desirable carriageway gradient is 12% but in exceptional circumstances the road gradient can be up to 15% over short lengths. Moreover, there is a new set of design standards for Tourism and Farm- to-Market Roads (FMR) issued recently by DPWH through Department

Local Road Management Manual 122 Order No. 11, Series of 2014 (see Annex 3D). Local roads may be categorized as a Tourism Road or as an FMR, for which DPWH may Min RROW (m)151515fund the rehabilitation through its convergence program with the Department of Tourism (DOT), and the Department of Agriculture (DA), Min PSD (m)420350235respectively. After rehabilitation, the subject roads (Tourism Road or FMR) will be turned over to the LGU, which will be expected to provide regular road maintenance. The DPWH Min SSD (m)756035Design Standards for Tourism and Farm-to- Market Roads are listed in Table 4.7. Max Super Elevation101010 Maximum Gradient6810 Minimum1308030 Shoulder Width (m)1.511 Carriageway6.16.16.1 Design Speed (kph)605030 errain T F R M able 4.6 Recommended Geometric Design Standards for Local Road RehabilitationAADT400 and below T

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 123 Table 4.7 DPWH Design Standards for Tourism and Farm-to-Market Roads Design Element Tourism Roads Farm-to-Market Roads Pavement Type Portland Cement Con- Portland Cement Concrete crete Pavement (PCCP) Pavement (PCCP) • Minimum of 4.0 m for two-lanes with average Pavement Width Minimum of 6.1 m for two daily traffic (ADT) of less lanes than 200 • Minimum of 5.0 m for two-lanes with average daily traffic (ADT) of • Minimum of 230 mm • Minimum of 150 mm (6 (9 in) in) Pavement • Higher thickness of • Higher thickness of Thickness pavement may be pavement may be adopted but shall adopted but shall be be verified from verified from pavement pavement design design analysis using Shoulder • Minimum of 1.5 m • Minimum of 1.5 m • Width • Minimum of gravel • Minimum of gravel • Material surfacing surfacing Roadway Cross 1.5% for PCCP • 1.5% for PCCP Slope Shoulder Cross 3.0% for gravel surfacing • 3.0% for gravel surfacing Slope Radius of Minimum of 50 m • Minimum of 30 m Horizontal Curve Length of Tangent Minimum length of 30 m between Reverse • Minimum length of 30 m Curves

Local Road Management Manual 124 Length of Vertical Minimum length of 60 m Curve • Minimum length of 60 m Design Speed 60 kph for flat terrain 40 kph for rolling terrain • 30 kph for all terrain type 30 kph for mountainous Longitudinal Minimum of 0.50% on cut • Minimum of 0.50% Grade section and maximum of on cut section and 12% on cut/fill section maximum of 12% on cut/ fill section • Cut slope of 1.5:1 • Cut slope of 1.5:1 to 1:1 to 1:1 for common for common materials Side Slope Ratio materials • Cut slope of 0.5:1 to 1:1 (H:V) • Cut slope of 0.5:1 to for rippable rock 1:1 for rippable rock • Cut slope of 0.25:1 to • Cut slope of 0.25:1 0.5:1 for hard/solid rock to 0.5:1 for hard/solid • Minimum fill slope of rock 1.5:1 • Box culvert: 25-year • Box culvert: 25-year return period with return period with sufficient freeboard to sufficient freeboard to contain the 50-year contain the 50-year flood Road Drainage flood • Pipe culvert: 15-year • Pipe culvert: 15-year return period with return period with sufficient freeboard to sufficient freeboard to contain the 25-year flood contain the 25-year • Minimum size of 910 mm flood in diameter Slope Protection As needed As needed Road Safety Refer to DPWH Highway Refer to DPWH Highway Devices including Safety Safety Pavement Design Standards, Part 2 Design Standards, Part 2 Markings (May 2012) (May 2012) Accessibility Facilities/ Requirements mandatory for Persons with Disability mandatory

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 125 • Permanent structures • Permanent structures (concrete or steel) (concrete or steel) • Structural design • Structural design based based on AASHTO on AASHTO HS15- HS20-44, using 0.4 g 44, using 0.4 g ground ground acceleration acceleration coefficient Bridge coefficient for seismic for seismic analysis and analysis and 50-year 50-year flood frequency flood frequency for for hydraulic hydraulic analysis • analysis • Carriageway Width = • Carriageway Width: 6.7 m • o 4.6 m (for 4.0 m roadway width) • o 5.6 m (for 5.0 m roadway width) 5. Local Road Safety Vehicular accidents have been the leading cause of injuries since 2003. Globally, road traffic accidents are estimated to be third leading cause of death by 2020. Road accidents have economic implication due to medical cost; resources and time lost; property damage; pain, grief and suffering; injuries; and fatalities. Road accidents in the Philippines have been estimated to have resulted in costs amounting to USD 1.9 billion. In general, safety measures for local roads should comply with standards and guidelines set by the DPWH through the following: a. Road Safety Design Manual b. Road Signs and Pavement Markings Manual; and c. Road Safety Audit Manual In the interests of uniformity, LGUs are encouraged to adopt the principles recommended in these road safety manuals. The principles contained in these manuals should also be used for road planning, design, road works project management and traffic management. As a general rule, local road surface treatment options should consider the following road safety principles: a. Choice of intersection type and layout. Design of road intersection and channelization types and layouts should consider the objective of reducing potential conflicts and severity of traffic accidents. As an example, this includes avoiding the use of ‘Y’

Local Road Management Manual 126 junctions; and ‘T’ junctions with triangular islands; b. Safety of the roadside. Local road design should define ‘clear zones’ for road side. Certified median and roadside barriers; and frangible poles for lights and signage should be used; c. Safety of unprotected road users. Local road design should consider the protection of pedestrians, bicycle users and other vulnerable road users; d. Traffic speed limits. Local roads passing through small communities should be designed for low traffic speed; and e. New road construction. Road safety measures should be incorporated in the construction of new local roads. As local roads are being rehabilitated, maintained or improved, road safety measures should be incorporated in the planning and design stage. Local roads that do not meet the abovementioned minimum design standards can proceed to rehabilitation or maintenance if road safety measures are incorporated during implementation. It is possible to continue rehabilitation for roads not meeting these minimum standards. However, there should be corresponding measures to mitigate or avoid such associated risks. Examples of safety mitigation measures for local roads not meeting the said minimum standards are shown in Table 4.8. Table 4.7 DPWH Design Standards for Tourism and Farm-to-Market Roads Constraints on Road Safety Mitigation Measures Conditions Pavement Edge Lines Narrow lane or shoulders Raised reflective markers Delineators

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 127 Roadside object markers Slope flattening Rounded ditches Steep side slopes, road- Obstacle removal side obstacles Breakaway safety hardware Guardrail or crash cushions Approach guardrail Pavement edge lines Warning signs and/or object markers Warning signs Limited sight distance at Obstacle removal hill crest Shoulder widening Driveway relocation Warning signs Shoulder widening Improved super elevation Sharp horizontal curve Slope flattening Pavement anti-skid treatment Obstacle removal Guardrail or crush cushions Upgrade intersection traffic control Locations with crash Warning signs history Street Lighting Pavement anti-skid treatment Speed controls Sight distance The LGUs and their local engineering offices may conduct a road safety audit (RSA) of local roads. RSA is defined as a process of examining, assessing and reporting on the traffic accident potential and safety performance of a future road project; a traffic management scheme; or an existing road. LGUs may refer to the Road Safety Audit Manual issued by DPWH or the Road Safety Audit Training Manual issued by the National Center for Transportation Studies of the University of the Philippines (UP-NCTS). LGUs can conduct an RSA at any of the six stages of a road project:

Local Road Management Manual 128 Stage 1: Feasibility or Conceptual Development Stage. An RSA at this stage can influence route layout or intersection treatment options. It assesses the relative safety performance of alternative schemes and reveals the safety needs of various road users. It may also influence changes in nearby road networks to accommodate changes in traffic; Stage 2: Preliminary Design Stage. At this stage, route and intersection design options have been determined. The RSA deals with issues such as intersection or interchange layouts and the chosen standards, and is carried out after the final alignment is chosen. A single audit of stages 1 and 2 is sometimes performed, depending on the complexity of the project and the need for land acquisition; Stage 3: Detailed Design Stage. The geometric design, traffic signage scheme, and plans for pavement marking, lighting, and landscaping are available at this stage. The RSA examines safety features such as sight distance, pedestrian safety, and vehicle conflict points in relation to the operation of the road; Stage 4: Construction Stage. During construction, the RSA team inspects all relevant conditions (e.g., day and night) on the site. This site inspection, on foot or by car or bicycle, is done to ensure that earlier audit concerns are being addressed during construction and to check for hazardous conditions that may not have been apparent during the design stages; Stage 5: Preopening (Roadwork Traffic Management Planning) Stage. RSAs on roadwork traffic management schemes expose road safety issues that may be created by a changing speed environment, confined space or alignment, roadside hazards, additional conflicts, and temporary signage arrangements during the construction of road works; and Stage 6: Operating Stage. RSAs on sections of the existing road network reveal road safety hazards before they lead to accidents. Even though some roads may have been audited when they were built, traffic patterns and the use of the road may have changed since then.

Chapter 4: Local Road Surface Treatment Options 129 6. Standard Technical Specifications for Local Road Projects Work items for local road projects such as road rehabilitation, maintenance, new construction, upgrading and improvement are recommended to follow the Standard Specifications for Public Works and Highways issued by DPWH (last updated in 2013). There are however special work items that are not identified in the said DPWH Standard Technical Specifications. As an example, standard surface course materials are not available locally. Importing such materials increases the cost of delivery and installation. For this case, local engineering offices may use available local materials provided that it complies with the technical specifications for similar items. For such instances, the local engineering offices should adopt DPWH Revised work items code issued last January 2017 for road projects; Local materials not passing similar technical specifications may mean that the LGU will have to allocate more maintenance works for the subject road where such local materials were used.

Local Road Management Manual 130 CHAPTER 5 LOCAL ROAD QUANTITY CALCULATION AND ESTIMATION

Chapter 5: Local Road Quantity Calculation and Cost Estimation 131 1. Quantity Calculation and Cost Estimation Process Quantity calculations or take off and cost estimates are the last steps of a fully-packaged road design report. This Chapter discusses suggested practices and methodologies in calculating the necessary quantities of the designed elements of a particular road section. These quantities are the basis of scope of work that will be contracted out to winning bidders. The costs of placing these quantities are estimated by the implementing agency to arrive at the total budget for the project, which is referred to as the Approved Budget for the Contract (ABC). Bidders will submit proposal to implement the road project based on the Quantity calculation with corresponding unit cost per unit of measure but not to exceed the ABC published by the implementing agency. The process of quantity calculations and cost estimates is shown in Figure 5.1. Once the road design has been completed, the road design elements are translated into drawings. The specifications for construction are followed for each of the road design elements. The cost of each quantities necessary for the work items are estimated in terms of material, equipment and workforce. The cost of putting in place the materials, use of equipment and deployment of the workforce are then computed to complete each work items. Figure 5.1 Quantity Calculation and Cost Estimation Process

Local Road Management Manual 132 2. Project Development Cost as Percentage of Programmed Cost Prior to determining the over-all construction cost, there are necessary costs for project development resulting to a fully packaged road project. These project development costs should not be excessive but rather commensurate to the total expected cost of the road project. If these project development activities will be outsourced to qualified experts, then the appropriate rules and regulations on the procurement of consulting services for government projects (such as local road projects) shall govern, the total amount of services shall not exceed the allowable percentage which was issued by NEDA in 1998. The percentage fee for outsourced project development activities shall consider the type, complexity, location, and magnitude of construction cost of the project and shall not exceed the following percentages of estimated construction cost: a. This method may be used to determine the compensation of Consultant for services where the principal responsibility is the detailed design or construction supervision of facilities to be constructed; b. “Construction Cost” is defined as the estimated total cost of constructing the facility to be covered by the proposed detailed design or construction supervision services, excluding the fees and other costs of such services, the cost of land and right-of- way, and legal and administrative expenses of the agency. The estimated construction cost must be approved by the Head of department/office/agency/corporation/local government unit. c. Over the years, engineering experience has established some appropriate correlations between engineering costs and construction costs for certain types of engineering design, where design procedures and materials of construction are more or less standardized. These correlations have resulted in various curves and schedules which have been widely used;

Chapter 5: Local Road Quantity Calculation and Cost Estimation 133 d. The validity of the percentage-of-construction method rests upon the assumption that detailed design and construction supervision costs vary in proportion to the cost of construction. When judiciously applied, and with due consideration of the ranges within which engineering scope may vary, this method is valuable as a tool for general comparison with Milestone payment for design services based on deliverables and a time-based fee for construction supervision. Its acceptance over many years also affords a valuable guide for judging the reasonableness of proposals for consulting services; e. These percentages include only those works normally undertaken in arriving at the expected outputs and do not include special studies or investigations. The outputs of which are ends by themselves; f. It is further emphasized that the above percentages are only ceilings and it does not necessarily mean that the said percentages shall always be adopted for each project. The actual percentage for a particular project will depend on the factors mentioned above, i.e., the type, complexity, location and magnitude of construction cost. As a general rule, projects within a higher range of construction cost will have lower percentages of fees than those projects within a lower range of construction cost. The above limits of percentages shall be reduced to the extent that some of the activities are undertaken by the government agency concerned; and g. The cost of consultancy as a percentage of construction cost method may be adopted only to derived the total programmed cost of the project. h. When the department/office/agency/corporation/local government unit concerned has the capability to make a relatively accurate estimate of the total construction cost. Details for remuneration and reimbursable cost for consultancy services can be derived by implementing agency based on the Procurement Manuals for Services prepared by GPPB.

Local Road Management Manual 134 3. Quantity Calculation The end objective of Quantity Calculation is to come up with the Bill of Quantities (BOQ), which is the official list of work items to be paid under the contract. This is the pay item for each scope of work upon which the contractor shall base its bid. Sample quantity calculation templates are shown in Annex 4A in this Manual. The following items are considered in the quantity calculation: a. Work Items. The scope of works for the road project will be identified and broken down into component work items. These work item shall conform with the DPWH Technical Specifications; b. Construction Method. The most applicable and cost-effective construction method will be determined and studied. Sequencing of activities per work item will be formulated resulting to the size and composition of work crews, the type and number of equipment, the construction materials requirements and the duration of each activity involved, and number of unworkable days due to weather condition will be determined; c. Production Rates. The production rates of labor and equipment for each item will be established taking into consideration the foreseen constraints, obstruction and other impediments encountered in project implementation; materials source should also be considered in the determination of equipment utilization/ output. d. Construction Schedule. A construction schedule for the project will be formulated considering the quantities, production progress rates, sequence and time frame of activities, to include unworkable days due to weather condition; and e. Field Operations. Based on the scheduled progress and production rates, a detailed analysis of the field operation for each work item will be made. There are three (3) schedules arising from the conduct of quantity calculation of the implementing agency. These quantity schedules are the following (see sample forms that are attached as an annex to this

Chapter 5: Local Road Quantity Calculation and Cost Estimation 135 chapter): a. Materials Schedule. This is the schedule of materials that are required for all work items in the contract. It contains the estimated distance and volume of quarry sites that shall be the sources of construction materials for the project. Information for preparing material estimates is taken from work element estimates, drawings, location and specifications. A material estimate is often referred to as a Bill of Materials or a Materials Takeoff; b. Equipment Schedule. This is the listing of the type of equipment, the time duration needed and the number of pieces required in a road project. Information from the work element estimates, drawings and specifications, and information gathered from site inspection provide the basis for preparing the equipment estimate. The production rates for each equipment are also estimated for a given volume and source of materials and complement of workforce; and c. Workforce Schedule. This is the deployment schedule of theworkforce needed to complete each work items. The listing may show in sufficient detail the various categories of labor or typical crew required to complete each work element. Workforce estimates are used in determining the number of persons and the required skills or expertise. This listing also includes the schedule of deployment for skilled and unskilled laborers, as well as project personnel such as the project engineers, project Lead person, materials engineer and other support staff. In general, the Bill of Quantities are grouped according to the following major divisions of pay items for a typical road project (use the corresponding pay item code from the DPWH Standard Specifications, where appropriate): a. Facility for the Engineer b. Other General Requirements c. Earthworks d. Subbase and Base Course e. Surface Course f. Drainage and Slope Protection Works g. Miscellaneous structure h. Mobilization and Demobilization

Local Road Management Manual 136 4. Cost Estimation Cost estimation is a two-step process where unit prices of the quantities are determined first in order to come up with the over-all project estimate. The main reference in the derivation of Approved Budget for the Contract (ABC) is the DPWH Department Order No. 197 Series of 2016 (or its latest amendment). Sample cost estimation templates are attached as Annex 4B in this Manual. 4.1 Road Works by Contract: 4.1.1 Direct Costs The first component of the total project cost is the Direct Costs. It is defined as all costs attributed directly to a particular function of work. These are costs which are identifiable from a particular accounting standpoint as having been incurred in the performance of a specific item of work. Direct cost elements of each pay item are composed of the following: a. Material Costs. Materials are classified into Commercial Materials and Processed Materials. Commercial Materials are sold by various hardware’s and suppliers and are available at a minute notice. Processed Materials are produced or processed by contractor at quarries and are delivered and stockpiled at plant or project site. Probable material sources are shown on the Materials Sources Map. Where applicable, royalty and haul road fees from source or quarry site were included in the computation of unit costs of processed materials. The current market price of construction materials is gathered/ collected and compared with prices obtained from other sources. Quotations from various suppliers are also taken particularly for major construction materials (e.g. cement, aggregates for cement and asphalt, Bituminous materials, reinforcing steel bars, etc.). Existing plants within the vicinity of the project site are also taken into consideration. The cost of materials normally includes the following:

