of the J. Paul Getty Museum
of the J. Paul Getty Museum
THE J. PAUL GETTY MUSEUM
Landscape with the Story of
Venus and Adonis [detail]
Bodycolor heightened with
gold on vellum
92.GG.28 (See no. 56)
At the J. Paul Getty Museum:
Christopher Hudson, Publisher
Mark Greenberg, Managing Editor
Benedicte Gilman, Editor
Suzanne Watson Petralli, Production Coordinator
Charles Passela, Photographer
Text for the Italian, French, Spanish, and British schools
prepared by Nicholas Turner; text for the German and Swiss
and for the Dutch and Flemish schools prepared by Lee Hendrix
Designed and produced by Thames and Hudson
and copublished with the J. Paul Getty Museum
© 1997 The J. Paul Getty Museum
1200 Getty Center Drive
Los Angeles, California 900491687
Library of Congress Card Number 9623151
Color reproductions by CLG Fotolito, Verona, Italy
Printed and bound in Singapore by C.S. Graphics
DIRECTOR'S FOREWORD 6
NOTE TO THE READER 7
ITALIAN SCHOOL 8
GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS 54
DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS 70
FRENCH SCHOOL 84
SPANISH SCHOOL 116
BRITISH SCHOOL 120
INDEX OF ARTISTS 128
This book offers a sampling of the Getty Museum's five hundredodd drawings, every
one of which has been bought within the past fifteen years. Such a rapid growth deserves
J. Paul Getty died in 1976, leaving to his museum an unexpected legacy worth
seven hundred million dollars. Getty's art collection—which was installed in his house
in Malibu and opened to the public in 1954, then moved twenty years later to the
reconstructed Roman villa he had built for the purpose—was an expression of his
personal taste and always narrow in scope: there were Classical antiquities, French
furniture and decorative arts, and European paintings. There were no drawings. In
1981 it was evident to the trustees (who were also envisioning new programs for
scholarship, conservation, and education that would be undertaken by the Getty Trust)
that the Museum's collections could not only be strengthened but also diversified.
When the wellknown Rembrandt chalk drawing Nude Woman with a Snake (no. 62)
appeared at auction, George Goldner, an art historian and drawings collector who was
serving as head of the Museum's photo archive, persuaded the Board that they should
buy it. They did, and subsequently took his recommendations for several dozen more
purchases. When I arrived in 1983, we established a curatorship and a Department of
Drawings, and George Goldner spent a decade building the collection energetically and
shrewdly. He has been succeeded by Nicholas Turner, whose purchases since 1993 have
added to the strength of the collection and altered its shape.
Drawings were a natural choice for the Getty Museum. They have a logical relation
with our paintings and sculpture, and since many excellent drawings still remained in
private hands, we had a chance of creating a distinguished group. Since drawings are
the most direct works of art, they have an unusual appeal to museum visitors. Their
spontaneity helps make them accessible, and so does the fact that most of us have
struggled with drawing ourselves.
The aim of the collection is to represent the different schools of European drawing
until 1900 with examples of the first quality. In 1981 few would have thought it
possible to succeed so well. Sales from English country houses such as Chatsworth (in
1984 and 1987) and Holkham (in 1991) were a boon. In general, however, the market
has been increasingly impoverished, and the brilliant rarities of the 1980s seldom
appear. Since fewer fine older drawings are available nowadays, the focus of the
collection has shifted somewhat, toward eighteenth and nineteenthcentury examples.
The collection is being published in a series of catalogues: Volume 1, by George R.
Goldner, with the assistance of Lee Hendrix and Gloria Williams, in 1988; Volume 2,
by George R. Goldner and Lee Hendrix with the assistance of Kelly Pask, in 1992;
6 DIRECTOR'S FOREWORD
Volume 3, by Nicholas Turner, Lee Hendrix, and Carol Plazzotta, in 1997. Volume 4 is
The text of this book was written by Nicholas Turner and Lee Hendrix, who have
my warm thanks.
As I write, a gallery for regular exhibitions of drawings from the collection is being
finished at the new Getty Museum at the Getty Center in west Los Angeles, which is to
open at the end of 1997. Plans are being made for loan exhibitions of drawings as well.
We hope above all that readers who make discoveries in this book will come to see the
NOTE TO THE READER
In the dimensions height precedes width; diameter is abbreviated Diam.
List of abbreviated catalogue references:
Cat. I = George R. Goldner et al. European Drawings, vol. 1. Catalogue of the Collections. Malibu,
The J. Paul Getty Museum, 1988.
Cat. II = George R. Goldner and Lee Hendrix. European Drawings, vol. 2. Catalogue of the
Collections. Malibu, The J. Paul Getty Museum, 1992.
Cat. Ill = Nicholas Turner, Lee Hendrix, and Carol Plazzotta. European Drawings, vol. 3. Catalogue
of the Collections. Los Angeles, The J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997.
NOTE TO THE READER 7
1 ANDREA MANTEGNA
Italian, circa 14311506
Study of Four Saints: Peter,
Paul, John the Evangelist,
Pen and brown ink, traces of red
chalk on book held by Saint Zeno
19.5 x 13.1 cm (7 11/16 x 5 3/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 22; 84.GG.91
The four saints occur in the lefthand wing of the triptych of the Virgin and Child
with Saints, known as "The Altarpiece of San Zeno," painted by Mantegna in
145659 for the high altar of the Church of San Zeno, Verona, and still in situ. It is
one of the great Renaissance altarpieces, and it marks an important turning point in the
history of painting from the late Gothic toward the new style. The figures in all three
panels are unified by a common architectural setting—an opensided pavilion capped
by a heavy cornice, the elaborately decorated piers of which occupy what appears as
empty space above the figures in the drawing. Visible in the drawing's lower left and
right corners are the profiles of the bases of the columns of the frame.
The relationship of the figures to the overall format of the space is one of the most
important differences in composition between the drawing and the painting, and it
shows that the artist was toying with the idea of massing the figures to the left to reveal
an open gap to the right rather than spreading them evenly across the whole area, as
in the end result.