Chapter 5: Local Road Quantity Calculation and Cost Estimation 137 i. Cost at source, including processing, crushing, stockpiling, loading, royalties, local taxes, permits, construction and/or maintenance of access roads, etc.; ii. Materials Testing iii. Expenses for hauling to project site; iv. Handling and freight expenses if project located in remote or Island place; v. Storage expenses; and vi. Allowance for waste and/or losses; not to exceed 5% of materials requirement. b. Labor Costs. The cost of labor consists of salaries and wages authorized by the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) through its National Wage and Productivity Commission; with reference to types of work, in this case “construction works” and the cost of fringe benefits. The road construction labor force may include the following:, construction foremen, operators, drivers, masons, carpenters, field technicians, manual labor, and all other trades that work directly in construction. It is likely that the majority of the workforce of a contractor shall be sourced from the locality. In summary, the sub-components of labor costs are as follows: i. Salaries and wages, as authorized by the DOLE, for which the minimum daily wage is set by the Regional Wage and Productivity Boards; and ii. Fringe benefits, such as vacation and sick leaves, benefits under the Workmen’s Compensation Act, GSIS and/or SSS contributions, allowances, 13th month pay, bonuses and other wage increases as determined by the Minimum Wage Law. c. Equipment Costs and Minor tools. The rental rates provided in the equipment cost estimates are the unit cost of every type of the required construction equipment used or the equipment rental rates, computed on the basis of an eight- hour per day and equipment capability. The rental rate per day includes fuel, lubricants, lube and a percentage of and

Local Road Management Manual 138 spare parts. The current rental rate per day in the locality should be obtained. Rental rates may differ between sites. The following considerations are taken into account for equipment costs: i. Rental of equipment shall be based on the prevailing “Association of Carrier Equipment Lessors, Inc.” (2014 ACEL rate) rental rates approved for use by the DPWH; ii. Rental rates of equipment not indicated in the ACEL booklet may be taken from the rental rates prepared by the Bureau of Equipment of DPWH; iii. For simplicity, the operated rental rates are preferred over the bare rental rates as the former includes operator’s wages, fringe benefits, fuel, oil, lubricants and equipment maintenance. The make, model and capacity of the equipment should be indicated in the detailed unit cost analysis; and iv. Mobilization and demobilization, shall be treated as a separate pay item. It shall be computed based on the equipment requirements of the project stipulated in the proposal and contract booklet. In no case shall mobilization and demobilization exceed 1% of the Estimated Direct Cost (EDC) of the civil works items. v. For minor tools, the cost should be 10% of the labor cost per item of works. 4.1.2 Indirect Costs The second component of the project cost is the Indirect Costs. It is defined as all attendant costs arising indirectly from completing work items. It cannot be computed directly as a function of the volume or amount of the work item. Rather, indirect costs are taken as a percentage of the estimated direct costs (EDC) to cover incurred expenses in the completion of the work items. Indirect costs are applied for the following items: a. Overhead Expenses. These are operating expenses of the contract, which ranges from 5% to 8% of the EDC.

Chapter 5: Local Road Quantity Calculation and Cost Estimation 139 These includes the following: i. Engineering and Administrative Supervision; ii. Transportation Allowances; iii. Office Expenses (e.g. office equipment and supplies, power and water consumption, communication and maintenance) iv. Premium on Contractor’s All Risk Insurance (CARl); v. Financing Cost, namely: vi. Premium on Bid Security; vii. Premium on Performance Security; viii. Premium on Surety for Advance Payment; and ix. Premium on Warranty Security (one year) b. Contingencies. This are cost allowances for contingencies and emergencies, which ranges from 0.5% to 3% of the EDC. These include expenses for meetings; coordination with other stakeholders; billboards, stages during ground breaking & inauguration ceremonies; and other unforeseen events; c. Miscellaneous Expenses. These are ancillary expenses for the contract, which ranges from 0.5% to 1% of the EDC. These include laboratory tests for quality control and plan preparation; as stake plan, ancillary plan if required d. Contractor’s Profit Margin. These are the range of allowable profit margin of the contractor, which shall be 8% and 12% of the EDC for projects above Php 5.0 Million and up to Php 50.0 Million, respectively. In general, there should be higher allowance for profit margin for lower contract values; and e. Value Added Tax (VAT) Component. This is the VAT to be paid by the contractor for its services under its contract. This shall be 5% of the sum of the EDC; Overhead, Contingencies and Miscellaneous (OCM) Costs; and Profit Margin. A tabulation of the indirect costs and applicable percentages from the EDC are shown in Table 5.1, issued by the DPWH through Department Order No. 197 Series of 2016 (or its latest amendments).

Local Road Management Manual 140 4.1.3 Unit Price Analysis Unit Price Analysis (UPA) deals with the derivation of cost elements for the various construction unit costs or “pay items” as reflected in the Bill of Quantities. An investigation and analysis of equipment, material and labor costs is needed for estimating the unit costs of various pay items. This is sometimes referred to as Unit Cost Analysis (UCA). The unit price (or unit cost) for each pay item is computed by adding the Estimated Direct Cost (EDC) to the Indirect Cost and dividing the sum (Total Cost) by the total item quantity. Direct Unit Costs and Value Added Tax (VAT) are computed for easy input and calculation of the Engineer estimate to come up with the total project cost. The unit prices are used when the implementing agency wants to double check the reasonableness of the unit prices offered by bidders. The unit prices will also serve as the basis for future cost estimates of similar road projects. The assumptions used for the various cost data are indicated under each cost for materials, labor or equipment. There are cost assumptions that are basic and common to these items. These factors which, more or less, are common denominator to all are as follows: a. Work Hours. Computed labor hours refer to crew hours required to produce the quantity of work at the specified quantity. Where 100% production rates are used as a base, a normal working hour will be considered as 50 minutes (85%), except for such works which require continuous operations; b. Work Schedule. The work schedule is based on a number of assumptions, namely: i. The overall working hours per day is 8 hours per day (including the delivery of labor and other time losses); ii. The net working hours is 7.50 hours per day; iii. The estimated net working days for each month should be tabulated by deducting the total calendar year for the following days: • Sundays;

Chapter 5: Local Road Quantity Calculation and Cost Estimation 141 • National Holidays; and • Non-Working days due to unfavorable weather condition including allowance for the drying period of the soil. c. Field Efficiency. Where 100% production rates are used as a base, the normal field efficiency will be considered between 100% and 70% due to obstructions, regular machine maintenance, suitability of machine to type of work and various types of delays caused by vehicular traffic. Further adjustments will be made as may be deemed necessary; the usual efficiency rating used is 80% d. Taxes and Duties. All taxes and duties will be applicable and chargeable to the Contractor. e. Right-of-Way. The Acquisition of right-of-way be fully completed and staked prior to the commencement of the contract. Any obstruction within the right-of-way at the start of the contract will be removed by the Contractor as specified in the contract; f. Work Areas. The Contractor at his expense will be responsible in providing all accommodations and areas to be used as temporary work sites, camps, shops, stockpile areas, etc. The sites will be cleaned and restored to the extent possible to its original condition after the completion of the project; g. Hauling Distance. The average hauling distances of various construction materials especially aggregates utilizing land or water transportation, are calculated based on the illustration of material sources with data obtained from the nearest engineering district office where the proposed road project is located and actually verified at quarry sites. The determination of the unit prices of materials to be used in the different structures is dependent on the foregoing assumptions;

Local Road Management Manual 142 h. Wastage Factor. Material waste in processing or integration into an item is a necessary cost of the unit price. Wastages expressed in percentage of the quantity per unit used for the project are tabulated in Table 5.2. Figure 5.2 Recommended Wastage Factor Materials Occurence % Factor Asphalt / Hauling/Stocking 5% Cement Fine -do- (single handling) 5% Aggregates -do- (double handling) 10% Coarse -do- (single handling) 5% Aggregates -do- (double handling) 10% Reinforcing Cutting 3-5% Bars Lumber Cutting 3-5% RC Pipe Breakage in Handling 3-5% Culvert Asphalt Cement for Handling/Application 3-5% Sealing Others 5-10% Others i. Minor Tools. Minor equipment and tools which are not reflected in the ACEL Equipment Guidebook may be taken from the latest rental rate schedule of the DPWH Bureau of Equipment. Hand tools (minor tools) such as wheelbarrows, pails, shovels, picks, scaffolds, poles, board, etc. and other small tools of non-mechanized in nature which are necessary in the execution of works are expressed as a percentage of labor cost and usually ranges from 5% to 10%. 4.1.4 Total Project Estimate The Construction cost for the package is estimated by using

Chapter 5: Local Road Quantity Calculation and Cost Estimation 143 the unit prices computed and the quantities calculated in the same prescribed format for the Calculation of Approved Budget for the Contract (see Table 5.3 with the corresponding computations for each column). The total for each Bid Part or Bill Item of this cost estimate is carried to the Summary of Costs and the total project cost is compiled in the Total Project Estimate, which is the Approved Budget for the Contract (ABC) issued in the advertisements. A Program of Works should be prepared based on the ABC, the standard form of POW shall conform to DPWH DO #163 – Series of 2015. Provision for Dayworks and Contigencies amounting to 10% of project maybe added to project cost if necessary. Sample quantity calculation templates are attached as Annex 4A, while sample cost estimation templates are shown in Annex 4B 4.2 Road Works by Administration There are instances where local engineering offices will undertake local road works By Administration or Force account; By Administration process can be done only if there is a failure of bidding due to reasons beyond IA control, emergency situation, peace and order in the project site, provided that the concern LGU is financially and technically capable to implement the project. Provided further that the said LGU has implemented a similar project with a cost equivalent to 50% of the proposed projects. Assessment of such shall be conducted by DPWH. whether these are new road construction, rehabilitation, maintenance, improvement or upgrading. However, it is understood that accounting for such projects shall be within the government usual accounting and auditing process. Labor costs shall fall under Government salary/ wages standards. The threshold amount for labor will depend on LGU category or Classification. (please refer to Annex 1 of RA 9184 and its IRR – Guidelines in the Implementation of Projects by Administration 4.2.1 Direct Costs The Direct Costs for By-Administration Road Works shall follow the DPWH DO # 197- Series 2016. These direct costs should similarly include: a. Material Costs. If the material source (quarry source) is owned by the LGU, materials cost should be accounted or

Local Road Management Manual 144 Unit Cost(13) = (12) / (3)1) otal Cost T (12) = (5) + (1 otalCost TIndirect 1) = (1 (9) + (10) VAT(10) =12% x [(5) + (9)] alue(9) =(5) x (8) V otal Mark-Up T % (8) =(6) + (7) PercentProfit-7 Mark-Up in OCM-6 Estimated Direct Cost-5 Approved Budget for Contract (ABC) Unit-4 abulation of Quantity -3 orkItem(PayItem)orkItem(PayItem) W W -2 able 5.3 Sample TItem No.-1 T

Chapter 5: Local Road Quantity Calculation and Cost Estimation 145 priced for auditing purposes, although the costs are zero if project is implemented. However, if the quarry source is privately-owned, the material costs should follow prevailing market rates; b. Material Costs. If the material source (quarry source) is owned by the LGU, materials cost should be accounted or priced for auditing purposes, although the costs are zero if project is implemented. However, if the quarry source is privately-owned, the material costs should follow prevailing market rates; c. Equipment Costs. LGUs should have a pool of heavy equipment, which would mean savings from the rental of such equipment from the private sector. Occasionally, these LGUs will lease out its heavy equipment to the private sector or to other government offices as a means of additional local revenue source. The lease rates of LGU-owned heavy equipment are normally prescribed through its Local Revenue Ordinance (or Local Revenue Code, as the case maybe). In this context, the local engineering office may adopt the lease rates of its heavy equipment as mandated by its Local Revenue Ordinance. If the equipment will be leased from the private sector, then the market rates should be adopted, inclusive of fuel, oil, lubricants and operator. This will allow the local engineering office to ascertain the true cost of delivering local road works. 4.2.2 Indirect Costs The second component of the total project cost is the Indirect Costs, and these are also applicable to the estimation of project costs if implemented By-Administration. The local engineering office can compute for applicable indirect costs, for which the actual amount should be based on previous actual expenditures or previous approved budget for similar items. As with comparable contracted works, the applicable indirect costs that the local engineering office should consider are: a. Overhead Expenses. The local engineering office should take into account the cost for engineering and administrative supervision, transport allowance, and office expenses. This is especially true if the indirect costs of By-Administration

Local Road Management Manual 146 Works are not part of the regular operating budget of the local engineering office. The personnel of local engineering offices are not expected to shoulder these out-of-pocket expenses; b. Contingencies. The local engineering office should allot budget for ancillary, special or unforeseen events such as stakeholder meetings, project ceremonies and emergency situations; c. Miscellaneous Expenses. The local engineering office should allocate budget for the laboratory testing of materials and work items installed by its personnel as part of By-Administration Works. Even DPWH laboratory testing centers charge government agencies and LGUs if they obtain such testing services from DPWH; and d. VAT Component. If the local engineering offices will obtain VAT-able services and goods, then it goes without saying that budget for these items will include VAT as part of the official receipt of the supplier or provider. 4.2.3 Unit Price Analysis and Program of Works The local engineering offices or the LGU should include unit price analysis (UPA) as part of its Program of Works for By-Administration as discussed in Section 4.1.3. This will allow the LGU to compute the true cost of projects if implemented By-Administration or force account. For planning purposes, the LGU will now have an idea of the cost of work items on a per-kilometer basis (for road projects), per-volume basis (for excavation, cut or fill activities for local roads) or per-area basis (clearing activities for local roads), or cost per unit of measure, as the case maybe. Provisions for Dayworks and contingencies can also be included in POW which is equivalent to 10% of the estimated project cost.

CHAPTER 6 LOCAL ROAD CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

Local Road Management Manual 148 1. Project Cycle for Local Road Construction Local road construction has a typical project cycle, which starts from planning to design, to actual construction and maintenance. The general project cycle for a road construction project and related works is shown Figure 6.1, for which the steps are the following: a. Road Planning. Roads are planned in support of the envisioned spatial framework or land use of the locality. The road for the subject site may be configured in terms of route (or alignment), pavement type and vehicle capacity. This chapter focuses on typical practices for road planning and programming; b. Road Feasibility. Once a planned configuration of the road is set, the road project may be assessed in terms of its over- all feasibility or viability. In general, the subject road and its planned configuration should provide more economic and financial benefits over costs for the community that is within the influence area of the road. Determining feasibility for the road project includes technical, economic, environmental and social viabilities; c. Road Funding. Once the road project is determined to be technically feasible and economically viable, funding is obtained not only for construction, but as well as road design and maintenance. Fund sources for the road project may be sourced from internal local government funds or external sources such as financing or grants. In principle, a local road project should only commence if there is budget appropriated for it and the actual funds are available from the LGU. d. Road Design. The road is designed to suit the conditions of the site, including the capacity to carry current and projected traffic volume. The road design also takes into consideration the funding limitations, where an optimum design is developed at the least cost but maximum utility as much as practicable. The road design is then validated on site through surveys, where further corrections may be made on the final design prior to actual construction. The final step in road design is packaging the project with quantity calculations and cost estimates;

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 149 e. Road Procurement. If the road construction is to be contracted out, the road project is packaged for tendering or bidding. These are the bases of a competitive procurement process, which shall be undertaken by the LGU as the procuring entity. The procurement process for local road projects shall be in accordance with the provisions of Republic Act No. 9184 (The Government Procurement Reform Act). Construction firms are expected to submit bids for the local road project on the bases of the bid documents, which include the road design and final approved budget for the contract (ABC). If the road construction will be undertaken by the local engineering office, the road project proceeds directly for implementation; f. Road Construction. Once awarded, the contractor proceeds with construction works after verifying and agreeing to the as stake plan prepared by the contractor in reference to design plans of the procuring entity. During the construction period, the procuring entity oversees and manages the performance of the contractor using Local Technical staff or through consulting firm, ensuring that contract provisions or the General Condition of Contract are followed strictly. Once the road project attains 100% completion, the road is turned over to the procuring entity after a standard one-year defects liability period followed by another one (1) year warranty period. This is the same process for road rehabilitation, improvement or upgrading; g. Road Maintenance. After construction and once opened to normal traffic, the road undergoes normal wear and tear. To ensure that the completed road remains in maintainable condition (in good or fair condition), there should be regular maintenance works over the road section. The maintenance works will prevent rapid and unexpected deterioration, thereby ensuring that the road performs within its planning and design parameters; h. Monitoring and Evaluation. These are the feedback mechanism that informs the new round of road planning and subsequent design. This will determine whether the objectives and targets of the road project have been achieved within the desired period.