Mantegna is one of the great masters of the Renaissance in northern Italy. He
was especially absorbed by the thencurrent revival of art and letters that occurred
throughout much of Italy under the influence of classical models. His mature paintings
are imbued with this new fascination for the classical past.
Like nos. 89, 1113, 16, 20, 22, 51, 59, 61, and 63, this drawing formerly
belonged to the dukes of Devonshire at Chatsworth House, England (see the D
collection mark, surmounted by a ducal coronet, that appears in the lower right of
this sheet and on most of the other drawings).
8 ITALIAN SCHOOL
2 LEONARDO DA VINCI
Studies for the Christ Child
with a Lamb
Pen and brown ink and black chalk
21 x 14.2 cm (8¼ x 5/16 in.)
Cat. II, no. 22; 86.GG.725
Leonardo probably made this drawing in preparation for a painting of the Virgin and
Child with Saint John, now lost but known through copies, one of which is in the
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Three of the studies in the present sheet are in ink, while
another three are faintly drawn in black chalk. The number of different sketches for the
same figure group indicates the painter's painstaking approach to the planning of his
compositions. Leonardo, who was left-handed, inscribed the drawing at the top of the
sheet and on the reverse in his characteristic mirror script, that is, with backwards
Leonardo was the most versatile genius of the Italian Renaissance—a musician,
scientist, inventor, and thinker as well as an artist. He must also rate as one of the
greatest draftsmen in the history of Western European art, possessing prodigious
powers of observation as well as great technical facility in various media.
He was born near Vinci, in Tuscany, and trained in Florence, where he spent his
early career, before transferring to Milan (1481—99). He returned to Florence in 1500,
where he remained, with interruptions, until 1506; it was in this period that he must
have made the present drawing.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 9
3 FILIPPINO LIPPI
Two Studies of a Nude Youth,
and Other Studies
Metalpoint, heightened with white
bodycolor, on gray prepared paper
27.1 x 17.4 cm (10 11/16 x 6 in.)
Cat. Ill, no. 25; 91.GG.33 verso
Metalpoint, a forerunner of the modern graphite pencil, is an exacting medium, but
one that allows for great delicacy of touch. It was in frequent use in the fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries in Italy and the Netherlands (see, for example, no. 11). The ground,
usually composed of powdered bones mixed with a waterbased binder, was tinted and
brushed on evenly over the paper to provide a coarse surface to receive the line from the
point. As in this example, highlights were applied with the brush in Chinese White.
The responsiveness of the material made it convenient for drawing from life.
The Florentine painter Filippino Lippi was trained by Sandro Botticelli, whose
rhythmical use of line exerted a strong influence on him. In this drawing, the graceful
poses of the figure and the decorative treatment of the drapery have the same
expressiveness as some of the artist's late paintings, which are dramatic and even
eccentric in their effects.
The studies of the nude youth were probably made to prepare the figure of
Saint Sebastian in Lippi's altarpiece of Saints Sebastian, John the Baptist, and
Francis (Genoa, Palazzo Bianco), 1503, one of his last works.
10 ITALIAN SCHOOL
(Baccio della Porta)
Madonna and Child with Saints
Black chalk, with some traces of
37.4 x 28.2 cm (14¾ x 11 in.)
Cat. I, no. 5; 85.GB.288
This is a study, with appreciable differences, for the unfinished altarpiece in monochrome
in the Museo di San Marco, Florence. Fra Bartolommeo had been commissioned in
1510 to paint the picture for the space in the middle of one of the long walls of the
Sala del Gran Consiglio of the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, the council chamber of the
Florentine republic. It was to have divided the pendant wall decorations of the Battle
of Anghiari and the Battle of Cascina, which had earlier been commissioned from
Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, respectively, though only Leonardo's painting
was ever started. Fra Bartolommeo explored his composition in a number of preparatory
studies, of which this is one of the finest and most complete.
Fra Bartolommeo briefly gave up painting when, in 1500, he became a monk, but
in 1504 he returned to his avocation.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 11
5 MICHELANGELO Michelangelo treated the subject of the Virgin and Child many times during his
BUONARROTI long career—in painting and sculpture, as well as in drawing. Here he has chosen
Italian, 14751564 to represent an unusual variant of the theme, not specifically related in the Bible,
The Holy Family with the Infant
Saint John the Baptist (Rest on according to which the infant Baptist and two angels join the Holy Family on an
the Flight into Egypt) interlude in their flight into Egypt. The sculptural effect of the central group of the
Virgin and two children is achieved both by a combination of different media drawn
Black and red chalk with pen and
brown ink over stylus underdrawing on top of each other—stylus underdrawing, red and then black chalk, followed by pen
28 x 39.4 cm (11 x 15½ in.) and brown ink—and by the finely modulated hatching and crosshatching (shading).
Cat. Ill, no.29; 93.GB.51 Especially the pen work shows the dynamism of the artist's creative process and the
extent to which he changed his drawing as his ideas took shape. This is particularly
evident in the head of the Virgin, which is rendered both looking downward to the
left and upward to the right.
The drawing has been dated around 1530. Its purpose remains unknown, but it
may be a sketch for a marble basrelief. The composition certainly suggests realization
in this medium, with the central group evidently in higher relief than the flanking
figures. The motif of the Virgin suckling the Christ Child occurs in a sculpture by
Michelangelo in the Medici Chapel, Florence, a commission on which he was engaged
at about this time.
Michelangelo is one of the most outstanding personalities in the history of
European art, unique in his fourfold supremacy as sculptor, painter, architect, and
draftsman. Trained in Florence, he was in Rome in 1496—1501, where he sculpted
the marble Pieta for the Basilica of Saint Peter. In 1508, Pope Julius II commissioned
him to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, the private chapel of the popes in the
Vatican, a work that must rank as the greatest masterpiece of Italian painting. In 1516,
Michelangelo returned to Florence, where he was employed by the ruling Florentine
family, the Medici. From 1520 onward he worked on the erection of their family
chapel, known as the Sagrestia nuova (New sacristy), adjacent to one of the transepts
of their Church of San Lorenzo, and on the construction of the Medici tombs inside.