Local Road Management Manual 150 Lessons learned and best practices arising from the previous implementation should be adopted for the next round of road construction project. If there are changes within the planning parameters, the road may be redesigned to satisfy the changes due to traffic, environment, site, land use or social conditions; and i. Community Consultation. For the welfare of the project beneficiaries, there should be community consultations for road construction projects. These should be conducted during project planning or identification, project feasibility, road design, road construction, and monitoring and evaluation. Figure 6.1 Project Cycle for Road Construction The focus of the chapter, however, is the management of the road construction. The typical activities of road construction are broadly

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 151 undertaken in three stages, which are discussed in the succeeding sections in detail. These stages are detailed in Figure 6.2. Pre- construction activities are conducted prior to the construction formalizing the project implementation and management arrangements and validating the design of the road project. The construction stage is where the actual work activities are undertaken by the contractor to complete the subject road. During the post-construction stage, the local engineering office being the client ensures that all the work items are accomplished according to the provisions of the contract. 2. Construction Supervision 2.1 Construction Supervision Team The Local Engineering Offices or the Office of the Local Chief Executive should designate a Construction Supervision (CS) Team or the LGU can hire a Supervision Consultant for major local road projects to ensure that the desired specifications and quality are delivered within the contract period. At the minimum, the CS Team should have the following members: a. Resident Engineer (RE). The Resident Engineer’s responsibility is to supervise the contractor’s daily activity ypical Road Construction Process in accordance with the Contract Terms and condition and within the Figure 6.2 T standard Specifications.

Local Road Management Manual 152 The Resident Engineer’s general responsibilities are: i. Organize a team compose of Material Engineer, Site Inspector and Administrative Staff to closely supervise the contractor’s activities and its performance to complete the project on time; ii. Control the day to day supervision of the works and, other than exceptional circumstances, all formal communications should be routed through him; iii. Interact with the Contractor’s Project Engineer; all communications with the Contractor must be coursed to the Resident Engineer; iv. Ensure harmonious working relationship with the contractor’s staff on a common goal to finish the works on time; v. Require the Contractor to submit its organizational chart including duties and designation of staff. This will avoid confusion on site; vi. Arrange meetings with the proper parties involved concerning traffic and service diversions, temporary road signage, if needed; vii. Advise on-site staff about the issuance of site instructions to the Contractor’s, make clear who is authorized to sign and confirm verbal instructions to the Contractor; viii. Should ensure that a set of contract drawings is maintained at site; ix. Ensure to maintain registry of contract drawings issued including revised drawings; and x. Ensure that safety procedures are employed at site during construction. The RE should call the contractor’s attention whenever he/she noticed any violations to safety procedures have been committed. (i.e. wearing PPE’s, displaying warning boards, project billboards, etc). b. Materials Engineer (ME). The Materials Engineer (ME) is assigned to supervise the quality of materials used in the Works. The ME will take directions from the Resident Engineer (RE). The Materials Engineer’s main duties are: i. Maintaining liaison with the Contractor’s Representatives as to the Quality Control program and the approved method of materials distribution, protection and general compliance with the tests described in the Specifications and with the

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 153 quality control program. ii. Check inventory of the site laboratory against the equipment required by the Contractor in order to carry out all the tests required to meet Specification compliance, and also its calibration; iii. Instruct and supervise the Contractor’s materials engineer and laboratory staff.; iv. Visit the sources of materials supply and manufacturing plants proposed by the contractor to check if they can provide materials of the required quality, quantity and rates of delivery throughout the estimated period of construction; v. Oversee initial and subsequent periodic tests on all construction materials; i.e., aggregates, cement, reinforced steel, bitumen, base materials etc. to confirm that they comply with the Specifications; vi. Immediately notify the Contractor, the Resident Engineer and the Engineer’s Representative of any materials, which have failed or are considered likely to fail to comply with the Specifications. A decision will then be made by the Engineer as to whether the suspect material is to be replaced; vii. Select and oversee test on concrete mixes, which the Contractor proposes to use including Job Mix Formulae. Subject to these being satisfactory, submit details to the Engineer’s Representative with recommendations for approval; viii. Carry out initials and periodic checks of all concrete batching, mixing and transporting equipment including calibration; ix. Select and mark, in accordance with the Specification, concrete test specimens and subsequently witness all site tests carried out on them; x. Compile and maintain comprehensive records of all concrete placed; xi. Advice the Engineer’s Representative on approval of admixtures, curing agents etc; xii. In conjunction with the Contractor and Project Inspector, establish, where required by the Specifications, the in-situ properties of ground beneath existing pavement layers; xiii. In conjunction with the Contractor and the Engineer’s Representative and site supervision staff, i.e. labor foreman/ inspectors, establish in laboratory trials the properties of soil being used in road base construction, backfilling, etc;

Local Road Management Manual 154 xiv. Ensure the proper execution by Contractor’s technicians of in-situ density testing of soils and pavement materials; xv. Supervise whatever other in-situ testing of soils is required by the specifications; xvi. Supervise the Contractor’s testing trials to establish the design of asphalt and concrete mixes and submit recommendations to the Engineer; and xvii. Attend to the initial and subsequent periodic checks of all mixing and transporting equipment for asphalt materials. c. Site Engineer. The Site Engineer is also known as the site inspector, civil works inspector or project inspector. The Site Engineer shall supervise the daily work activities at the project site. The Site Engineer is directly under the command of the Resident Engineer and shall have the following main duties: i. The Inspector should understand the Contract Drawings and Specifications; ii. Ensure that the Contractor’s work is properly supervised at all times and that it is carried out in accordance with the Construction Plan and technical Specification; iii. Maintain records of construction activity; iv. Maintain approved shop drawings and records of the Works; v. Assist in the measurement of the Works and keep all necessary records; vi. Inform the Resident Engineer when faulty work occurs or where a variation is required. The Inspector is not authorized to issue instruction, which constitutes a variation of the contract; vii. Ensure that the records for plant and labor are kept accurately and that any removal of plant from the site by the Contractor is reported immediately to the Resident Engineer; viii. Inspect and approve prepared road formations and subsequent pavement construction; ix. For Compensation Events, agree with the Contractor records of plant, labor and materials involved. These should be signed and endorsed “for record purpose only.” Keep daily sites diaries and complete daily reports; x. Ensure the inspections requested by the Contractor are carried out promptly and that the prescribed forms are

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 155 used. It should be noted that the Contractor is required under the contract to give specific prior notice of inspections; xi. When working outside normal office hours, ensure communication with the Resident Engineer to report any exceptional events such as a bad accident or construction breakdown; xii. Liaise with the Resident Engineer when checking work; xiii. Liaise with the Materials Engineer and the laboratory technicians on the results of materials testing; xiv. Give special attention to matters concerning public safety, for example mud on roads, road signs and lighting of works; and xv. Give special attention to matters concerning the protection of the environment and adjacent land and property. d. Office Support Staff. These are the administrative support staff for the road projects. With the direction from the Project Engineer: i. Prepare necessary documentation/report pertinent to the project; ii. Do revisions on the plan if there are any revisions; and iii. Keep all pertinent records/reports on the project 2.2 Project Coordination Meetings The CS Team shall endeavor to have regular coordination meetings as much as practicable with the contractor and other stakeholders. The following are the recommended project coordination meetings: a. Pre-Construction Conference. Before the start of the contract work, the CS team and other designated officials of the local engineering offices should have a Pre-Construction Conference with the contractor. The agenda of this meeting are recommended to be the following: i. Project Matters • General Contract Data: ▫ Name and No. of Contract; ▫ Name of Contractor; ▫ Contract Price; ▫ Award Date; and

Local Road Management Manual 156 ▫ Contract Duration ▫ Scope of Works; ▫ Delegation of duties and Responsibilities and Command Structure; ▫ Documents required from Contractor: ▫ ▫ Performance security; ▫ all risk Insurance; ▫ Construction Program; ▫ Network schedule (PERT/CPM); ▫ Occupational safety and health program. ▫ Quality control program and revised program of work • Possession of Site; • Measurement and Payment: ▫ Contract is a unit price contract; ▫ Measurement Method; ▫ Frequency of Payment Certificates; and ▫ Contingencies and day works as Provisional items. • Verification of Right of Way (ROW) acquisition/LARP has been completed and that the Contractor has permission to move into the site; • Review and agree the activities, flow- charts, forms and schedules for Project’s monitoring and reporting; Arrange and agree with Contractor a program of work; • Obtain from Contractor the list of sub-contractors for approval by the Project Engineer; • Request Contractor’s organizational chart and CVs of personnel for comparison with those included in the bid; • Request Contractor’s equipment and manpower utilization schedule for approval by the local engineering office; • Possible meetings with public utility authorities to coordinate and resolve possible work conflicts; and • Any other business: ▫ Traffic Control; ▫ Safety; ▫ Resources Proposed; ▫ Environmental Control Project Vehicle and Field

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 157 Office; and ▫ Construction Camp Location b. Regular Meeting with the Contractor. Regular weekly meeting shall be arranged with the contractor or its representative to discuss the daily work activities, accomplishment and any issues arising in the field. c. Monthly Coordination Meeting with Stakeholders. As much as possible, there should be monthly meetings with the stakeholders affected by the road project such as the community representatives and barangay officials. d. Meeting with Local Authorities. There should be coordination meeting with the local authorities/officials prior to project implementation including but not limited to municipal and barangay officials. i. Site Matters • Check Contractor’s shop drawing for signboard to ensure conformity with the Technical Specifications, Contract Drawings, or as directed by the Project Engineer; • Check Contractor’s mobilization of equipment and personnel is in accordance with those details included Bidding Documents, and all equipment is in good working order and calibrated as necessary; • Arrange with Contractor the operations for verification of quantities; • Arrange with Contractor the procedures for measurement and • valuation including printing any necessary forms; • Check the contractor’s identification and quality of material sources; • Identify with Contractor possible areas for disposal of excavated unsuitable material; • Check Contractor’s proposals for site safety; • Check Contractor’s proposal to ensure protection of the environment; • Verify with Contractor the provision and calibration of laboratory equipment and that the said equipment

Local Road Management Manual 158 is sufficient to meet the Minimum Test Requirements of DPWH Standard Specifications and Schedule of Minimum Test Requirements (BRS); • Request Contractor to submit Job Mix Formula proposals for Concrete Works; and • Organize with the Contractor the work-request system plus monitoring, testing and reporting procedures. i. Site Records • Supervision Reporting and Documentation: ▫ Correspondence to the Resident Engineer; ▫ Correspondence from the Resident Engineer; ▫ Correspondence with Regional and District Offices, etc.; ▫ Correspondence to the Contractor; ▫ Correspondence from the Contractor; ▫ Site Instruction to the contractor; ▫ Program of works; ▫ Work Request form; ▫ S-Curve reflecting the target and actual accomplishment; ▫ Daily Accomplishment Report; ▫ Monthly Progress Reports; ▫ Minutes of Meetings; ▫ Site Supervision Staff Attendance Record; ▫ Memorandum and Department Orders; ▫ Daily Weather Records or weather chart; ▫ Progress Photographs; ▫ Labor Issues; ▫ Vehicles and Equipment; and ▫ Expenses • Quality Control Testing: ▫ Quality Control Program; ▫ Concrete Design Mix-Trial Mix and Test Results; ▫ Materials Report in support of Contractor’s claim; ▫ Weekly Quality Control Assurance; ▫ Status of Tests; ▫ Summary of Labor Tests;

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 159 ▫ Schedule of Tests; and ▫ Routine Testing (Quality tests of aggregates and other materials. • Quantity Measurements: ▫ Approved As-staked Plan; ▫ As-staked quantity computations; ▫ Variation Orders; ▫ Measurement and Quantities-Daily/Weekly Records- signed by Resident Engineer and Contractor; ▫ Approved As-Built Plan; and ▫ As-Built Quantity Computations. 2.3 Project Records To avoid differences in the standard, quality and format, the Resident Engineer should issue a suggested list of files specifically intended to standardized project records. This is to establish quality assurance system that will ensure a correct and accurate documentation of the project records. The project record system shall be as follows: a. File Naming System i. Supervision Reporting and Documentation: • Correspondences (Incoming and Outgoing); • Site instructions to the Contractor; • Work Requests from the Contractor; • Monthly Progress Reports; • Minutes of Meetings; • Site Supervision Staff Attendance Record; • Daily Activity Report; • Progress Photographs; and • Vehicles and Equipment ii. Quality Control Testing: • Quality Control Program; • Concrete Design Mix – Trial Mix and Test Results; • Materials Report in support of contractor’s claim; • Weekly Quality Control Assurance;

Local Road Management Manual 160 • Status of Tests; • Summary of Field Tests; • Summary of Laboratory Tests; • Schedule of Tests; and • Routine Testing (Quality Tests) of aggregates and other materials iii. Quantity Measurements: • Approved As-staked Plan • As-staked quantity computations • Variation Orders • Measurement and Quantities – Daily / Weekly Records – signed by Resident Engineer & contractor b. Resident Engineer and Staff Personal Diaries. These documents are to be completed daily by all staff to record events pertaining to the progress of the work and, in particular, with regard to their own involvement in these events, whether by observation or direct action. Items to be recorded include: i. Work carried out by the diarist, i.e. site supervision, checking levels, measurement, materials testing etc.; ii. Work carried out by the Contractor under any of the work items, e.g. commencement of paving works, shoulders etc.; iii. Instructions to the Contractor and any other conversations with the Contractor’s Representatives; iv. Inspections made, and any decisions/approvals given and to whom; v. Conversations and agreements reached with other parties e.g. landowners, Local Authorities and Public Utility representatives; vi. Contractors plant on site, type and location, and whether working, idle or broken down; vii. Operations being carried out with respect to plant and labor, and any general comment on the suitability of these to the task in hand. It should be noted that for certain operations there is a specific work progress record to be attached to the daily reports e.g. Diagrams of daily production and placement of bituminous material

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 161 including test sample locations etc; and viii. The engineer should enter the major content from the individual site diaries into the official Daily Site Logbook at the end of each working day. 2.4 The Daily Accomplishment Report This report requires to be completed daily. The report should highlight the events pertaining to the progress of the work, the involvement of the supervision team in the said event, whether it an observation only or a direct action. The Report is a legal document and requires to be bounded as a logbook type (note: loose page system maybe allowed for filing individual daily records, but a bound book should be kept with each day’s record). One logbook shall be used for each Sub-project and each day should start on a new page. All pages should be sequentially numbered and the Resident Engineer must sign each page. Observations during the day should be separately noted in the Personal Diary and kept by each individual (Resident Engineer, Inspector, Materials Engineer) then entered in the logbook each evening. Items to be recorded include: a. Date (day, month, year) e.g. 24 October 2010 (note: write the name of the month); b. Weather conditions at various times during the day including changes (if any) giving time of change (“Fine all day,” ii. “Heavy rain 11:00 am – 1:30pm”); c. Work carried out by the supervision team, i.e. site supervision, checking levels, laboratory testing, etc.; d. Work carried out by the Contractor under of the main work items (E.g. commencement of Shoulder Reinstatement, Item 105, Km 124+285 – 124+297 Right lane; e. Instructions to the Contractor and any other conversations with the Contractor’s Representatives; f. Inspections made, and any instructions given, to whom, and at what time; g. Conversations and agreements reached with other parties, e.g. land owners, Local Authorities and Public Utility representatives; h. Contractor’s plant on site, type and location, and whether

Local Road Management Manual 162 working, idle or broken down; i. The names of all visitors and the purpose of their visit to the site; j. Any accidents, however slight whether or not Contractor’s or any other site staff is involved, with witness, extent of damage/injury; and k. Peace and Order problems. The CS team members should be reminded that under no circumstances should they admit liability or express an opinion of the cause of any accident until approved by the Resident Engineer. In case of complicated matters where separate investigation reports, memoranda or instructions are issued, a note stating the date, the reason and to whom it was issued, should be entered in the log book. Examples of such events are given hereunder: a. Removal and replacement of sub-base material; b. Subgrade spots— location, dimension, material above and below suspected causes; c. Drainage—operation, location, equipment, and manpower being used; d. Pavement Construction—location, weather, materials being laid, layer depths and extra depths, air and material temperatures; and e. Concrete pour—weather conditions, batching performance, quantity and rate, curing, etc. 2.5 Claims for Extensions of Time and Variation Orders Certain criteria have to be established if a claim for extension of time can be considered justifiable. a. Variation Orders may be issued by the Procuring Entity to cover any increase/decrease in quantities, including the introduction of new work items that are not included in the original contract or reclassification of work items that are either due to change of plans, design or alignment to suit actual field conditions resulting in disparity between the preconstruction plans used for purposes of bidding and the “as staked plans” or construction drawings prepared after a

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 163 joint survey by the Contractor and the Procuring Entity after award of the contract, provided that the cumulative amount of the Variation Order does not exceed ten percent (10%) of the original project cost. The addition/deletion of Works should be within the general scope of the project as bid and awarded. The scope of works shall not be reduced so as to accommodate a positive Variation Order. A Variation Order may either be in the form of a Change Order or Extra Work Order. b. A Change Order may be issued by the Procuring Entity to cover any increase/decrease in quantities of original Work items in the contract. c. An Extra Work Order may be issued by the Procuring Entity to cover the introduction of new work necessary for the completion, improvement or protection of the project which were not included as items of Work in the original contract, such as, where there are subsurface or latent physical conditions at the site differing materially from those indicated in the contract, or where there are duly unknown physical conditions at the site of an unusual nature differing materially from those ordinarily encountered and generally recognized as inherent in the Work or character provided for in the contract. Any cumulative Variation Order beyond ten percent (10%) shall be subject of another contract to be bid out if the works are separable from the original contract. In exceptional cases where it is urgently necessary to complete the original scope of work, the HoPE may authorize a positive Variation Order go beyond ten percent (10%) but not more than twenty percent (20%) of the original contract price, subject to the guidelines to be determined by the GPPB: Provided, however, That appropriate sanctions shall be imposed on the designer, consultant or official responsible for the original detailed engineering design which failed to consider the Variation Order beyond ten percent (10%). In claiming for any Variation Order, the Contractor shall, within seven (7) calendar days after such work has been commenced or after the circumstances leading to such condition(s) leading to the extra cost, and within twenty-eight (28) calendar days deliver a written

Local Road Management Manual 164 communication giving full and detailed particulars of any extra cost in order that it may be investigated at that time. Failure to provide either of such notices in the time stipulated shall constitute a waiver by the contractor for any claim. The preparation and submission of Variation Orders are as follows: a. If the Procuring Entity’s representative/Project Engineer believes that a Change Order or Extra Work Order should be issued, he shall prepare the proposed Order accompanied with the notices submitted by the Contractor, the plans therefore, his computations as to the quantities of the additional works involved per item indicating the specific stations where such works are needed, the date of his inspections and investigations thereon, and the log book thereof, and a detailed estimate of the unit cost of such items of work, together with his justifications for the need of such Change Order or Extra Work Order, and shall submit the same to the HoPE for approval. b. The HoPE or his duly authorized representative, upon receipt of the proposed Change Order or Extra Work Order shall immediately instruct the appropriate technical staff or office of the Procuring Entity to conduct an on-the-spot investigation to verify the need for the Work to be prosecuted and to review the proposed plan, and prices of the work involved. c. The technical staff or appropriate office of the Procuring Entity shall submit a report of their findings and recommendations, together with the supporting documents, to the Head of Procuring Entity or his duly authorized representative for consideration. d. The HoPE or his duly authorized representative, acting upon the recommendation of the technical staff or appropriate office, shall approve the Change Order or Extra Work Order after being satisfied that the same is justified, necessary, and in order. e. The timeframe for the processing of Variation Orders from the preparation up to the approval by the Procuring Entity concerned shall not exceed thirty (30) calendar days.