12 ITALIAN SCHOOL
6 LORENZO LOTTO
Italian, circa 14801556/57
Saint Martin Dividing His
Cloak with a Beggar
Brush and graybrown wash,
white and cream bodycolor,
over black chalk on brown paper
31.4 x 21.7 cm (12 x 8 9/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 20; 83.GG.262
The fourthcentury Christian saint Martin of Tours was a preacher and the founder of
the first monasteries in France. He is usually dressed either as a Roman soldier or as a
bishop and is well known for the charitable act he is here shown performing—cutting
his cloak in two in order to share it with a naked beggar. In the drawing, the beggar
covers his body with his half as Saint Martin gazes down at him, sword in hand, his
own nowtruncated part of the cloak billowing out protectively over the beggar's head.
The steep perspective of the architectural background suggests that the
composition perhaps was intended for a painted organ shutter to be seen high above
the spectator. The lively movement of the figures, with the saint leaning steeply out of
the space, is characteristic of Lotto's invention, while typical of the artist's humor is the
knowing glint in the horse's eye, which a little disconcertingly captures the viewer's
The drawing is unique in the artist's graphic work in being signed; [Laur] entius
Lotus appears on the reverse.
14 ITALIAN SCHOOL
7 ANDREA PREVITALI
Italian, circa 14801528
Portrait of a Young Woman
Black chalk with some white chalk
34.7 x 25.9 cm (13 11/16 x 10 3/16 in.)
Cat. Ill, no. 38; 94.GB.36
During the Italian Renaissance, portrait drawing attained a high level of accomplishment.
In this example, the unidentified sitter gazes directly at the viewer. Her simple beauty
contrasts with her rich costume, lacetrimmed blouse, and complicated coiffure. The
latter, fashionable in the 1520s and 1530s, was known as a cuffia and was made of hair
interwoven with ribbons and other decorations. Although the portrait was possibly
made for a painting, it could equally well have been a work in its own right.
The attribution of the drawing is uncertain, but it is now usually given to the north
Italian painter Andrea Previtali. Although there is no direct correspondence with any
of Previtali's painted work, good general comparisons may be made with some of the
female heads in his pictures.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 15
8 TITIAN As the old inscription indicates, this magnificent finished landscape study is given by
(Tiziano Vecellio) tradition to the great Venetian Renaissance painter Titian, whose drawings are rare.
Italian, circa 14801576 There are analogies of composition with certain details in his pictures, for example the
Pastoral Scene background of Venus and Cupid with a Luteplayer (Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum).
Pen and brown ink, black chalk, The subject is enigmatic. The nude woman on the right with a drapery covering
with some corrections in white her head is incongruously juxtaposed with a flock of sheep, accompanied by a boar
bodycolor in the trees
19.6 x 30.1 cm (7 11/16 x 11 7/8 in.) and a goat, tended by two shepherds resting beneath the clump of trees in the center.
Cat. I, no. 51; 85.GG.98 The pen work is smoothly and exquisitely handled, achieving an impressive variety of
technical effects, the meticulous execution and concern for detail admirably suggesting
the light, space, and different physical forms of the landscape.
16 ITALIAN SCHOOL
9 BALDASSARE PERUZZI The drawing appears to show the Greek warrior Odysseus, one of the heroes of the
Italian, 14811536 Trojan War, inviting the daughters of Lycomedes, King of Scyros, into a palace in a
Odysseus and the Daughters stratagem to discover which one of them is actually Achilles in disguise. It had been
of Lycomedes foretold to Thetis, Achilles' mother, that her son would die in the Trojan War. To
Pen and brown ink, black chalk, prevent this from occurring, she dressed him as a maiden and sent him to live among
and white bodycolor heightening,
squared in black chalk the daughters of Lycomedes. To reveal Achilles' identity, Odysseus offered the daughters
17.6 x 24.2 cm (6 15/16 x 9½ in.) a selection of gifts—jewels, dresses, etc., together with a sword, spear, and shield. While
Cat. I, no. 30; 85.GG.39 the daughters were choosing, Odysseus ordered a trumpet blast and clash of arms to
sound outside, whereupon Achilles betrayed himself by snatching up the weapons. At
his discovery, Achilles immediately promised Odysseus his assistance in the war against
Troy, in which he indeed met his death.
This is a sketch for one of the four oval frescoes Peruzzi painted in 1520—23 on the
vault of the northeast cupola of the loggia of the Villa Madama, Rome. A second oval
contains a fresco showing the discovery of Achilles.
The drawing is squared, that is, lightly ruled with a grid of squares in black chalk
to allow the design to be transferred to another surface preparatory to painting. An
enlarged grid, drawn to the same proportion as that in the sketch, was made on the
picture surface, and the artist then copied in turn the configuration of lines within
each square, thereby obtaining a remarkably accurate, enlarged replica of his design.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 17
Studies for the "Disputa"
Pen and brown ink
31.2 x 20.8 cm (12¼ x 8 3/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 38; 84.GA.920
This is a study for one of the figure groups in the left foreground of the Disputa, one
of four frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura of the Vatican, which together constitute
one of the artist's great masterpieces. Raphael painted the room for Pope Julius II in
1509—11. Three of the scenes correspond to the faculties into which human knowledge
was then organized, with the Disputa representing Theology. The composition
juxtaposes serene and regularly arranged divine beings in a hemicycle above with the
random groupings of theologians, around an altar, attempting to grasp the mystery of
the Faith. The main figure in this study is for the so-called philosopher who in the
finished fresco stands turned away from the spectator in the center of the group to
the left of the altar. The handling of the drawing shows the extraordinary clarity and
economy of Raphael's style.
Raphael was one of the great geniuses of the Italian High Renaissance, a short
flowering of talent that occurred, principally in Rome, under the influence of classical
models. He was preeminent both as a draftsman and as a painter.
18 ITALIAN SCHOOL
Saint Paul Rending His Garments
Metalpoint heightened with white
bodycolor, on pale violetgray
23 x 10.3 cm (91/6 x 41/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 39; 84.GG.919
This drawing is a study for the figure of Saint Paul in the cartoon of the Sacrifice at
Lystra, one of seven surviving cartoons representing scenes from the lives of Saints Peter
and Paul, now in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London. Cartoons are fullsized
drawings made at the end of the preparatory process to transfer the outlines of the
composition onto the surface to be woven or painted, either by pricking through the
outlines or by indenting them with a stylus (this latter method being possible only for
the transfer to a surface harder than linen).
Pope Leo X had commissioned Raphael to make the cartoons for a series of ten
tapestries to decorate the lower walls of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican. The tapestries
were woven from the back, so the design of the cartoons is the reverse of the final result.
The figure in this drawing thus appears in the opposite direction in the tapestry in the
Saint Paul tore his garments in anger at the people of Lystra, who, following his
healing of a crippled man, prepared a sacrifice to him and Saint Barnabas, thinking that
they were Mercury and Jupiter come down to earth as men. When the priest of Jupiter
brought oxen and garlands for sacrifice, the apostles "rent their clothes, and ran in
among the people, crying out" (Acts, 14:14).
ITALIAN SCHOOL 19
12 PORDENONE The subject of this
(Giovanni Antonio de' Sacchis) extraordinarily powerful
Italian, 1483/84-1539 drawing is the gruesome
Martyrdom of Saint Peter Martyr death of Saint Peter Martyr, a
Red chalk thirteenth-century Dominican
24.4 x 20.7 cm (9 x 8 in.)
Cat. II, no. 36; 87.GB.91 saint renowned for the officious
zeal with which he pursued
heretics. He was murdered by
assassins hired by two Venetian
noblemen whom he had caused
to be imprisoned by the
The study is connected
with Pordenone's finished
compositional drawing of the subject in the Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, 1526-28,
which demonstrates that he, along with Palma Vecchio, competed with Titian for the
commission to paint an altarpiece of the Assassination of Saint Peter Martyr for the
Venetian Basilica of Santi Giovanni e Paolo. Titian was awarded the contract. His
picture, completed in 1530, perished in a fire in 1867.
13 CORREGGIO This is a modello (finished sketch) for the
(Antonio Allegri) medallion, supported to each side by
Italian, 1489/94-1534 two pairs of standing nude putti
Christ in Glory (child angels), in the center of
Red chalk, brown and gray wash, the underside of the entrance
heightened with white bodycolor arch to the del Bono Chapel in
(partly oxidized), lightly squared in
red chalk, on a pink ground; the Church of San Giovanni
circle inscribed in brown ink Evangelista, Parma; the execution
14.6 x 14.6 cm (5¾ x 5¾ in.)
Cat. II, no. 15; 87.GB.90 of the decoration is generally
dated 1520-23. Correggio
had previously painted his
famous decoration of the cupola and
pendentives of the crossing in 1 520—21.
Correggio, the leading Renaissance
painter of the school of Parma, was renowned
for the gracefulness and sensuousness of his figures. He adopted Leonardo's sfumato
(muted) effects and was influenced by Michelangelo. In the present drawing, something
of the "softness" of Correggio's paintings is conveyed by the creamy treatment of light.
The attractive range of pinks that results from the combination of red chalk and white
heightening is also characteristic of the pictorialism of Correggios draftsmanship.
20 ITALIAN SCHOOL
Black and white chalk
28.4 x 40.5 cm (11 3/16 x 15 /16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 35; 83.GG.379
This study belongs with a group of other drawings by Pontormo for the same figure in
the Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, and in Rotterdam. They are connected with a Pieta,
the central panel of a predella (the series of small paintings sometimes grouped beneath
an altarpiece), in the National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin. The exact purpose of the
predella remains a matter of speculation, but it may have been intended to decorate the
base of Pontormo's early altarpiece of the Madonna and Child with Saints in the Church
of San Michele Visdomini, Florence, painted in 1518. The predella, which is partly
based on drawings by Pontormo, must, however, have postdated the altarpiece by
several years and may well have been executed by an assistant. This identification of the
connection of the drawing is supported by the study for a figure of Saint Francis on the
other side of the sheet, which is unquestionably for one of the figures in the Visdomini
With the drawing turned clockwise ninety degrees, it is possible to see more clearly
a study for a woman standing in profile to the right drawn below the figure of Christ.
This relates to a fragment of another study for this same figure cut off to the right by
the edge of the sheet.
Pontormo is regarded as a leading exponent of the anticlassical style known as
Mannerism, which followed the High Renaissance. The term was first coined as an
expression of disfavor to emphasize what was generally thought to be the decline that
had taken place in Italian art immediately following its period of greatest achievement.
Pontormo's work typifies this early phase of Mannerism, and it is true that the
emotional intensity of much of his painting and drawing strikes a contrast with the
harmonious, classical ideal that had gone before.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 21
15 ROSSO FIORENTINO The drawing has been dated around 153840.
(Giovanni Battista di Jacopo The figure appears in reverse in a print based on it
di Gasparre) by the French engraver Rene Boyvin, datable in the
Empedocles 1550s. Empedocles (fl. circa 444 B.C.) came from
Agrigentum in Sicily. Although of wealthy stock,
Red chalk with black chalk in the he took part in the revolution that removed
horizon line, the outlines gone over
with the stylus for transfer Thrasydaeus, the son and successor of the tyrant of
25.1 x 14.8 cm (9 x 5 /16 in.) Agrigentum, Theron. In establishing a democratic
Cat. I, no.43; 83.GB.261 political order, Empedocles zealously supported the
poor and persecuted the overbearing conduct of
the aristocrats. He was an orator and naturalist,
who through penetrating knowledge of the natural
world gained a reputation for curative powers, even being credited with the ability to
avert epidemics. It is therefore not surprising that in this representation of him Rosso
should have suggested certain analogies with the attributes of Saint Roch, the Christian
saint frequently invoked for protection against the plague.