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 165 2.6 General Guidance and Practices The following are the other general guidance and practices for the supervision of road works by the CS Team: a. Setting Out or staking – Verification of Quantities i. One of the first activities is verifying the quantities of the Works with the Contractor, which will require the Contractor to complete a pre-construction or stake out survey, establish reference station in coordination with the site engineer and set out the centerline in order to establish accurate change/station points. The Site Engineer (or Inspector) will check that the Contractor’s setting out is correct in reference to construction plan; ii. On completion of the setting or as stake survey, the Site Engineer (or Inspector) together with the Contractor should verify the quantities to complete the Works and compare with the original quantities included in the Contract. Any differences should be recorded and a report submitted to the Resident Engineer; any deviation with the construction plan vis a vis the as stake plan shall constitute variation order either additive or deductive in nature. iii. The Site Engineer (or Inspector) should check the reference points occasionally to see that none have been damaged. If there is suspected damage the Contractor should immediately be notified as well as the RE; and iv. The Site Engineer (or Inspector) should always check that the Contractor is working to the latest edition of the Drawings based on the approve as stake plan. A register of drawings is to be kept in the Resident Engineer’s Office.

Local Road Management Manual 166 b. Quality Control i. The works can only be as good as the materials that are used. Substandard materials will result in substandard in works. The responsibility for testing for acceptance lies fully with the Contractor and it is the responsibility of the materials Engineer to oversee all testing to ensure the tests comply with specifications and procedures. The Materials Engineer should ensure that all materials deliver on site passes the quality control test based on the approved quality control program for the project e.g. concrete, cement, course and fine aggregates, design mix, rebars, backfilling materials, pipes, culvert; prior placing of any pavement materials, field density test should be conducted on subbase and base course. For any type of pavement curing time should be observed before turn over or buy out and ii. The Site Engineer (or Inspector) should inform the Materials Engineer any new material that the Contractor brings to site including any changes in fill materials for earthworks. c. Equipment and Labor The end product of the job will depend very largely on the performance of the Equipment & Labor. The Site Engineer (or Inspector) must check particularly aggregate spreaders, compaction equipment, concrete vibrators etc. are functioning correctly. If they are not, he must advise the contractor and inform the Resident Engineer. d. Contractor’s Work Request It is important to know in advance what work the Contractor intends to carry out. The Contractor should submit in writing the Work Request detailing the planned activities shall be submitted one week before, to the Resident Engineer, however daily work request shall be submitted and recorded in the Project Logbook by the Site Inspector, generally on a daily basis and 24 hours in advance. The Resident Engineer will then advise the Contractor who should arrange to complete any necessary prior testing or inspections, preferably accompanied by the Materials

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 167 Engineer; and Project staff should try to think ahead and request information from the Contractor in anticipation of coming events. e. Inspection and Approval i. The Contractor should obtain approval from the Resident Engineer to commence any aspect of work and to obtain approval upon completion. The Resident Engineer, Materials Engineer and Inspectors must not necessarily delay the Contractor as this can give rise to claim and needless expenditure of money. The Site Engineer (or Inspector) must check each stage of the work as it proceeds and have any errors corrected as they appear. A final inspection should be made when the Contractor says that he is ready to proceed to the next stage; ii. It is not to the benefit of the project for the Resident Engineer and Inspector to withhold his observations on work until the Contractor has completed it. Remarks or comments should be made as work is being done; and iii. If testing is required the laboratory should be notified in good time. Test results should be made known immediately to the Resident Engineer and the Contractor. f. Location of Public Utilities i. Before the Contractor begins any excavations below existing ground, particularly adjacent to existing roads and properties, the Utility Authorities should be given adequate advance notice and a site visit arranged by the Resident Engineer; ii. In order that underground services such as water, electric and telephone are not liable to damage they should be accurately located by exposing by hand excavated pilot trenches prior to excavation and in the presence of a representative of the utility company concerned; and iii. The same applies to heavy equipment crossing of roads, public or private.

Local Road Management Manual 168 g. Existing Road and Temporary Detours i. Generally, the Contractor should always try to maintain the possibility for one lane of traffic in each direction to pass the work site; ii. The Contractor is obliged not to interfere with or damage existing roads or to make use of them without the permission of the proper authority. Any breach of this obligation should be reported in detail to the Resident Engineer giving times, name is possible and vehicle types and registration numbers. Where a temporary diversion is needed it is the responsibility of the Contractor to obtain the necessary approval to the alignment and the type of construction, and to get permission from proper agency to open any diversion; iii. The Resident Engineer and Inspector are to check all diversions and equipment crossings to see that they are clean and do not have potholes, and that road signs are as approved and well maintained; and iv. When equipment is crossing a major road the Resident Engineer and Inspector should check that the Contractor’s safety precautions are adequate. h. Existing Road and Temporary Detours i. It is important that accurate measurement records are kept in the Site Office and back-up copies in the Head Office; ii. The Resident Engineer will direct the type of forms required and, wherever possible, a daily record of measured work agreed and signed by both the Resident Engineer (and Inspector) and the Contractor’s Representative. These can then provide the basis for monthly measurement and simplify agreement between both parties; and iii. Occasionally the Contractor may consider that he is entitled to extra payment for work or dayworks for which the Resident Engineer (and Inspector) has received no instructions. The Contractor may ask the Resident Engineer (and Inspector) to agree to records of time for equipment and labor and materials used for his work. If the Resident Engineer (and Inspector) considers

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 169 that the record presents a fair representation of the work done, he should sign it and add the words “FOR RECORDS PURPOSE ONLY.” The Resident Engineer will later determine whether or not additional payment is warranted. i. Communication with the Contractor i. The Resident Engineer must always be aware of the identity of his counterpart within the Contractor’s organization. He/she will the main point of communication with the contractor. If the Resident Engineer has any doubts as to who this person is he will make the necessary enquiries with Contractor; ii. Instructions should only be given to the Contractor on matters where the work contradicts the specification. In such an event, the Contractor should immediately informed verbally and the Resident Engineer will issue a written confirmatory Site Instruction later; and iii. On construction method, the Inspector can only advise but he should feel free to discuss matter with his counterpart from the Contractor. iv. The Inspector should not, except in an informal way, instruct subcontractor’s representatives. Any instruction regarding a sub-contractor should always be given to the main Contractor. j. Use of specifications The Inspector should not try to remember all the specifications. He/she make sure they familiarize themselves with the section that, at any time, is relevant to the site activities underway or about to start. It is recommended that Inspector adopts the practice of carrying a photocopy of the appropriate section of the Specification on the site for easy reference. k. Progress of Works i. Should any section of the Works appear to be falling behind schedule the Inspector should immediately

Local Road Management Manual 170 report to the Engineer and, at the same time, attempt to identify the cause; and ii. Daily progress actually achieved compared with that predicted in the Contractor’s Work Requests provides a good indication of whether or not the Contractor is achieving his predicted output. l. Safety on Site i. If the Site Inspector notices anything on site that he considers to be unsafe, he should immediately inform the Contractor and the Resident Engineer and the designated Safety Engineer; and ii. Examples of the type of things to look for are: • Unnecessary hindrances of the traffic flow, i.e., if needed the shoulder should be used so that two-way traffic can be maintained; • Lack of Traffic Control (stop/go boards); • Insufficient or inadequate warning signs for road users; • Obstructions to road users e.g. spoil or debris in the roadway; • Machinery or equipment being used in a dangerous manner; • An excavation that is not properly barricaded or adequately lit at night; • Contractor operating heavy equipment without a spotter overseeing; and • Mechanical defects on equipment. This particularly to any vehicles supplied by the Contractor in which he travels. 2.7 Environmental Safeguards The Resident Engineer or Environmental Management System (EMS) Engineer should monitor that the Contractor follows the requirements of the contract regarding protection of adjacent land, water courses, vegetation, etc. He should advise the Provincial Engineer of any deviation or potential harmful impact on the environment. Examples to watch for include the following:

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 171 a. Contamination of existing waterways or vegetation by spillage of fuel, bitumen or sewage; Damage to vegetation by dirt or dust from construction traffic; b. Damage to vegetation by dust from any Plant; and c. Damage to existing properties by construction traffic. The Resident Engineer or Environmental Management System (EMS) Engineer should check that any land proposed for temporary use by the Contractor has full permission for occupation and is first cleared of topsoil before use. The site must be restored when the Works are complete and the soil replaced and reseeded. Similarly, in the case of borrow pits and quarries these should be inspected by the Resident Engineer or Environmental Management System (EMS) Engineer and restored by the Contractor into an acceptable condition. 2.8. Supervision of Drainage Works Guidance on the supervision of drainage works by the Construction Supervision Team are as follows: a. General i. The drainage to be included is normally limited to un- lined canals, canals lined with grouted rip-rap and catch- basins or similar. Open channels can be either concrete lined and as open excavations. b. Setting/staking Out i. The primary setting out will be done by the Contractor in coordination with the Site Engineer and checked for invert elevation and alignment in reference to construction plan, difference in elevation in reference to as stake plan and construction plan warrant a variation order either additive or deductive in nature. ii. The Site Inspector should check the setting out of pipes or culvert, need to stablish reference or bench mark, use a spirit level, to check particularly the invert level of any

Local Road Management Manual 172 type of pipe or culvert relative to the water way that is going to flow through it. If the invert elevation appears higher at any point than the stream bed or significantly lower, the Site Inspector should inform the Resident Engineer and check with a level instrument. Drainage construction should start at the downstream going upward to maintain the required invert elevation. c. Excavation i. If soft or unsuitable material is encountered during excavation, it shall be removed to the satisfaction of the Resident Engineer. The Materials Engineer may be referred to should there be any doubt; ii. Before replacement of any excavated soft or unsuitable material, the volume of the excavated material shall be measured and agreed with the Contractor and records signed before submitting to the Resident Engineer; iii. The Site Inspector should find out what material is to be used for backfilling soft areas, and ensure that it is placed and compacted in accordance with the specifications; iv. Any rejected material should be properly disposed in accordance with the Specification requirements; v. Construction of Canals (Ditches) should start in the downstream and must be excavated to such falls as are required to ensure proper discharge of water. The Resident Engineer and Inspector should always check the invert level and width and required side slopes are correct before permitting the Contractor to commence grouting. 2.9 Supervision of Pavement Works Guidance on the supervision of pavements works by the Construction Supervision Team are as follows: a. Subbase Preparation i. Preparation of the sub-base should only be carried out immediately prior to placing of Aggregate Base-course; ii. The compaction of the earthworks will have to be

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 173 checked by Materials Engineer through FDT, field CBR if necessary or by the laboratory according to DPWH testing procedures; and iii. The tolerance on the formation level should be in accordance to the technical specifications. The finished work should lie between these limits and should be checked jointly between the Site Inspector and the Contractor. Should the tolerance be exceeded the Contractor shall remove, replace and recompact the sub-base material or lay a thicker layer of base-course at contractors expense. b. Base Preparation i. Material • The Materials Engineer should ensure that all materials are within the Specification and passed the required testing, should also ensure the Site Inspector that the stockpile is approved before permitting the Contractor to use it; and • The site staff should look out for segregation if stockpiles of material are allowed to dry out. Any segregated materials will not have the strength required and must be remixed and gradation re-checked. ii. Spreading and Compacting • Sub-base is normally spread from tipped piles by grader or spreader box. Again, attention should be given that no segregation takes place; • Compaction of sub-base is by the end result method. However, attention is drawn to the requirements of Specifications. Trial Sections whereby the Contractor must demonstrate his proposals for materials and equipment meet the requirements of the Contract; • Attention is also drawn to Spreading and Compaction wherein the field density must conform to what was stated in the specifications;

Local Road Management Manual 174 • Before a layer is covered, the Site Inspector should inspect it carefully for transverse or alligator cracks. These will indicate that something is wrong with either the layer being compacted or layer below; • Before compaction, the layer should appear to have an even finish and an upper surface without humps or hollows. The Contractor should make an allowance for compaction when he spreads the material; and • After compaction, the surface levels must be checked by Site Inspector jointly with the Contractor for compliance with specified tolerances and the records signed. iii. Finished Level • Areas that are outside tolerance, on the high side should be reduced in the level by grading and the surplus materials be removed and recompacted. Low areas should be scarified, additional material added and the whole area graded and re-compacted; • Wherever possible, trucks bringing in materials should not run on the formation; • Once the formation has been compacted, no further construction traffic should be allowed on the area until the base course is laid; and • The measured volume will be that of the drawings with no adjustment for formation level tolerance. • Check the required elevation or finish grade. c. Concrete. There are three procedures which should be effectively supervised and controlled during the work: i. Mixing Concrete • The Site Inspector supervising the concrete pour should know the proportions of the approved concrete mix design and the concrete class to be used for each structure; • On the day when concrete will be batched, the Site Inspector assigned to the batching plant should arrive at the plant early to observe the condition of the aggregate in the stockpile and bins. Any impurities such as vegetable matter (leaves, branches, debris etc.), excess fines or other foreign matter are reasons to

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 175 reject the aggregates; • The Site Inspector assigned to the concrete mixer should be alert and observant during concrete production particularly for any changing conditions, which would affect the concrete quality control; and • He should also check the weighing and water dispensing mechanisms are in good order and that mixers which have been out of use for more than 30 minutes are thoroughly clean before fresh concrete is mixed. ii. Placing of concrete i.e. generally the application of vibration. The Site Inspector supervising the concrete pour should check that: • Concrete is handled without segregation; • Inadequate or inefficient concrete handling equipment is replaced immediately; • Concrete is placed with care; • Vibration of the concrete should systematically follow its placement, so that all areas are uniformly compacted; • Spare vibrators are essential – no concreting should be permitted to commence unless spare vibrators are available at the site; • Concrete shall not be dropped into place from a height exceeding 2 meters; and • The Site Inspector should keep a complete record of the date, time, concrete class and conditions of placing the concrete in each portion of the work. The times of “start and finish” are useful information in order to know how long casting took. This is to be recorded on the Site Inspector’s daily report. iii. Curing is required to optimize hydration of the cement so that the concrete will develop its full strength and durability. The Site Inspector is to check that: • Curing is started as soon as possible after the concrete is placed and finished. The tops of the concrete panels have to be kept constantly wet, day and night for at least (7) seven days. Continuously moistened gunny or Hessian sacks are acceptable for this provided the Contractor keeps them wet e.g. by sealing under polythene sheets after wetting;

Local Road Management Manual 176 • If a curing compound is proposed to be used it must be approved by the Materials Engineer; and • After commencing the curing, the panels should be fenced off to protect from accidental intrusion of vehicles or pedestrians and well-lit at night to forewarn road users. iv. Testing Concrete at the Site. Responsibility for testing remains with the Contractor through the laboratory, and under the supervision of the Materials Engineer duly accredited by DPWH. However, certain test will probably best be supervised at the site by the Site Inspector and are explained as follows: • The Slump Test. The reasons for the slump test are that the slump test is the simplest way to assess the workability of a mix of fresh concrete. Ideally, concrete when compacted should surround reinforcement and completely fill the formwork to allow the dense concrete to be formed. A workability measurement such as the slump test determines the practicality of handling, placing and compacting of the fresh concrete for a given site condition so that a dense concrete can be achieved; • The slump test is also useful in compacting of the workability of each batch against earlier batches. The slump test is to be performed as often as necessary to ensure consistence of the mix; and • A low slump indicates concrete with difficult workability and a high slump suggests excess water in the mix and hence insufficient strength. Concrete maybe rejected on the basis of this test at the direction of the Resident Engineer and Inspector. d. Road Marking. Road Marking is one of the major elements of new road surfacing and it is important that the markings are carefully set out and properly applied. The following should be carefully followed: i. The Site Inspector should ascertain from the drawings and Bill of Quantities in the type of road marking that is required, e.g. continuous or broken, dimensions, color and material type.

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 177 ii. The Site Inspector should check with the Laboratory that the type of material is correct and has been approved. iii. Road markings should never be applied to surfaces that are wet or dirty. If either of these conditions apply the Site Inspector should inform the Contractor and the Engineer. • Wet surfaces can be dried by a careful application of a heater and/or air compressor. No more heat than necessary to remove the moisture should be applied; and • Dirty surfaces should be brushed clean or washed with water. • With hot applied materials, the Site Inspector should check that the temperature is correct. iv. A good alignment on road markings is essential. • Pre-making should be carefully carried out by the Contractor and checked and approved by the Site Inspector before any lying of road markings commences; and • Pre-marking is normally carried out thru the use of appropriate survey instrument on straight sections and by rope-line on curves and the proposed alignment marked with paint spots on the pavement surface for the marking machine to follow. 3. Contract Management The basic objective of Contract Management is to ensure that the project is implemented under the terms and conditions stipulated in the Contract and the Contract Documents. Contract Administration involves those activities performed by the implementing agency and the contractor after a contract has been awarded to determine how well the government and the contractor performed to meet the requirements of the General Condition of contract. Such as payment schedule, variation order, contract termination, and other condition of contract. 3.1 Definition of Terms in a Contract For the common understanding of the terms, the following words shall have the meanings stated below:

Local Road Management Manual 178 a. The Contract is the legal agreement between two parties to execute complete and maintain the works, goods and services. The size, complexity and cost of such works, goods and services may vary widely. The essential elements of a contract are the following: i. An oral or written agreement; ii. The involvement of two or more persons; iii. An exchange relationship; iv. commitment of both parties involve; At least one promise; and v. Enforceability or effectivity. b. Contract Documents. Contract documents are sets of documents comprises of either agreement and conditions of contract. Normally the form of contract comprises of the following: i. General and Special Conditions of Contract; ii. Drawings/Plans; iii. Specifications; iv. Invitation to Bid; v. Instructions to Bidders; vi. Bid Data Sheet; vii. Addenda and/or Supplemental/Bid Bulletins, if any; viii. Bid form, including all the documents/statements contained in the Bidder’s bidding envelopes, as annexes, and all other documents submitted (e.g., Bidder’s response to request for clarifications on the bid), including corrections to the bid, if any, resulting from the Procuring Entity’s bid evaluation; ix. Eligibility requirements, documents and/or statements; x. Performance Security; xi. Notice of Award of Contract and the Bidder’s conformed thereto; xii. Other contract documents that may be required by existing laws and/or the Entity. c. Employer. In standard form of Contract, the Employer is the LGU represented by the local chief executive and the legal

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 179 successors in title to this person. In some other form of contracts, the Employer is named as the Owner as in the Project Owner or the Client; d. Engineer. This is the Provincial/City/Municipal Engineer or the person appointed by the Local Chief Executive who exercises the authority attributable to the Engineer under the Contract. The Local Engineer is deemed to act for the Employer; e. Contractor. This is the contractor named in the contract whose tender was accepted by the Employer to undertake the works specified under the contract; f. Commencement/start Date. This shall be the date stipulated in the Notice to Proceed or Notice to Commence Work, in which the Contractor shall commence execution of the Works with due expedition and without delay; g. Contract duration/ Completion time. This shall be the Time for completion, which means the date/time for completing the Works as stated in the Contract. h. Taking-Over Certificate/buy out or Certificate of Completion. This is the same as Certificate of Completion issued to the Contractor upon completion of the Works in accordance with the Contract.; i. Performance Certificate or Certificate of Acceptance. Performance Certificate is the same as the Certificate of Acceptance issued to the Contractor after the Contractor Defects Liability Period has been completed and tested all the Works including remedying defects. The Engineer usually issues the Performance Certificate after the latest of the expiry dates of the Defects Notification Period; j. Defects Notification Period (DNP). This is also known as the Defects Liability Period (DLP). The period for notifying defects in the Works or part of the works which extends up to twelve months, except if otherwise stated in the Contract. The DNP is calculated from the date on which the Works or

Local Road Management Manual 180 part of the Works is completed as certified by the Taking-Over Certificate or the Certificate of Completion; k. Variation. This means any change in the Works as instructed or approved by the Engineer; l. Progress Payment. This is the valuation of the works done by the contractor at the end of each period as specified in the contract; and m. Retention Money. This is the accumulated amounts of money retained by the Employer in every progress payment. n. Warranty Period. This is the period were the contractor shall warrant the works completed and the contractor shall issue a warranty security issued on behalf of the end user and stakeholder after the defects liability period. The amount of which is equivalent to 10% of the contract amount. 3.2 Pre-construction Phase Following the award of the contract for construction, the Employer, the Contractor and the Engineer shall schedule and attend the Pre- Construction Meeting. The purpose of the Pre-Construction meeting is to discuss the specific requirements of the Contract and how they relate to the daily operation of the construction project. The Engineer should prepare an agenda and conduct meeting prior to Contractor’s mobilization. Minutes of the meetings should be taken and distributed to all parties. The agenda described in the section on Pre-Construction Conference under Construction Supervision shall be followed. In administering contracts, the Resident Engineer would function as the assessor and the certifier. The Resident Engineer would assess the contractor’s progress payments, claims, variations and quality of the works performed; in addition, the Resident Engineer must also be keen on maintaining project site documentation. The following are the general guidance for managing the contract during the construction phase: a. Contract Documentation. The implementing agency through the Resident Engineer shall provide copy of contract documents to all involved parties.. The following documents shall be

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 181 attached, deemed to form, and be read and construed as integral part of this Agreement, to wit: i. General and Special Conditions of Contract; i. Drawings/Plans; ii. Specifications; iii. Invitation to Bid; iv. Instructions to Bidders; v. Bid Data Sheet; vi. Addenda and/or Supplemental/Bid Bulletins, if any; vii. Bid form, including all the documents/statements contained in the Bidder’s bidding envelopes, as annexes, and all other documents submitted (e.g., Bidder’s response to request for clarifications on the bid), including corrections to the bid, if any, resulting from the Procuring Entity’s bid evaluation; viii. Eligibility requirements, documents and/or statements; ix. Performance Security; x. Notice of Award of Contract and the Bidder’s conforme thereto; xi. Network schedule/PERT/CPM xii. Workforce schedule xiii. Equipment utilization schedule xiv. Construction methods xv. Occupational safety and health program xvi. Revised disbursement schedule and S-curve xvii. Revised Program of Work xviii. Quality assurance and Control Program xix. Environmental Management Plan xx. Other contract xxi. documents that may be required by existing laws and/ or the Entity.

Local Road Management Manual 182 b. Progress Payments The Contractor may submit a request for payment for Work accomplished. Such request for payment shall be verified and certified by the Procuring Entity’s Representative/ Project Engineer based on target accomplishment. Except as otherwise stipulated in the SCC, materials and equipment delivered on the site but not completely put in place shall not be included for payment. The Procuring Entity shall deduct the following from the certified gross amounts to be paid to the contractor as progress payment: i. Cumulative value of the work previously certified and paid for. ii. Portion of the advance payment to be recouped for the month. iii. Retention money in accordance with the condition of contract. iv. Amount to cover third party liabilities. v. Amount to cover uncorrected discovered defects in the works. Payments shall be adjusted by deducting therefrom the amounts for advance payments and retention. The Procuring Entity shall pay the Contractor the amounts certified by the Procuring Entity’s Representative within twenty-eight (28) days from the date each certificate was issued. No payment of interest for delayed payments and adjustments shall be made by the Procuring Entity. The first progress payment may be paid by the Procuring Entity to the Contractor provided that at least twenty percent (20%) of the work has been accomplished as certified by the Procuring Entity’s Representative. Items of the Works for which a price of “0” (zero) has been entered will not be paid for by the Procuring Entity and shall be deemed covered by other rates and prices in the Contract.

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 183 c. Contract/Work Variations i. At any given time during construction implementation phase, the Engineer may issue a variation through the recommendation of the Resident Engineer. Please note that this variation to the works is agreed to be implemented by the Owner. Variation may include changes in quantities of any item of work included in the Contract; it may be any additional work necessary to complete the project or may be an omission of any portion of the works; ii. The Engineer through the Resident Engineer will issue instruction to the iii. Contractor necessary for changes in some part of the works; iii. If such instruction will entail additional cost or time, the Contractor may submit his proposal to the Engineer; iv. If the Engineer and the Contractor agreed on the proposal, then the contractor may proceed with the work; v. The Contractor may submit to the Engineer a variation claims for a particular works he has performed whether it may be pursuant to the Engineer’s instruction or in accordance with the contract documents. It is the responsibility of the Engineer to determine whether such claim of the Contractor is valid under the terms and conditions stipulated in the contract. However, no variation claim shall be evaluated by the Resident Engineer unless the variation works is approved by the Engineer. However, in some cases variation to the works may be claimed by the Contractor even without any instructions from the Engineer to proceed with the works, if and only if the Contractor may prove that the works done is deemed necessary for the satisfactory completion of the works which is not stated anywhere in the contract terms, contract drawings, specifications and any other contract documents; and vi. The Engineer in his valuation of any variation claim by the Contractor may refer to the contract documents such as the scope of works, specifications, drawings, BOQ etc.

Local Road Management Manual 184 d. Arbitration and Mediation of Contract Disputes i. After all administrative remedies have been exhausted; Arbitration and Mediation of Contract Disputes shall be adjudicated by the Construction Industry Arbitration Council (CIAC). Normally the CIAC is appointed by both the owner and the contractor as agreed in the contract terms. CIAC usually comprises of three (3) persons, each party shall nominate one member for the approval of the other party. The Parties shall consult both these members and shall agree upon the third member, who shall be appointed to act as chairman; ii. In some contracts, a list of potential members is included in the Contract; the members shall be selected from those on the list, other than anyone who is unable or unwilling to accept appointment to the CIAC. The terms and of the remuneration of either the sole member or each of the three members, including the remuneration of any expert whom the CIAC consults shall be mutually agreed upon by the Parties when agreeing the terms of appointment. Each Party shall be responsible for paying one-half of this remuneration; iii. If a dispute (of any kind) arises between the Parties in connection with or arising out of the Contract or the execution of the works, including any dispute as to any certificate, determination, instruction, opinion or valuation of the Engineer, either party may refer the dispute in writing to the CIAC for its decision with copy to the other party; iv. The CIAC will make his assessment on the dispute, in this regard both parties shall make available to the CIAC all such additional information, further access to the Site, and appropriate facilities as the CIAC may require for the purpose of making a decision on such dispute; v. If after the CIAC arrived at a decision on the dispute and either of the party is dissatisfied with the decision a notice of dissatisfaction shall be given to the other party. In this event either of the party shall be entitled to commence arbitration; and vi. Unless settled amicably, any dispute in respect of which the CIAC’s decision (if any) has not become final and binding shall finally be settled by arbitration. In the

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 185 Philippines, by virtue of Executive Order No 1008 the CIAC (Construction Industry Arbitration Commission) has given exclusive jurisdiction over disputes arising from or connected with contracts entered into by both parties involved in construction. e. Non-Conforming Work In the event that the contractor fails to conform to the contract documents, the Resident Engineer must notify the contractor in writing of nonconforming work and seek corrective action. The Engineer must inform also the owner and the design professional. After receiving comments from the design professional, the Engineer should determine if the work in question can be achieved by removal or rework, or by owner acceptance, subject to credit. The Engineer will not recommend payments for non-conforming works. The Engineer should make sure that the corrective actions have been performed by the contractor through the conduct of a joint inspection. f. Testing and Inspection For the duration of the Project, the Materials Engineer shall be entitled to witness all testing and inspection to be performed in accordance to the Quality Assurance Plan. g. Certificate of Completion If the works have been completed in accordance with the contract, have passed all tests on completion and can be taken over by the owner, then the contractor can notify the Engineer for an issuance of the Taking over certificate or Certificate of Completion. However, if in the opinion of the Engineer that there are still works to be done, the contractor shall then complete the said works before issuing another notice to the Engineer. 3.3. Post-Construction Phase The following shall be the general guidance for managing the

Local Road Management Manual 186 contract after the construction has been completed by the contractor: a. Documentary Requirements. In this phase, the Resident Engineer should check on the requirements stated in the contract documents prior to completion of the works. The Resident Engineer should coordinate and expedite the completion of contractor submittal requirements prior to contract close-out, including the following: i. Certificate of substantial completion; ii. Completion of punch list work; iii. Certificate of Acceptance; iv. Waiver of Lien; and v. Final payment application. b. Completion of Punch List Work. The Contractor shall complete any outstanding works and execute all works required to remedy defects as instructed by the Engineer on or before the expiry of the Defects Notification Period (usually 12 months); c. Certificate of Acceptance. After the 12 months defects liability period and upon notification of the engineer that the project have no major defects and all punch lists item has been completed and rectified, after a final inspection of the works were conducted by the implementing agency, and the contractor. When the implementing agency and the engineers are satisfied with the work, then the Certificate of Acceptance shall be issued; d. Final Payment. Upon notification of the contractor for Final Payments, the Engineer shall ensure that all remaining amounts, monetary claims entitled to the contractor are included in the final payment. The Engineer after his determination shall make a recommendation in writing to the owner in connection with the final payments; and e. Waiver of Lien. The Owner in exchange of the Final Payment shall request the contractor to execute a Waiver of Lien. A waiver of lien protects the owner from any other claims and discharges or releases the owner of any responsibility to the Contractor.

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 187 3.5. Contract Close-Out Report The Contract Close-Out Report is also known as the Project Completion Report or the Terminal Report. At the end of the project, all significant reports that have been issued during the design and construction phases should be summarized and documented in a final Project History Report. Cost accounting should be prepared with the final resolution of all expenditures. These reports should officially note the dates of substantial completion and commencement of warranties. 4. Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) This section describes the construction quality assurance procedures to be followed to ensure that the construction works is executed in accordance with the approved engineering design and specifications. The execution of this quality assurance plan shall be supervised by a qualified Materials Engineer (RE) who shall be duly accredited by DPWH and shall act as the designated QA officer. 4.1 Definitions of Terms for QA/QC The terms Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) are much confused and are often interchanged and used as if they are the same. The following definitions of Quality Assurance and Quality Control are taken from ISO 8402 which is an International Standard Referencing Quality Vocabulary. The following are the recommended definitions for QA/QC: a. Quality. The distinguishing characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. In a contractual environment, needs are specified; these needs are stated in the technical specifications of the works and is part of the contract documents. This technical specification would be the contractor’s guidelines to follow in the execution of the work to ensure that at the end of the project, the works constructed is in accordance with the quality that is being required by the project owner;

Local Road Management Manual 188 b. Quality Assurance (QA). All those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide confidence that the product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. Quality assurance usually requires continuing evaluation of factors that affect the design or specification for intended application as well as verification of installation and inspection operations; c. Quality Control (QC). Quality Control is any operational procedures, techniques that ensure to fulfill the requirements for quality. This monitoring process is done to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance of the works; and d. QA vis-à-vis QC. To summarize, Quality Control concerns the different procedures or activities necessary to meet the specific requirements, while Quality Assurance consists of those oversight activities that confirm and assure that Quality Control is in place and is effective. 4.2 Responsibilities for QA/QC It must be established that the quality of the work is the Contractor’s responsibility. The QA and QC activities performed by the Provincial Engineer’s Office will in no way invalidate the Contractor’s responsibility for quality. The Contractor must have in place QC activities to ensure the quality requirements are met. The QA/QC program will usually be under the direction of the RE. The RE will be assisted by trained and experienced Materials Engineers duly accredited by DPWH and capable of documenting the operation and results of the QA/QC program. The RE will have with him in the team, qualified personnel to conduct sampling and testing, survey checking of the Contractor’s work, and conducting special QA/QC activities. 4.3 Contractor Quality Control Plan Some construction contract requires the Contractor to provide a Quality Control Plan. The Resident Engineer should require the early submittal of the QC Plan before any construction work commence.