In 1526, commissioned by Federigo Gonzaga, Giulio Romano
began the construction of the Palazzo del Te in Mantua, the
Gonzaga family's new residence, which was one of the first
Mannerist buildings deliberately to flout the canons of classical
This drawing is a design for the fresco for the octagonal
central compartment of the ceiling of the Sala d'Attilio Regolo
of the Casino della Grotta in the garden of the palace. This part
of the palace was built around 1530, and the decoration was
completed by 1534.
The composition shows a personification of the city of
Mantua seated at the center receiving various attributes from
attendant figures, an allusion to the good governance of the city
16 GIULIO ROMANO under Federigo. The many pentimenti (corrections) and the hurried pace at which the
(Giulio Pippi) drawing was made show that at this stage the composition was still evolving in the
Italian, (?) 14991546 artist's mind. An earlier study of the scene is in the Department of Prints and Drawings
An Allegory of the Virtues at the British Museum, London, and a final modello (see no. 13) is in the Musee du
of Federigo II Gonzaga Louvre, Paris.
Pen and brown ink over black chalk, Giulio, a painter and architect, was born in Rome, where he was Raphael's chief
with some highlights and corrections pupil and assistant. By 1524 he had moved to Mantua, where he remained for the rest
in white bodycolor
24.9 x 31.8 cm (9 13/16 x I2½ in.) of his life, in the service of the Gonzaga court. The style of the painting and drawing
Cat. I, no. 15; 84.GA.648 reveal his indebtedness to Raphael.
22 ITALIAN SCHOOL
17 PERINO DEL VAGA
Italian, circa 1500-1547
Studies of Figures and Architecture
Pen and brown ink, brown wash,
and black chalk, some of the outlines
indented for transfer
32.7 x 22.5 cm (12 x 8¾ in.)
Cat.II, no.30; 88.GG.132
The architectural design first drawn on the sheet corresponds to the pattern of part of
the richly decorated coffered barrel vault of the Sala Regia in the Vatican, Rome, the
hall located at the principal entrance to the Sistine Chapel and intended for the papal
reception of sovereigns. The architect Antonio da Sangallo the Younger began the room
in 1540, and the vault was completed in 1542—45. At Sangallo's death, Perino was
given charge of the decoration of the space, including the frescoes on the walls, a task
cut short by his own death the following year.
The inscription Tiepolo in the lower left corner demonstrates that a previous owner
of the drawing believed it to be by the eighteenth-century Venetian painter Giovanni
Battista Tiepolo, who was active nearly two hundred years after Perino. No doubt the
liveliness of the figures, with their festive costumes, and the fluency of the washes
suggested the work of the later master. The error provides a salutary reminder of just
how easily the true authorship of Old Master drawings may be lost, and how tenuous
are some attributions unless backed up by a specific connection with a documented work.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 23
Saints John the Baptist, Jerome,
and Two Other Saints
15.1 x 22.1 cm (5 15/16 x 8 11/16 in.)
Cat. II, no. 28; 87.GB.9
This drawing is generally connected with Parmigianino's famous altarpiece the
Madonna and Child with Saints John the Baptist and Jerome (the socalled Vision of
Saint Jerome) in the National Gallery, London. Parmigianino was working on the
altarpiece in Rome in 1527 when the city was occupied by the army of Charles V prior
to its sacking. The sixteenthcentury artist biographer Giorgio Vasari reports that the
soldiers entered the painter's studio, admired the picture, but then left Parmigianino in
peace to pursue his work.
Since there are many differences between this drawing and the painting, it is now
believed that the drawing is for the composition of an earlier altarpiece, either lost or
never executed, that must have been similar in several respects to the London picture.
The style of the drawing certainly suggests an earlier dating, toward the beginning of
the 1520s, as does the presence on the other side of the sheet of a study for one of the
dogs in the fresco The Story of Diana and Actaeon, on the ceiling of a room in the
Rocca Sanvitale at Fontanellato (near Parma), painted in about 1523.
Parmigianino was a leading painter of the Mannerist style (see no. 14) and is well
known for the somewhat unsettling emotional intensity of his paintings, with their
elongated figures, compact space, and chilly effects of light.
24 ITALIAN SCHOOL
19 GIOVANNI GIROLAMO
Italian, active 15081548
Black, white, and red chalk on blue
paper; sheet cut irregularly at the
sides and top
28.3 x 22.6 cm (1 1 3/16 x 8 in.)
Cat. II, no.45;89.GB,54
This is a study for the head of Saint Paul in the altarpiece of the Madonna and Child in
Glory with Saints in the Church of Santa Maria in Organo, Verona. The altarpiece was
painted by Savoldo and his workshop in 1533; another, perhaps finer, version of the
picture is in the Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan. The downturned gaze, profuse black beard,
and baleful expression give the head an air of melancholy, though at the same time a
sense of nobility is conveyed by the strength of the features, the somberness of the
tones, and the felicity of the occasional white highlights.
The drawing would appear to be a fullsized modello (see no. 13). Not only does
the head correspond closely in size to its painted counterpart, but there are exact
similarities of outline and lighting. Such a study would have been made late in the
preparatory process. The fact that the sheet is cut irregularly at the top and is somewhat
damaged might suggest that it was taken from a cartoon (see no. 11).
ITALIAN SCHOOL 25
20 PAOLO VERONESE Justina of Padua was a Christian martyr who is reputed to have died under the
(Paolo Caliari) persecutions of Emperor Maximian of Rome (A.D. 30511). This highly finished
Italian, 15281588 and beautiful modello (see no. 13) was made in preparation for the altarpiece painted
The Martyrdom of Saint Justina by Veronese and his studio in 157475 for the Church of Santa Giustina in Padua,
Pen and gray ink, gray wash, built in the fifth century on the site of the saint's martyrdom and restored by the
heightened with white bodycolor on Benedictines in the sixteenth century. With a sword piercing her breast, Justina is
(faded) blue paper; squared in black
chalk represented as a richly dressed young princess surrounded by her tormentors, including
47 x 24cm (18½ x 9 7/16 in.) two Roman soldiers standing to the left, while putti descend from heaven bearing her
Cat. II, no. 49; 87.GA.92 martyr's crown and palm.
The creamy white bodycolor, applied with the point of the brush, is extraordinarily
sensitive and varied in its effect—from the thickly painted, brilliant white light of the
heavens, in the upper part of the drawing, to the more thinly applied highlights in the
draperies of the figures below. The drawing is squared (see no. 9).
Veronese, who, as his name suggests, came from Verona, was one of the great
painters of the late Venetian Renaissance. His attractive use of color, his fondness for
rich ornament, together with the inventiveness of his compositions and the relaxed
demeanor of his figures, anticipate eighteenthcentury Venetian painting. He was
influenced by the great Venetian of an older generation, Titian.
26 ITALIAN SCHOOL
21 TADDEO ZUCCARO
Design for a Circular Dish with
Pen and brown ink and brown wash
over stylus underdrawing
35.3 x 26.3 cm (13 x 10 in.)
Cat. Ill, no. 55; 91.GG.58
The sea monsters in the border are shown both fighting and embracing each other,
while, as if from the ocean's deep, a large bearded head (Neptune?) gazes up from part
of the bowl's recess; as the contents of the vessel emptied, his presence would have
become gradually more apparent. The design was almost certainly made for a circular
dish or salver, to be carried out in metalwork. It was not uncommon in sixteenth
century Italy for important artists to be employed in the design of such appliedart
objects. Taddeo Zuccaro made other similar designs not only for metal salvers but also
for majolica (earthenware with colorful painted decoration, wholly or partly coated
with a glaze containing tin, which makes it white and opaque), including a service with
scenes from the life of Julius Caesar intended as a present from the Duke of Urbino to
the King of Spain. The sheet may be dated 1553—56 because of the studies on the
reverse for Zuccaro's frescoes in the Mattei Chapel of the Church of Santa Maria della
Consolazione, Rome, where he worked at that time.
Taddeo Zuccaro worked in an extravagant late Mannerist style. His figures often
strike impossibly contorted poses; at the same time, there is an element of humor to his
28 ITALIAN SCHOOL
22 FEDERICO BAROCCI
Italian, circa 15351615
Oil over black chalk
on prepared paper
47.7 x 35.6 cm (18 13/16 x 14 in.)
Cat. I, no. 3; 85.GG.26
This sketch is preparatory to Barocci's altarpiece of the Entombment, painted in
157982 for the Church of Santa Croce, Senigallia, and still in situ. The artist opted
for oil rather than the more usual media associated with works on paper, such as chalk
or pen and brown wash, to enable him to judge the effect of different colors on his
composition (for another work in oil on paper, see no. 90). In the present sketch,
Barocci has left unfinished the kneeling figure of Saint Mary Magdalene in the right
foreground, though the saint appears in much the same pose and in roughly the same
position visavis the other figures in the composition, in both the modello at Urbino
and the finished altarpiece.
Barocci is known for his painstaking working method and extensive use of drawing
to prepare his pictures. Once the form of a given composition had been reached, he then
proceeded to make several studies, usually in blackandwhite chalk on lightblue tinted
paper, for each of the figures, including separate studies of the limbs and head, before
going on to make fully worked up sketches of the composition, such as this one, and,
eventually, the cartoon (see no. 11). His paintings, which display a fine sense of color,
admirably capture the new pathos of the CounterReformation by their tenderness of
ITALIAN SCHOOL 29
23 JACOPO ZUCCHI
Italian, circa 15401596
The Age of Gold
Pen and brown ink with brown and
ocher wash, heightened with white
48 x 37.8 cm (18 x 14 in.)
Cat. I, no. 57; 84.GG.22
This impressive sheet is a finished compositional study, with numerous differences
of detail, for the smallscale picture on panel in the Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence,
probably painted around 1570. The Golden Age was the first of the four ages of the
world in classical mythology. It followed immediately after the Creation and was an
earthly paradise somewhat akin to the Christian Garden of Eden. The happiness of this
golden time is implicit in the peaceful coexistence of human and animal kind, as well
as in the freedom that permits, for example, the two little boys, lower left, to urinate
competitively into the flowing brook, downstream from the group of bathing nude
women and almost directly onto a nearby duck.
The literary inspiration for Zucchi's design was a text by the scholar Vincenzo
Borghini, written about 156567. Two Florentine painters contemporary with Zucchi,
Giorgio Vasari and Francesco Morandini, called Poppi, also illustrated the text—Vasari
in a drawing in the Musee du Louvre, Paris, and Poppi in a painting in the National
Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh.
30 ITALIAN SCHOOL
24 JACOPO LIGOZZI
Italian, circa 15471627
Soldier with Cheetah
Brush, pen and brown ink,
bodycolor, and painted gold
28.1 x 22.3 cm (11 1/16 x 8 3/4 in.)
Cat. Ill, no. 24; 91.GG.53
Inscribed by the artist top left: AZAPPI/ Sonno gli Soldati de Galera (Azaps/They are
the galley soldiers); and lower right: Leopardo. The term azappo comes from the
Turkish word azap (marine), which helps to clarify the following phrase. These archers
were seafaring soldiers employed on Turkish galleys or longboats. This is one of a series
of drawings, the majority of which are in the Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, done with
the brush in brightly colored bodycolor; they show Turks, mostly accompanied by
exotic animals, as in this example. The purpose of the drawings is unknown, but they
were evidently inspired by the engraved illustrations in the book Le navigationi et
viaggi nella Turchia, 1580, by Nicolas de' Nicolai. The precise, miniaturist style is
typical of Ligozzi's work; it was well suited to the commission on which he was
employed by Francesco I de' Medici, which included detailed drawings of the Medici
zoological and botanical collections.
Ligozzi was employed as painter to the grandducal court in Florence as well as
designer of tapestries and glass engravings and superintendent of the picture gallery.