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 189 The QC plans should be reviewed by the Resident Engineer and discussed with the Contractor. When satisfactory, this should be signed and approved by both Contractor and the Resident Engineer and compliance with the approved plan should be monitored and recorded. 4.4 Inspection It is the duty of the Resident Engineer and Site Inspectors to monitor and verify that the project is being constructed in accordance with the plans and specifications and in compliance with the terms and condition of the contract. The Site Inspector shall exercise the authority to reject both unsatisfactory workmanship and materials. Such rejections must be made immediately upon discovery documented and referenced to the appropriate plans or specification requirement. Documentation should include photographs where possible. However, the work shall not be directed to stop unless the non-conforming work will be covered up or the correction of the non-conforming work will have a critical impact on completion of the project. The Resident Engineer will ensure that the inspection of the work is organized as to support the Contractor’s schedule and that inspection forces are available and sufficient to meet the schedule. Every effort should be made to cooperate with the Contractor so that inspection activities will dovetail with the Contractor’s work. The inspection staff must be aware of the daily and weekly schedules provided by the Contractor and schedule their own work accordingly. The Site Inspectors will provide inspection reports indicating work performed inspections and tests carried out, non- conformances noted, and any other information relative to the quality of the work. Inspection staff is required to inspect all materials delivered to the work site and to confirm that the materials meet the specified requirements. All incoming materials should have required documentation including certification that materials have been manufactured/processed in accordance with the specified quality

Local Road Management Manual 190 standards and passed all required inspection and tests. The Site inspectors will check all such documentation and forward it to the field office for filing. Storage and 5protection of all delivered materials shall be checked periodically to ensure that there is no deterioration in the materials prior to incorporation in the work. Site Inspectors are expected to be knowledgeable in the work, familiar with the contract plans, specifications and contract conditions and experienced in the methods of installation. As such the inspection staff constitutes a valuable resource to the project. They will be called upon to assist in the interpretation of plans and specifications and can offer valuable insight on methods and techniques of construction. They must be careful not to direct the Contractor in means, methods, techniques, sequences or procedures of construction or to make recommendations. Any advice requested and offered must be qualified with the statement that the Contractor alone, is responsible for the construction of the work. The Site inspectors are required to be familiar with the duties and responsibilities and shall be familiar with standard practice and procedures for installation of the related work. 4.5 Testing The Contractor should schedule the testing with the Materials Engineer designated by the LGU to this road project. All testing performed should be witnessed by both the Contractor and the PEO representative (Materials Engineer). Any test certificates issued must be safeguarded and filed. Particular attention should be given to testing work or materials which will shortly thereafter be covered up or become otherwise inaccessible. Satisfactory testing results are required in order that follow-up work may proceed. The testing resources should be organized to be available as the work is installed and test results provided as soon as reasonably possible. Should the Contractor insist on covering work which has not been tested, the Contractor shall be informed in writing by a Non-Compliance Notice, that such work is not acceptable, that

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 191 no payment will be made for the work, that any costs associated with uncovering the work will be solely the responsibility of the Contractor, and that there will be no extension to the contract time as a result of uncovering untested work or work for which a test result was unsatisfactory. 4.6 Survey Control The Resident Engineer and staff should require the contractor to give adequate notice of layout needs and schedule it accordingly with the survey crews so as not to cause delay in construction. Basic survey controls are to be protected and as when necessary, relocated. There should be frequent checks on layout to confirm work is accurately installed. The inspectors and surveyors should do regular spot checks of measurements and elevations should be made and stablished. 4.7 Non-Conforming Work The contract records shall indicate that non-conforming work was brought to the attention of the Contractor; that corrective action was taken by the Contractor to bring the work into compliance; that the corrective action was, where required, pre- approved by the Resident Engineer; that the corrective action was observed and the finished work was re-inspected, re-tested or re-assessed and found to be in compliance. In general, minor non-conformances can be verbally notified to the Contractor and correction observed and confirmed. Where verbal notification does not produce correction within a short period, written notification of non-compliance shall be issued. Where there is a major noncompliance, a written notification to the Contractor shall be issued. Where a test result does not meet the specified minimum requirements, a written notification of non-compliance for the work represented by the test result shall be issued by the Resident Engineer. Notification of non-conforming work shall be by means of a Non- Compliance Notice. The Non-Compliance Notice shall identify

Local Road Management Manual 192 the non-conforming work or non-compliance and, if re-work is extensive or complicated or time consuming, shall require the Contractor to submit a proposal for corrective action. The corrective action proposal shall be reviewed by the Resident Engineer and if acceptable, approval will be notified to the Contractor. All Non-Compliance Notice shall be logged and tracked and should be discussed during Weekly Coordination Meeting. The intent is that non-conforming work be corrected as quickly as possible. There may be a tendency, with some Contractors, to put off correcting defective work until late in the project in the hope that the work will be accepted as is in order to maintain schedule. The Resident Engineer should not allow corrective action to be delayed and should refuse to approve for payment the maximum amount of work associated with the Non-Compliance Notice. Any direct costs incurred by the PEO caused by non-conforming work should be the responsibility of the Contractor. 4.8 Recommended Materials Testing and Corresponding Report Forms Table 6.1 shows a matrix of materials testing and reporting forms for Typical Pay Items for the construction or rehabilitation of local gravel roads. The DPWH Standard Specifications for Public Works and Highways shall be used as the reference for material testing for local road projects. The DPWH schedule of minimum test requirements for its road projects should be the reference in conducting material testing. 5. Construction Safety and Health (CSH) 5.1 Authority and Mandate The Department of Labor and Employment, in protecting construction personnel and the general public in the vicinity of construction sites, has issued Department Order No. 13, Series of 1998 (DO 13-1998), providing guidelines governing occupational safety and health in the construction industry. The requirements to ensure safety and health for road construction projects can be found on the provisions of DO 13-98.

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 193 The specific provisions for CSH that may be applicable to local road construction is discussed in the foregoing sections. The authority to enforce mandatory occupational safety and health standards in the construction industry may be delegated in part by the Secretary of Labor and Employment to the following institutions: Provinces, Cities, and Municipalities may be allowed to conduct Technical Safety Inspections and general safety audit of construction project sites within their respective jurisdiction where they have adequate facilities and competent personnel for the purpose as determined by the DOLE and subject to national standards established by the latter, provided they submit for approval an application for such authority; and Private Safety Organizations with adequate facilities and competent personnel for the purpose, may be accredited by DOLE to conduct technical and/or general Safety and Health Audit of construction project sites, for and in behalf of the company or establishment. 5.2 Construction Safety and Health (CSH) Program Local road construction projects should have a suitable Construction Safety and Health (CSH) Program, which must follow the rules issued by DOLE. Through the implementation and roll out of JOINT ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER (JAO) #11; S - 2014 between the DPWH, DOLE, DILG DTI and NEDA. The Construction Project Manager, or in his absence, the Project Manager as authorized by the local engineering office shall be responsible for compliance with the CSH Program. Table 6.3 Material Tests and Forms for the Construction or Rehabilitation of Local Gravel Roads Pay Item Pay Item Test Required QA/QC Form No. Division 1 Earthworks 104(1) Embankment Field Density Field Density Test Test Form

Local Road Management Manual 194 Embankment Field Density Field Density Test 104(3) from Borrow Ma- test Form terials Subgrade Field Density Test 105(1) Preparation Field Density test Form (common material) Division 2 Subbase & Base Course 200 Aggregate Sub- Field Density test Field Density Test base course Form Division 3 Surface Course 300(1) Gravel surface Field Density Field Density Test course Test Form Portland cement 311(1) concrete pavement Slump Test; Slump and strength (for steep Strength tests test forms gradients) Division 5 Drainage & Erosion Works Cement: 1-Quality Test Fine Aggregates: Laboratory forms, 1Quality Test, RCPC, Class II, 1-Grading 500(1)b 610mm dia. Test Worksheet for Sieve Water: 1-Quality Analysis, Unit Weight test Determination 500(1)c RCPC, Class II, Cement: Laboratory forms, 910 mm dia. 1-Quality Test Fine Aggregates: 1Quality Test, Worksheet for Sieve 1-Grading Test Analysis, Unit Weight Water: 1-Quality Determination test

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 195 Cement: 1-Quality Test Fine Aggregates: Laboratory forms, Stone Masonry 1Quality Test, Headwall, 1-Grading 502(17)d 1-610mm dia. Flared Type (FT- Test Worksheet for Sieve HW) Water: 1-Quality Analysis, Unit Weight test Determination Cement: 1-Quality Test Fine Aggregates: Laboratory forms, Stone Masonry 1Quality Test, Headwall, 1-Grading 502(17)g 1-610mm dia. Breakflow inlet Test Worksheet for Sieve type (BF) Water: 1-Quality Analysis, Unit Weight test Determination Cement: 1-Quality Test Fine Aggregates: Laboratory forms, 1Quality Test, 1-Grading 505(5) Grouted Riprap Test Worksheet for Sieve Water: 1-Quality Analysis, Unit Weight test Determination The CSH Program should detail the composition and functions of the CSH Committee. It shall specify CSH policies to be observed and maintain within the construction site. The CSH Program should also specify sanctions for violating the CSH policies; nature and frequency of activities for CSH; and the manner of waste disposal from the construction. The cost of implementing the CSH Program, as mandated by DO 13-98 shall be integrated into the project’s construction cost. This cost shall be a separate pay item, duly quantified and stated in the project’s tender documents and construction contract documents.

Local Road Management Manual 196 a. The CSH Program should be developed and implemented in accordance with the provisions of DO 13-98. Specifically, the CSH Program should contain the following elements: b. c. Provision of personal protective equipment (PPE); d. Employment of an accredited safety personnel; e. Provision of emergency occupational health personnel and facilities; f. Installation of construction safety signage; g. Observing safety for construction heavy equipment; h. Creation of a construction safety and health committee; i. Ensuring safety and health information; j. Provision of construction safety and health training for relevant personnel; k. Submission of construction safety and health reports; and l. Provision of welfare facilities for workers. 6. CONSTRUCTORS’ PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SYSTEM (CPES) 6.1. CPES Mandate The Constructors Performance Evaluation System (CPES) is a system of grading the performance of a constructor for a specific kind of infrastructure projects using a set of criteria. Section 12, Annex E of the Implementing Rules and Regulation, of R.A. 9184 or the Government Procurement Reform Act, requires all procuring entities implementing government infrastructure projects to evaluate the performance of their contractors using the NEDA-approved Constructors Performance Evaluation System (CPES) guidelines for the type of project being implemented. Section 12, likewise, requires all procuring entities to include in their Projects’ Engineering and Administrative Overhead Cost, the budget for CPES implementation pursuant to NEDA Board Resolution No. 18 (s.2002); to establish CPES Implementing Units in their respective offices/agencies/corporations; and to use the CPES ratings for the following purposes: a. Pre-qualification/eligibility screening;

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 197 b. Awarding of contracts; c. Project monitoring & control; d. Issuance of certificate of completion; e. Policy formulation/review; f. Industry planning; g. Granting of incentives/awards; and h. In adopting measures to further improve performance of contractors in the prosecution of government projects. The CPES was developed in order to accomplish the following objectives for the construction industry: a. Establish a uniform set of criteria for rating the performance of constructors; b. Develop a centralized base of information on performance rating of constructors for licensing, pre-qualification, quality improvement, and other purposes of government agencies, project owners and other interested parties; and c. Contribute in ensuring that infrastructure projects are conformed with the specified requirements of project owners. 6.2. CPES Implementation In a local road construction, the LGUs being the procuring entity are mandated to establish and implement the CPES approach. The LGUs should create its CPE Implementing Unit (CPE IU), which is the unit of the LGU responsible for the implementation of CPES. The Constructors Performance Evaluators (CPE) of the CPES IU should be the technical staff of the LGU, preferably from the local engineering office, who are trained and accredited by the Philippine Domestic Construction Board (PDCB) of the Construction Industry Association of the Philippines (CIAP). The CPEs shall be tasked to undertake performance evaluation of a constructor’s project using the CPES Guidelines and/or evaluation requirements of the construction industry. 6.3. CPES Evaluation Methodology There should be a minimum of two CPES evaluations during construction with the conduct of the first visit when the actual project accomplishment is at least 30% except for projects with a duration of 90 calendar days and below which may be subjected to at least one

Local Road Management Manual 198 (1) final visit. The final CPES evaluation shall be made when the implementing office reports 1005 completion. The criteria for CPES Evaluation are divided into two. The evaluation during construction corresponds to 60% of the total grade, which refers to: a. Workmanship (maximum rating = 0.40); b. Materials (maximum rating = 0.30); c. Time (maximum rating = 0.15); d. Facilities (maximum rating = 0.03); e. Environmental, Safety and Health (maximum rating = 0.07); and f. Resources Deployment (maximum rating = 0.05). The evaluation upon completion of the local road project is equal to 40% of the total grade, which pertains to: a. Workmanship (maximum rating = 0.50); b. Materials (maximum rating = 0.20); and c. Time (maximum rating = 0.30). Workmanship refers to the quality and quantity of on-going and/ or completed items of work, which are verifiable, in accordance to approved plans and specifications. In evaluating the constructors workmanship, spots comprising at least 10% for every on-going and/ or completed items of work; which are verifiable, shall be randomly predetermined by the CPE prior to actual site inspection. Materials refer to the quality, quantity and type of construction materials and components supplied by the constructor or by entities other than the constructors as required in the contract. Time pertain to the over- all accomplishment in accordance with the approved PERT/CPM or approved program of work. Facilities means those set up by the constructor prior to actual project start as indicated in the contract. Environmental, Safety and Health refers to the constructors’ ability to comply with environmental protection requirements; and to observe the safety and health measures as specified in the contract. Resources

Chapter 6: Local Road Construction Management 199 Deployment pertain to the ability of the constructor to deploy on time, based on the approved PERT/CPM or program of work, the required/ pledged resources such as materials, equipment in good running condition and manpower. In conducting evaluation, the CPES guidelines should be the reference guidelines. LGUs are strongly encouraged to establish their CPES units through their local engineering offices. The CPES evaluations will greatly help their local engineering offices in ascertaining the quality of contractors for local road construction projects.

Local Road Management Manual 200 CHAPTER 7 LOCAL ROAD MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT

Chapter 7: Local Road Maintenance Management 201 1. Road Maintenance The underlying objective of the road maintenance is to sustain the serviceability of a road over its economic life. Poorly maintained roads constrain mobility, significantly raise vehicle operating costs, increase accident rates and adversely affect the productivity of communities in the influence area. Road maintenance consists of activities to keep pavement, shoulders, slopes, drainage facilities and all other structures and property within the road margins as near as possible to their newly constructed condition. This includes minor repairs and improvements to eliminate the cause of defects and to avoid excessive repetition of maintenance efforts. For purposes of scoping and scheduling road maintenance activities are categorized as routine, periodic, or emergency. Although the need for maintenance is widely recognized, the activity continues to be widely neglected for various reasons. This has resulted in growing maintenance backlog and manifested in terms of decreased road asset value. This chapter provides an overview of the fundamental concepts in maintenance of local roads. Road maintenance means the routine annual and periodic repairs necessary to keep the road in “fair to good” condition. Routine annual and periodic maintenance work may be undertaken on local roads that form part of the core road network and have been rehabilitated or are core roads classified as being in good or fair condition. a. Creation of a construction safety and health committee; b. Ensuring safety and health information; c. Provision of construction safety and health training for relevant personnel; d. Submission of construction safety and health reports; and e. Provision of welfare facilities for workers. 2. Asset Management Local roads are one of the most important public assets of LGU. The construction of these road assets entails a significant amount of capital investment from the LGU. Once constructed, roads facilitate access to

Local Road Management Manual 202 markets and government services, as well as the general mobility of people and goods. Hence, there is a need to preserve and properly manage these assets if the benefits from the use of the road are to be sustained. Road assets can be preserved and managed through the timely implementation of routine and periodic maintenance. Without such interventions, road assets will result to deterioration, reduced usability of the road, and high costs for reconstructing failed sections (maintenance costs is significantly less expensive than new construction or rehabilitation). Damage as a result of lack of maintenance will mean reduced benefits and higher travel cost to road users. Deteriorated roads will increase vehicle operating costs due to frequent repairs and higher fuel consumption, which would then discourage or would act as disincentives for transport operators to provide service to passengers and to carry goods from production area to the market. The American Association of State and Highway Transport Officials (AASHTO) defines the service life cycle of a road as: a. Design. This stage deals with dimensions, type of materials, thickness of base and top surfaces, and the drainage system. Investments made at the design stage affect the long-term durability of the pavement surface. If, however, sufficient funding is not available to upgrade the design, the road starts out and stays mediocre; b. Construction. A high-quality construction process produces a longer-lasting pavement surface; c. Initial Deterioration. During the first few years of use, the road surface starts to experience some initial deterioration caused by traffic volume, rain, snow, solar radiation, and temperature changes. At this stage, the road appears in good condition, providing a smooth ride. Preservation strategies at this stage will sustain the smooth ride, preserve the foundation, extend the life, and reduce the need for costly reconstruction later on; d. Visible Deterioration. Visible signs of distress such as potholes and cracking occur. Repairs made at this stage using overlays and milling to eliminate ruts will restore a smooth ride and extend the life of the road; and

Chapter 7: Local Road Maintenance Management 203 e. Disintegration and Failure. Roads that are not maintained during the initial deterioration stage and repaired when visible deterioration occurs will fail and will need costly reconstruction. Once a road’s foundation disintegrates, surface repairs have an increasingly short life. A sample graph of a service life cycle of a road, as illustrated by the U.S. Department of Transportation, is shown in Figure 7.1. Asset preservation strategies as road maintenance prior to the point of rehabilitation will mean lower cost but at a higher benefit as pavement condition can easily be restored. Whereas, at the point of rehabilitation and reconstruction, the pavement condition that has to be repaired is large necessitating a larger investment for the part of the government. With the tendency of LGUs to underinvestment in local road maintenance, it is naturally logical that the LGUs will need more capital to restore local roads that are in a state of disrepair as exemplified by the said life cycle graph. Figure 7.1 Service Life Cycle of Roads 3. Types of Maintenance Activities 3.1. Routine Maintenance Routine annual road maintenance (as defined in Chapter 4) is carried out to keep the local roads including the road pavement, road shoulders, side drains, cross drains, roadside verges and road safety devices in good condition. Routine road maintenance works may include as

Local Road Management Manual 204 appropriate, on a case-by-case basis, some or all of the following activities: a. Pavement Maintenance • Pavement patching and repair (including repair of potholes and crack sealing); • Spot re-gravelling & reshaping on unpaved roads; and • Grading in unpaved roads. b. Re-gravelling • Replacement of surface course and base course, if necessary on a gravel road. c. Bridge & Structure Maintenance • Repairs of hand rails; • Replacement of damaged or deteriorated structural members; • Replacement of timber decks; • Epoxy sealing of cracks in concrete decks; • Change of bearing plates, additions of shear plates or cable restrainers; • Sand blasting and painting of structural members; • Repair of retaining walls; • Foundation protection; • Stream clearing and debris removal to maintain water courses under bridges; and • Hire charges for a Bailey or other bridging. d. Shoulder Maintenance Normal care and attention of the road shoulder to maintain support to the carriageway and safety standards; • Removal of obstruction/ encroachment; and • Resurfacing of gravel shoulder is included. e. Drainage Maintenance • Routine maintenance and repair of side ditches and subsoil drainage; • Stream clearing and debris removal to maintain water courses through culvert; and • Renewal or installation of culverts with a diameter less than or equal to 600mm.