He also painted on a large scale and completed paintings for the Palazzo Vecchio as well
as altarpieces for churches in Florence and elsewhere. His colored drawings must rank
among his finest work.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 31
25 AGOSTINO CARRACCI The principal study, a group of shepherds with their children and animals, was
Italian, 15571602 employed with little variation in a lost painting of the Adoration of the Shepherds by
Group of Figures in an Agostino's brother Annibale; the appearance of that painting, however, survives in a
"Adoration of the Shepherds" copy by Annibale's pupil Domenichino (Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland).
and Other Studies
The antiquestyle cameo of three bearded men in profile above the main study is a
Pen and brown ink caricature, though the identity of the heads remains unknown (for a similar cluster of
40.5 x 30.8 cm (15 15/16 x 12 in.)
Cat. II, no. 12; 86.GA.726 caricature heads in profile by the French nineteenthcentury painter Degas, see no. 91).
Striking the same slightly jocular note are the head of a man with a wispy beard, center
right (evidently the same person as on the left in the cameo), and the diminutive head
of a cat, in the right corner, which stares out somewhat disconcertingly at the spectator.
With his cousin Lodovico and brother Annibale, Agostino was one of the three
Carracci who were jointly responsible for the "reform" of Italian painting at the end of
the sixteenth century. The new style they established rejected the artificiality of the
preceding Mannerist style of painting (see no. 14) and returned more strongly to the
study of nature and the antique, as in the High Renaissance period. The Carracci
founded an academy of painting in Bologna, which had wide influence.
32 ITALIAN SCHOOL
26 ANNIBALE CARRACCI A certain informality in Annibale's character made him fond of representing subjects
Italian, 15601609 from everyday life. In this sheet he has drawn a bearded man wearing a hat seen in
Four Studies of Heads Drawn profile to the right (the two studies top and center left); a youth with his head cupped
over a Copy of a "Saint John the in his hands, seen full face (right); and (at the bottom, with the sheet turned clockwise
Evangelist" by Correggio
ninety degrees) a youth wearing a hat and gazing downward. The sketches are done
Black chalk over a faint tracing after a figure group by Correggio. The haphazardness of the
27.7 x 20.7 cm (10 x 8 in.)
Cat. I, no. 8; 85.GB.218 sequence of studies and the rawness of their handling reflect the same unconventional
streak in his makeup. The present study, which probably dates from the 1580s,
illustrates Annibale's ability to make "snapshots" of his companions and to do so with
great liveliness and force.
Annibale was without question the most talented and original of the three Carracci
(see no. 25). He assimilated the best of High Renaissance influences, combining these
with motifs drawn from nature, to his own invention. He worked in his native Bologna
until 1595, when he transferred to Rome to work for the Farnese family. There he
painted his masterpiece, the ceiling decoration of the Gallery of the Palazzo Farnese,
1597—1600. Together with Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling and Raphael's Vatican
Stanze, the Farnese Gallery ceiling ranks among the greatest works of Italian painting.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 35
Black and white chalk on gray paper,
the outlines pricked for transfer
46.7 x 34.2 cm (18 7/16 x I3½ in.)
Cat. Ill, no. 15; 92.GB.26
The Christian saint and virgin martyr Cecilia is thought to have lived in the second or
third century. When she married the Roman nobleman Valerius, she persuaded him to
accept sexual abstinence and to convert to Christianity. She and Valerius were eventually
martyred by the Roman governor. She is the patron saint of music, an association that
stems from the fact that music was played on her wedding day. The cult of Saint Cecilia
was strong in early seventeenthcentury Rome following the sensational disinterment of
her body from beneath the altar of the Church of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere in 1599,
when she was found to be miraculously preserved.
The head corresponds to that of Saint Cecilia in the fresco of The Glorification of
Saint Cecilia on the vault of the second chapel on the right, the Cappella Polet, in the
Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, which Domenichino decorated in 161215.
The saint is shown in ecstasy, being carried up to heaven by putti. The pricked outlines
and the fact that the sheet is made up of four pieces of paper, with a join going across
the center of the face, show that this must be a fragment of a cartoon (see no. 11).
There is, however, also a complete cartoon for the same decoration in the Musee du
Louvre, Paris, in which the saint's head corresponds more closely to the fresco than does
this fragment. The supposition must be that Domenichino was dissatisfied with his first
cartoon and decided to make another.
36 ITALIAN SCHOOL
28 BERNARDO STROZZI
Black and white chalk
38.9 x 25.9 cm (15 5/16 x 10 3/16 in.)
In an age so accustomed to photography as well as to all kinds of sophisticated
blackandwhite and color reproductions, it is hard to imagine life without the camera.
But for the majority of artists, right up until the middle of the nineteenth century, the
most convenient way of preserving the appearance of a given object was to copy it, very
often by making a drawing on paper. Thus, the French painter Claude Lorrain (see no.
70) made an entire album of drawn records of his own pictures, the Liber veritatis
(Book of truth), now in the British Museum, partly to keep track of the ownership of
his paintings and partly to combat the efforts of forgers mimicking his designs. Although
usually less methodical in this respect than Claude, other artists kept sketchbooks of
ricordi (literally, records, or copies) that allowed them to remind themselves of a picture
or some detail in such a picture that had long since been dispatched.
Strozzi may have made this drawing as a record of his Saint Francis in Adoration
before the Crucifix, 1618—20 (versions in Genoa, Palazzo Rosso, and Tulsa, Philbrook
Museum of Art). The fact that the drawing corresponds so exactly to the painted head
and is finished in such detail, with the lights and darks noted with utmost care, suggests
that Strozzi had his own picture in front of him when making this sketch.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 37
29 GUERCINO The studies Guercino made in his youth from living nude models are masterly in their
(Giovanni Francesco Barbieri) suggestion of light, their confident handling, and their economic simplification of
Italian, 1591-1666 form. In these drawings he often used oiled charcoal (charcoal soaked in oil, thereby
Seated Youth making the line darker as well as more permanent), with occasional touches of white
Oiled black chalk or charcoal, chalk for the highlights, on rough, light-brown paper. The technique enabled him to
heightened with white chalk create the effect of reflected light within deep shadow, as well as to suggest the texture
57.2 x 42.5 cm (22 9/16 x 16¾ in.)