Chapter 7: Local Road Maintenance Management 205 f. Vegetation Control g. Traffic Service Maintenance • Maintenance of signs, road markers, pavement markings; and • Maintenance of guardrails 3.2. Periodic Maintenance Periodic road maintenance (as discussed in Chapter 4) is usually more extensive work, carried out on a larger scale and at less frequent intervals than routine annual maintenance. The purpose of periodic maintenance is to preserve the quality of the road assets, retard the rate of deterioration and extend the economic life of the road infrastructure. Periodic road maintenance works are usually undertaken at between two (2) and five (5) year intervals depending on the particular facility and may include as appropriate, on a case-by-case basis, some or all of the following activities: a. Pavement Resurfacing • Single and double bituminous seals; • Void Filling seal coats; • Texturing seals; • Slurry Seals; • Other approved special purpose seals; and • Thin overlays (bituminous road-mix or plant mix surface course not exceeding 50mm average depth). b. Concrete Re-blocking c. Seal Widening d. Preventive Works • New works that protect existing roads from sea or river damage; • Drainage installed to drain incipient slip; • Toe weighting of unstable slopes; • Burming and hedging of slopes; • Protection planting project; and • Work to overcome changes in a river’s course or bed level that threatens the roads, bridges or other road related structures, but which is not attributable to one climatic event.

Local Road Management Manual 206 3.3. Emergency maintenance From time to time, road accidents, extreme weather events, landslides, earthquakes and other incidents may occur. These cause unexpected damage to the road network rendering it impassable, unsafe or restricting its use to the travelling public. At such times, emergency maintenance (as described in in Chapter 4) may be needed and this could include: a. Urgent repairs to damaged road surfaces to make them safe for users, e.g. after rainstorm erosion, unauthorized excavation, or earthquake damage. Removal of fallen trees, land slide debris or debris dropped from passing vehicles, or unauthorized dumping or fly tipping in the RROW; b. Urgent repairs to bridges following serious accidents, bad weather; and c. Signage and maintenance of emergency diversions (detours). Assistance to police/national defense force as required. 4. Common Road Distress The common distress (also presented in in Chapter 4) normally encountered on local roads can be clustered under four (4) components of the road infrastructure as follows: a. Carriageway Rutting; Insufficient surfacing materials; Channeling; Course texture (exposed base); Potholes/ponding; Corrugations; and Absence of crown. b. Drainage Undefined ditches/ponding; Clogged/silted line canal/culverts/box culverts; Water crossing the carriageway; and Obstructed ditches/culverts inlets and outlets. c. Roadside

Chapter 7: Local Road Maintenance Management 207 Excessive vegetation; Tree branches and bushes that obstruct sight distance, inside curves, intersections; and Obstructions (stalled vehicles, roadside stores, shanties, unnecessary stockpiles of aggregates or boulders), and trees within the RROW. d. Traffic services Unreadable warning/regulatory/informative signs; Unpainted/corroded guardrails; Damaged/fallen guardrails; and Presence of vegetation on installed guardrails. 5. Elements of a Maintenance Project a. The preparation of local road maintenance projects by local engineering offices consists of the following elements: b. Selection/prioritization of roads in fair to good condition; c. Conduct and assessment of detailed road condition survey; d. Inspection program and defects report; e. Identification of maintenance activities; f. Preparation of work plans and programs including cost estimates; g. Work scheduling and assignment of work by contract or work by administration; and h. Works management and safe working practices 6. Suggested Minimum Frequency of Maintenance Activities for Local Gravel Roads Only roads in good and fair condition should be maintained. Roads in poor or bad condition should be rehabilitated first into maintainable condition. The suggested rating for local road conditions shown in Chapter 4 is again listed in Table 7.1. The minimum frequencies for maintenance activities for local roads are shown in Table 7.2. The activity standards for these maintenance

Local Road Management Manual 208 activities are fully detailed as Annex 5 of this Manual. Contractors and local engineering offices should follow these suggested frequencies of maintenance activities including these reference standards when implementing maintenance by contract and maintenance by administration, respectively. These maintenance activities can be scheduled throughout the year to prevent the deterioration of the road into poor or bad condition. A sample work schedule for maintenance is shown in Table 7.3. Table 7.1 Recommended Condition Rating for Local Roads Pavement Condition Type/ Road Rating Field Condition Elements Good Sound, even, and no cracks or scaling, normal speed ok at 7080 kph. Even with very minimal hair-like cracks and very Fair minimal surface wearing, normal speed ok at 50- 60 kph. concrete Slightly uneven with minor cracks (<=3mm. width) Poor and wearing surface, joint sealant deterioration normal speed ok at 30-40 kph. With major cracks, shattered slabs, joint deteri- Bad oration and cut/slip, can only travel very slowly, normal speed ok at 20-30 kph. Good Sound, well-shaped, even and waterproof, normal speed ok at 70-80 kph. Even with minor patches and very minimal wear- Fair ing surface but still waterproof, normal speed ok Asphalt at 50-60 kph. Poor Very uneven and porous, with potholes and cracks (<=3mm. Width) normal speed 30-40 kph. Very broken up, rough, with base failures, edge Bad break, can only travel very slowly, normal speed ok at 20-30 kph.

Chapter 7: Local Road Maintenance Management 209 Good Good shape and surface, does not hold water. Fair Flat camber with minor potholes and holding some water. Poor Depressions common, drainage impeded. Bad Extensive ponding, water tends to flow on the Gravel road. Good Good shape and surface, does not hold water. Fair Flat camber with minor potholes and holding some water. Poor Depressions common, drainage impeded. Bad Extensive ponding, water tends to flow on the Earth road, impassable when wet. Good Adequate width, even surface and well maintained. Fair Adequate width, slightly uneven, with few potholes, inadequate maintenance. Poor Inadequate width, very uneven or with many edge break and no maintenance. Bad No effective shoulders, very silted road edge and Shoulder with plenty of vegetation. Road edge well above side drains, well defined Good side drains, sufficient depth, sufficient side slopes to drain water. Fair Road edge slightly level with side drains, not fully efficient side drains, water can cross the road. Road edge slightly below ground level, no side Poor drains or totally blocked side drains, some ponding of water. Bad Road edge well below ground level – road serving Side Drain as a drain to surrounding areas.

Local Road Management Manual 210 Good Sufficient width, even surface, no vegetation, not holding water. Fair Sufficient width, with minimal vegetation and slight- ly uneven. Poor Insufficient width, with ponding of water, insuffi- cient maintenance. Sidewalk Bad No maintenance or no sidewalk. Table 7.2 Suggested Minimum Frequency of Maintenance Activities for Local Gravel Roads Condition Rating Less 200 More Frequency of than to than Maintenance No. Maintenance Activity 200 400 400 Activities Carriageway Manual repair of 101 Unpaved Road 12 12 12 Surface times/year 102 Manual Patching of 5 5 10 times/year (at Unpaved Road Surface 20 cum/km) 103 Machine Grading of 10 15 20 Unpaved Road Surface times/year 104 Machine Grading of 2 2 3 Unpaved Road Surface times/year times/year or a 61X Re-gravelling of 0.2 0.2 0.3 determined by Unpaved Road the gravel loss Surface formula

Chapter 7: Local Road Maintenance Management 211 Roadside Shoulder Manual Repair of Unpaved Road 6 6 6 131 Shoulders times/year Manual Patching of Unpaved Road 10 20 20 times/year (at 132 Shoulders 20 cum/km) Machine Grading of Unpaved Road 1 2 2 times/year 133 Shoulders Re-gravelling of Unpaved Road 0.12 0.2 0.2 times/year 63x Shoulders Roadside Drainage 141 Manual Ditch Cleaning 2 2 2 times/year Manual Inlet/Outlet 2 2 2 times/year 142 Cleaning Manual Culvert Line 2 2 2 times/year 143 Cleaning Roadside Vegetation 201 Vegetation Control 4 4 4 times/year TRAFFIC MAINTENANCE 301 Road sign Maintenance 1 1 1 times/year 303 Guardrail Maintenance 1 1 1 times/year

Local Road Management Manual 212 Table 7.3 Suggested Minimum Frequency of Maintenance Activities for Local Gravel Roads Activity Jan FebMarchAprilMayJune July SeptOctNovDec No. Description Carriageway Maintenance 101 Manual repair of x x x x x x x x x x x x Unpaved Road Surface 102 Manual Patching of x x x x x x x x x x Unpaved Road Surface 103 Machine Patching of x x x x x x Unpaved Road Surfaces 104 Machine Grading of x x Unpaved Road Surface Resurfacing Unpaved x 61x Road Surface Roadside Maintenance (Shoulder) Manual Repair of Unpaved Road x x x x x x x x x X 131 Shoulders Manual Patching of Un- paved Road x x x x x x x x x X 132 Shoulders Machine Patching of Unpaved Road Shoul- x x 133 ders Machine Grading of Unpaved Road Shoul- x x 134 ders Re-surfacing of Unpaved X 63x Road Shoulders

Chapter 7: Local Road Maintenance Management 213 Roadside Maintenance (Drainage) 141 Manual Ditch Cleaning x x x 142 Manual Inlet/outlet cleaning x x x 143 Culvert line cleaning x x x 144 Repair and/or Replace- x x x ment of Minor Structures Roadside Maintenance (Vegetation Control) 201 Vegetation Control x x 202 Erosion Repair and o o o o o Control to Roadsides 203 Repair to major o o o o o o Roadside Structures 209 Other Roadside o o o o o o Maintenance Roadside Maintenance (Vegetation Control) 301 Sign Maintenance x x x x 303 Guardrail Maintenance x x 304 Sight Distance Mowing x x and Clearing 309 Other Traffic Services o o o o o o o o o o o o 7. Cost Estimates for Local Road Maintenance The cost estimates for local road maintenance should follow the recommended computation for direct and indirect costs for By-Contract and By-Administration (see Section 4 of Chapter 5) are presented as follows: a. Direct Costs. These costs are attributed directly to a particular function of work. These are costs which are identifiable from a

Local Road Management Manual 214 particular accounting standpoint as having been incurred in the performance of a specific activity standard. Direct cost elements of each pay item basically involve the following: i. Equipment Cost. These costs may be computed based on latest Edition of ACEL rates or prevailing LGU equipment rental rates, whichever is applicable. The Chapter on Quantity Calculations and Cost Estimation shows construction equipment rental rates using ACEL 2009; ii. Material Cost (including Hauling). LGUs may use the prevailing market rates of materials in their area in computing the material cost; and iii. Labor Cost. The latest minimum wage law updated 8 July 2011 as approved by the National Wages and Productivity Commission should be adapted in the labor cost estimate, which include fringe benefits such as leaves, bonus, Social Security System, Philhealth, Emergency Cost of Living Allowance, PagIBIG, 13th month pay and employees compensation. The Chapter on Quantity Calculations and Cost Estimation shows a sample computation of labor rates. b. Indirect Costs. These costs are mark-ups and value added tax (VAT) that are not directly involved in the execution of the work items. Indirect cost should be computed in accordance with the DPWH latest issuances as much as possible. It is usually taken as a percentage of the estimated direct costs to cover up among other things, expenses that are incurred in the completion of the works, which include, but are not necessarily limited to the following: i. Overhead Expenses: • Supervision (Engineering and Administrative); • Transportation Allowances; • Office Expenses (Office Equipment and Supplies); • Contractor’s All Risk Insurance; and • Financing Cost (Premium). ii. Mobilization/Demobilization; iii. Contingencies;

Chapter 7: Local Road Maintenance Management 215 iv. Miscellaneous Expenses; v. Contractor’s Profit Margin; and vi. Value Added Tax. Ideally, the total project estimated for contracted local road maintenance works should be similar to the suggested project estimate tabulation shown in Section 4.1.4 of Chapter 5 (Table 5.3). For purposes of clarity, the same table is illustrated here as Table 7.4. Again, the Construction cost for the package is estimated by using the unit prices computed and the quantities calculated in the same prescribed format for the Calculation of Approved Budget for the Contract. The total for each Bid Part or Bill Item of this cost estimate is carried to the Summary of Costs and the total project cost is compiled in the Total Project Estimate, which is the Approved Budget for the Contract (ABC) issued in the bid advertisements. 8. Maintenance of Sealed Pavements (Paved Local Roads) Maintenance of sealed pavements (paved local roads) can also be categorized into two types – routine maintenance; and periodic maintenance. Similar to gravel road maintenance, routine maintenance of paved roads (whether asphalt or concrete) is carried out annually to keep the road pavement, road shoulders, side drains, cross drains, roadside verges and road safety devices in good condition. Failure to do so will mean premature deterioration of the pavement, for which pavement replacement is more expensive. In contrast, periodic maintenance for paved roads will require more work items on a wider coverage at fewer frequencies than routine maintenance. Periodic maintenance seeks to preserve the quality of the sealed pavement at whole sections. Cost estimates for the maintenance of sealed pavements will also require the same degree of quantity calculation and cost estimation as gravel road maintenance (see previous section). Unlike gravel roads, the maintenance of sealed pavements are based on the inspection findings for sections showing pavement defects or distress (see the section on local road inventory at the local road planning chapter of this manual). Maintenance measures are then based on the degree of distress over the pavement.

Local Road Management Manual 216 Unit Cost(13) = (12) / (3) otal Cost(12) = T (5) + (11) otal Cost(11) = T Indirect (9) + (10) VAT(10) =12% x [(5) + (9)] alue(9) = V (5) x (8) otal Mark-up(8) =(6) + (7) T % Profit(7) Mark-up in PercentOCM(6) Estimated Direct Cost(5) Unit (4) Approved Budget for Contract (ABC) Quantity(3) t abulation of al Cos ot ork Item (Pay Item) (2) T W able 7.4 Sample TItem No.(1) T

Chapter 7: Local Road Maintenance Management 217 Tables 7.5 to 7.8 below show the typical procedural activities for the maintenance of asphalt pavement. On the other hand, work activities for the maintenance of concrete pavement are shown in Tables 7.9 to 7.11. These procedural steps for the maintenance activities of sealed pavement (asphalt and concrete) are adopted from the Road Maintenance Guidelines of DPWH. Table 7.5 Premix Patching Bituminous Pavements Purpose To eliminate hazardous conditions and to provide smooth, well- drained surfaces. Procedure 1. Remove standing water and temporary patching material from defect or area to be leveled. 2. Shape defects so that; (a) depth provides for sufficient strength; (b) sides are vertical; (c) corners are square or slightly rounded; (d) sides have no abrupt changes in line; and (e) hole is cut back into sound pavement. 3. Add base material if needed. 4. Clean and tack defects or area to be leveled. 5. Place premix in layers and compact each layer. Mix should be placed only within limits of hole and area to be leveled. 6. Final layer should be flushed with surrounding surface. 7. Dig channels through shoulders, if needed, to allow water to drain. 8. Check cross section, profile and drainage. Rework if needed. Notes • Materials to be used should be dense graded asphalt mixture with maximum grain size equal to or less than 19 mm. • Wet part should be heated to be dried with burner. • Laying of asphalt mixture should be approx. 1 cm. higher than the adjacent surroundings to give allowance for settlement. • When depth of pothole is more than 7 cm, compact mixture in two layers.

Local Road Management Manual 218 Table 7.6 Penetration Patching Bituminous Pavements Purpose To provide smooth, well-drained surfaces. This activity is not suitable for repairing hazardous conditions, since lack of mobility prevents quick response. Procedure 1. Remove standing water, if any, from the defects. 2. Shape defects so that; (a) depth provides for sufficient strength; (b) sides are vertical; (c) corners are squared or slightly rounded; (d) sides have no abrupt changes in line; and (e) hole is cut back. 3. Add base material if needed. 4. Place aggregate in layers and compact each layer. 5. Penetrate final layer with asphalt. Avoid using too much asphalt. 6. Apply cover sand and compact. Final layer should be flushed with surrounding surface. 7. Dig channels through shoulders, if needed, to allow water to drain. 8. Check cross section, profile and drainage. Rework if needed. 9. Notes • Penetration macadam is suitable for regions without asphalt plant. • After placing and spreading macadam aggregate, oversize and slender or flat aggregate should be removed. • Bituminous material should be spread uniformly so as to penetrate sufficiently and cover aggregate. • Seal coat surfaces to keep water tightness.

Chapter 7: Local Road Maintenance Management 219 Table 7.7 Sealing Bituminous Pavements Purpose To prevent further deterioration caused by entry of water. Procedure 1. Remove debris from cracks or clean raveled surface. 2. For individual cracks; fill cracks completely with asphalt; use squeegee to force asphalt into cracks and remove excess. 3. For areas; apply asphalt, distribute with broom and remove excess with squeegee. 4. Apply cover sand. Notes • Sealing is generally applied to crack of more than 3mm in width. • Loose damaged part around cracks should be removed. • Fill cracks with bituminous material at a temperature of 180 to 200 degrees centigrade. • For deep crack, fill it twice with asphalt. • Sealing for wide area is effective for preventive maintenance if it is carried out regularly prior to rainy season. • Aggregate to be used should be clean, hard and durable.

Local Road Management Manual 220 Table 7.8 Replacement of Bituminous Pavements Purpose To provide smooth, well-drained pavements. Procedure 1. Remove damaged pavements. 2. Add base material if needed. 3. Clean surface to be covered. 4. Spray liquid asphalt at specified rate as tack coat or prime coat. 5. Place pre-mix in layers and compact each layer, or place aggregate in layers, compact each layer, penetrate final layer with asphalt and apply cover sand. 6. Final layer should be flushed with surrounding surface. Notes • Considering mobility of machine, the width to be replaced should not be less than one lane of the road. • When the cause of damage is due to weak base or sub-base, remove and replace the base or sub-base prior to replacement of bituminous pavement. • Disturbed base when removing damaged bituminous pavement should be leveled and compacted prior to laying of bituminous pavement. • Tack coat or prime coat should be applied uniformly on bottom surface and vertical side as well. • Laying of asphalt mixture should be approx. 0.5 to 1.0 cm. higher than the adjacent surroundings to give allowance for settlement.

Chapter 7: Local Road Maintenance Management 221 Table 7.9 Patching Concrete Pavements Purpose To eliminate hazardous conditions and to provide smooth, well- drained pavements. Procedure 1. Remove standing water defect or area to be leveled. 2. Remove all broken pavement. 3. Remove all chip-off loose/broken pieces of pavement. 4. (a) For defects; shape defects, tack, place pre-mix or penetration patch as in 2-1 and 2-2. (b) For leveling; clean area, tack, place pre-mix as in 2-1. (c) For raveled areas; clean chip-off loose/broken pieces of pavement. Apply asphalt and cover aggregate as in 2-3. 5. Dig channels through high shoulders to allow water to drain to ditch. 6. Check cross section, profile and drainage. Rework, if needed. Notes • Asphalt materials are widely used instead of cement materials for patching due to its easy application. Although cement materials used on the existing PCCP is desirable for patching, it is difficult to cut/taper on the areas to be patched. • Likewise, it takes time before the road will be opened to traffic • Remove damaged part and expose sound part by chipping off to clean the surface to be patched. • Damaged joint and deep cracks should be sealed prior to patching works to prevent water intrusion coming from the lower layer of the road.

Local Road Management Manual 222 Table 7.10 Crack and Joint Sealing of Concrete Pavements Purpose To prevent entry of water, debris and other incompressible materials into cracks and joints and allow the free movement (expansion or contraction) of the pavement. Procedure 1. Heat asphalt to proper temperature, if hot asphalt is used. 2. Remove incompressible materials from cracks or joints, including old filler and blow cracks or joint clean. 3. Pour asphalt in crack or joint to within one-half cm of pavement surface. For large cracks, fill with bituminous pre-mix / aggregate and asphalt. Do not overfill. 4. Remove any excess asphalt by squeegeeing. 5. Check to be sure asphalt do not seep underneath the pavement and that cracks remained filled. Apply cover sand. Notes • Heat asphalt to adequate temperature (180-200). • Clean or blow thoroughly dust and mud in cracks and joints. • Further, remove damaged loose part of surrounding areas. • Pour asphalt in cracks or joints kept in dry conditions. • Causes of cracks should be identified and corrected prior to sealing works.

Chapter 7: Local Road Maintenance Management 223 Table 7.11 Replacement of Concrete Pavements Purpose To provide smooth, well-drained pavements and prevent progressive deterioration of the pavement. Procedure 1. Remove damaged pavement. 2. Add base material, if needed. 3. Salvage waste material suitable for back fill. Place remainder in a sage location for removal. 4. Shape hole so that sides are vertical, corners are square and sides have no abrupt changes in line and hole is cut back into sound pavement. 5. Mix and place concrete and finish to match surrounding surface or place hot mix in layers and compact each layer. 6. Cure concrete. Barricade from traffic for at least 14 days. Notes • Sub-grade or sub-base in poor conditions should be replaced. • Damaged dowel bars of existing slab should be replaced. • For contact surface with existing slab, joint should be installed to cut adhesion between old and new concrete. In addition, underlay paper is used on the sub-base surface to reduce friction with concrete slab.

Local Road Management Manual 224 CHAPTER 8 LOCAL ROAD ENVIRONMENTAL SAFEGUARDS

Chapter 8: Local Road Environmental Safeguards: 225 1. The Philippine Environmental Impact Statement System (PEISS) Road development activities that are likely to affect the environment can be properly assessed and managed. The process is in keeping with the policy of continuously improving the environmental performance of any infrastructure development activity and demonstrating commitment to sound environmental management practices. Government efforts to secure compliance with the principles of sustainable development are embodied in the Philippine Environmental Impact Statement System (PEISS). The PEISS is implemented by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) through DENR Administrative Order No. 30, Series of 2003 (DAO 03-30), which contains the implementing rules and regulations of the PEISS law. This chapter should be read in conjunction with the other references cited in the DAO 2003-30 manual of procedures and its associated technical and scientific manuals. The basic policy framework for the PEISS is found in Section 16, Article II, of the Philippine Constitution: “The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.” To implement this policy, Executive Order 192 made the DENR the “primary government agency responsible for the conservation, management, development and proper use of the country’s environment and natural resources.” The DENR’s Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) is specifically tasked with “recommending rules and regulations for environmental impact assessments and providing technical assistance for their implementation and monitoring.” The first policy issued on the PEISS was Presidential Decree (PD) No. 1151, which required all agencies and instrumentalities of the national government, including government-owned and government-controlled corporations, as well as private corporations, firms and entities to prepare an environmental impact statement for every action, project or undertaking which significantly affects the quality of the environment. PD 1586, which established the PEISS, reiterated this policy statement and required the submission of an environmental impact statement

Local Road Management Manual 226 (EIS) for environmentally critical projects (ECPs) and projects within environmentally critical areas (ECAs). No ECP or project within an ECA may operate without an environmental compliance certificate (ECC) issued by DENR. Presidential Proclamation No. 2146, Series of 1981, later gave more technical details about the areas and types of projects that were considered environmentally critical. Several refinements have been made in the PEISS to improve its effectiveness as a planning, management, and regulatory tool against the country’s environmental problems. The DENR has always strived to strengthen the system by continuously introducing new features and requirements as economic realities change and as the Filipino people grow in environmental awareness. The latest of these improvement efforts is DAO 2003-30, which supersedes all previous orders on PEISS implementation. DAO 2003- 30 vests in the DENR secretary and the EMB director and regional directors the authority to grant ECCs or deny their issuance. According to DAO 2003-30, the basic policy and operating principles behind the implementation of the PEISS are as follows: a. The PEISS primarily assesses the direct and indirect impact of a project on the biophysical and human environment and makes sure that appropriate measures are taken to protect and preserve the environment; b. The PEISS aids project proponents in including environmental considerations in project planning by determining the project’s potential environmental impacts and its corresponding mitigation measures; c. Project proponents are responsible for determining and disclosing all relevant information necessary for a methodical assessment of the environmental impact of their projects; d. The EMB reviews each ECC application against these three general criteria: (i) environmental impact must be considered in project planning, (ii) the environmental impact assessment (EIA) must be technically sound and the proposed mitigation measures effective, and (iii) social acceptability must be based on the participation of an informed public; e. Effective regulatory review of the ECC application depends largely on timely, full, and accurate disclosure of relevant

Chapter 8: Local Road Environmental Safeguards: 227 information by project proponents and other stakeholders in the EIA process; f. The extent of meaningful public participation in discussions about the project’s environmental impact is assessed during the review of the ECC application and determines the social acceptability of the project; and\ g. The timelines given in DAO 2003-30 for an ECC to be issued or denied apply only to processes and actions within the control of the EMB and exclude actions or activities for which the proponent is responsible. 2. Other Relevant Philippine Environmental Laws There are other environmental laws in the Philippines that are relevant to local road development. These laws are the following: a. Republic Act No. 8749 (Clean Air Act of 1999) governs the management of air quality in the Philippines. The act seeks to keep ambient air quality within guideline values conducive to public health, safety, and welfare; reduce air pollution from area, stationary, and mobile sources; and improve fuel quality; b. Republic Act No. 9275 (Clean Water Act of 2004) was passed to protect the country’s water bodies from pollution from land- based sources (industries and commercial establishments, agriculture, and community and household activities). It provides for a comprehensive and integrated strategy for preventing and minimizing pollution through a multi-sectoral and participatory approach involving all the stakeholders; and c. Republic Act No. 9003 (Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000) provides the legal framework for a systematic, comprehensive, and ecologically correct program of solid waste management that also safeguards public health. It emphasizes, among other things, the creation of institutional mechanisms and incentives, and imposes penalties for violations of its provisions.

Local Road Management Manual 228 These laws do not necessarily exclude other, equally important laws that deal with concerns pertaining to wildlife management, endangered species, historical places, archaeological resources, water use, and sanitation. Among these other legal issuances are the following: a. Presidential Decree No. 856 (Sanitation Code of 1975); b. Presidential Decree No. 1067 (Water Code of 1976); c. Presidential Decree No. 1152 (Environment Code of 1977); and d. DENR DAO No. 34, Series of 1990 (Revised Water Usage and Classification/Water Quality Criteria Amending Sections 68 and 69, Chapter III, of the 1978 National Pollution Control Commission Rules and Regulations). In terms of land acquisition and resettlement, the legal framework that are applicable to local road development are: a. Republic Act No. 8974 (An Act to Facilitate the Acquisition of Right-of-Way, Site or Location for National Government Infrastructure Projects and for Other Purposes); and b. Republic Act No. 7279 (Urban Development and Housing Act of 1992). 3. Local Government Policies The mandate for environmental management at the subnational level of government derives from the environmental codes of the LGUs (provinces, municipalities, and cities). The LGU environmental codes are based on the provisions of the Philippine Constitution and on Sec. 3 (i) of RA 7160 (Local Government Code of 1991), which states that “Local Government Units shall share with the national government the responsibility in the management and maintenance of ecological balance within their territorial jurisdiction, subject to the provisions of this Code and national policies.” Co-management by LGUs is sought in the implementation of national policies for the following, among others: (a) forest resources management; (b) biodiversity protection and cultural resources preservation; (c) mineral resources management; (d) water resources management; (e) solid waste management; (f) air pollution control; (g) water pollution control; (h) environmental assessment and monitoring;

Chapter 8: Local Road Environmental Safeguards: 229 (i) land management; (j) energy development and conservation; (k) ecological tourism development and management; and (l) engineering and infrastructure management. Provincial, municipal, and city environment and natural resources officers are responsible for implementing the environmental codes for their respective LGUs. Their duties and responsibilities, as well as eligibility requirements, are defined in the Local Government Code. Local environment and natural resources officers coordinate with government agencies, particularly the DENR, and with nongovernment organizations in implementing measures to prevent and control land, air, and water pollution. The scope and coverage of monitoring by these LGU officers is defined in the environmental management plan (EMP)—impact management plan, environmental monitoring plan, social development framework, etc.—developed during the project’s initial environmental evaluation (IEE), and restated in the ECC. 4. The Revised PEISS Manual of Procedures According to the PEISS manual of procedures, EIA integrates environmental concerns during the feasibility study of project planning phase, when the project configuration is reviewed and environmental management and monitoring plans are drafted. New road projects requiring new road openings or clearing and road traversing or leading to NIPAS areas falls under the scope of the PEISS and requires an EIA or an issuance ECC prior to proceeding to the construction stage. If the project’s EIA receives a positive review from the DENR-EMB, an ECC will issued with corresponding conditions that should be implemented during project implementation. 4.1. Role of Environmental Impact Assessment The EIA process performs distinct functions at various stages in the project cycle, which can be described below: a. Pre-feasibility stage. EIA checks whether the proposed project is covered by the PEISS or not. PEISS coverage requires an application process, which starts with an initial rapid assessment of the project site and impact to determine the location of the project and arrive at a preliminary scope of key environmental issues. A Certificate of Non-Coverage

Local Road Management Manual 230 (CNC) may be secured from DENR-EMB for projects that will not require an ECC issuance to ensure that the proposed projects do not fall under the scope of the PEISS. A draft Environmental Management Plan (EMP) Report will be prepared by the local government’s environmental unit or a qualified preparer (if full EIA) to outline the recommended mitigation measures to identified potential project impacts; b. Project feasibility study. Environmental impact is assessed in detail and the final project configuration is established together with the EMP. A formal application for the project is submitted to the DENR, together with the EIA results. A positive review is followed by a DENR decision stating the commitments and other requirements of compliance with environmental regulations and environmental best practices; c. Detailed engineering design. The generic measures identified during the EIA study at the feasibility stage are made more specific, in view of the project design and operating specifications. Before the project is built or implemented, more baseline monitoring may have to be done to support the environmental management and monitoring plans; and d. Construction, Operation and Maintenance. Environmental mitigation measures are implemented when the project is first constructed, developed, and operated and throughout its lifetime, and environmental performance is continuously monitored. Findings are used as basis for the continuous improvement of the project and the parallel updating of the EMP. Major road improvement may need new formal applications for DENR approval, referring back to previous approvals. 4.2. Environmental Assessment Requirements DAO 2003-30 sets thresholds for the project categories under the PEISS. There are four categories of projects:

Chapter 8: Local Road Environmental Safeguards: 231 a. Category A: Environmentally-critical projects (ECPs) with significant potential for adverse environmental impact. ECPs comprise projects in the heavy or resource extractive industries, as well as some infrastructure and golf course projects; b. Category B: Projects that are not environmentally critical but may have negative effects because they are in Environmentally Critical Areas (ECAs); c. Category C: Projects intended to improve environmental quality or address environmental problems; and d. Category D: Projects that were operating before 1982, projects that do not fall under other categories, or projects that are unlikely to have adverse environmental impact. Under Administrative Order 42 (issued by the Office of the President in 2002), all category A and B projects require an ECC before implementation, while category C and D projects require a certificate of non-coverage (CNC). The PEISS manual of procedures identifies four ECP types under Category A and 12 ECA types under category B as shown in the corresponding technical definitions listed in Table 8.1. Table 8.1 Environmentally Critical Projects and Environmental Critical Areas (DENR Administrative Order 30, Series of 2003) Environmentally Critical Environmentally Critical Areas Projects Under Proclamation No. 2146 Under Proclamation No. 2146 of 1981: of 1981: a. Heavy industries: a. Legally designated national parks, Nonferrous metal industries, watershed reserves, wildlife preserves, iron and steel mills, sanctuaries; petroleum and petroleum b. Areas with aesthetic potential, set chemical industries aside for tourism; (including oil and gas), c. Areas that constitute the habitat of any smelting plants; endangered or threatened species of Philippine wildlife (flora and fauna);

Local Road Management Manual 232 b. Resource extractive d. Areas of unique historic, industries: Major mining archaeological, or scientific interest; and quarrying projects, e. Areas traditionally occupied by cultural forestry projects (logging, communities or tribes; major wood processing f. Areas often visited or hit hard by projects, introduction natural calamities (geologic hazards, of exotic animals into floods, typhoons, volcanic activity, public and private etc.); forests, forest occupancy, g. Areas with critical slopes; Areas extraction of mangrove classified as prime agricultural land; products, grazing), fishery h. Recharged areas of aquifers; projects (dikes, fishpond development projects); and i. Water bodies with one or a c. Infrastructure projects: combination of these conditions: Major dams, major designated for domestic use; located power plants (fossil- within controlled or protected areas fueled, nuclear-fueled, declared as such by appropriate hydroelectric, or authorities; or supporting wildlife and geothermal), major fishery activities; reclamation projects, major j. Mangrove areas with one or a roads and bridges. combination of these conditions: Under Proclamation No. 803 of supporting primary pristine and dense 1996: young growth; adjoining the mouth of major river systems; located near a. All golf course projects or beside traditional productive fry or fishing grounds; acting as natural buffer against shore erosion, strong winds, and storm floods; or providing local residents with their main source of livelihood; and k. Coral reefs with one or a combination of these conditions: having at least 50% live coralline algae cover; used as fish spawning and nursery grounds; or acting as natural breakwater

Chapter 8: Local Road Environmental Safeguards: 233 There are five main project groups under DAO 30-2003 (see Table 8.2). Of particular interest is group IV, which often becomes the single most relevant group if road development projects in the LGUs are pursued according to LGU road network development plans. Such co-located projects may require a programmatic approach and a programmatic initial environmental examination. The EMP, based on that initial environmental examination, will support the application for an ECC that covers all present and future ro