Cat. II, no. 20; 89.GB.52 of flesh.
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, drawings from the nude of this type
were called "academies" because they were done in the artist's studio, or academy. In
1616, the young Guercino took the bold step of setting up his own school of life
drawing from the nude in Emilia. In doing so, he was deliberately aligning himself
with the tradition of the famous Carracci (see nos. 25, 26), pioneers of the academic
discipline for artists. The large-scale drawings from the nude that Guercino made
were probably done as demonstration pieces to inspire his pupils. This supposition is
reinforced by the fact that the model who sat for this drawing reappears in some of
Guercino's other nude studies of the period, also done in the same oiled charcoal
Guercino's painting continued the "naturalistic" style established in Italy by the
Carracci family. At the outset of his career, Guercino employed a forceful style using
dramatic light, saturated colors, and broad and vigorous brushwork. As his work
progressed, his style became more classical in feeling.
38 ITALIAN SCHOOL
30 PIETRO DA CORTONA In 165861, the great Italian Baroque sculptor and architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini
(Pietro Berrettini) constructed a new church in honor of the then recently canonized Saint Thomas of
Italian, 15961669 Villanova adjacent to the papal palace at Castelgandolfo, the pope's summer residence
Christ on the Cross with the outside Rome. Cortona's elaborate, finished study is a design for the oval picture he
Virgin Mary, Mary Magdalene,
and Saint John painted, probably in the year of the building's completion, for the richly decorated
high altar of the church, executed and embellished by Bernini's pupil Antonio Raggi.
Pen and brown ink, with graybrown The composition of the altarpiece differs from the drawing in only a few respects.
wash, heightened with white
bodycolor over black chalk, on light The sheet is executed in Cortona's characteristically tugged manner, with extensive
brown paper; squared in black chalk, use of white heightening. The opaqueness of the white allowed him to conceal some of
with an oval drawn in red chalk his earlier attempts at drawing the figures, especially the Saint John, which is bordered
40.3 x 26.5 cm (15 x 10 7/16 in.)
Cat. Ill, no.35; 92.GB.79 by a penumbra of white that covers earlier positions for the right and left arms, the
head, and the left leg. The drawing is squared for transfer (see no. 9).
Cortona was a great architect and the most important painter of the Italian High
Baroque style in Rome. He is best known for his famous illusionistic ceiling decoration
in the gran salone (great hall) of the Palazzo Barberini in Rome, which he completed in
1639. The profusion of figures, the brilliance of color, and the overall complexity of
that composition, with its interlocking scenes around a central opening to the sky,
epitomize the exuberance of the High Baroque.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 41
31 GIAN LORENZO BERNINI
Design for a Fountain, with a
Marine God Clutching a Dolphin
34.9 x 23.8 cm (13 11/16 x 9 in.)
Cat. II, no. 5; 87.GB.142
Bernini was an architect and a painter as well as the most successful Italian sculptor
of his day. In 1650 Duke Francesco I d'Este of Modena had successfully persuaded
Bernini to make his portrait bust, which was completed the following year (Modena,
Galleria Estense). So pleased was the duke with the flamboyant likeness of himself that,
in 1652—53, he asked Bernini to submit drawings for a fountain to embellish the
d'Este family palace at Sassuolo. This powerfully evocative design is for the fountain
of Neptune, which is still in situ in the courtyard of the palace. The liveliness of the
figure as it struggles with the dolphin is typical of Bernini's vigorous, High Baroque
style. Framed in a niche, whose edges are indicated on either side of the drawing, the
fountain was executed by Bernini's assistant Antonio Raggi. A more finished studio
drawing for the project is in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London.
42 ITALIAN SCHOOL
32 SALVATOR ROSA
The Dream of Aeneas
Black and white chalk; the principal
outlines gone over with a stylus for
transfer of the design to a copperplate
30 x 22.3 cm (11 13/16 x 8 13/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 42; 83.GB.197
The subject of this drawing is taken from Virgil's Aeneid (8.26—34). Aeneas, recently
arrived in Latium and apprehensive about the forthcoming war with the Latins, rests on
a riverbank. As he dreams, the river god Tiber rises from the waters "with azure mantle
and with sedgecrowned hair" and comforts him. The composition corresponds closely
to that of Rosa's painting of the subject in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York,
which is generally dated about 1663—64. The drawing was not, in fact, used for the
picture but as the model for an etching, which reverses the design but is otherwise
identical except for the smallest details. This and another etching, Jason Charming
the Dragon, are of about the same date as the painting.
The Neapolitan painter and etcher Salvator Rosa, who was a poet and musician as
well as an artist, was one of the more eccentric of the many painters active in Rome in
the midseventeenth century. An apparently apocryphal nineteenthcentury tradition
relates that, in his youth, he joined a group of banditti (bandits) who infested the
Abruzzi Mountains east of Rome, a story given as explanation for his specialization in
socalled robber pictures—tempestuous landscapes featuring wayfarers and banditti.
His colorful personality, literary turn of mind, and confident belief in his own genius
made him an important prototype of the Romantic artist.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 43
33 CARLO MARATTI
Faith and Justice Seated
Pen and brown ink and brown wash
over red chalk, heightened with
white bodycolor, on brown paper,
48.4 x 28.7 cm (19 1/16 x 11 5/16 in.)
Cat. I, no.23; 85.GG.4l
This is a study, in reverse but to the same scale, for the title frame of a map of Rome
published in 1676 by Giovanni Giacomo de' Rossi. The map itself was carried out to
the design of the seventeenthcentury topographical artist Giovanni Battista Falda,
while the ornamental title, to which this drawing corresponds, was Maratti's invention.
Of the pair of figures, Faith (one of the three "theological virtues") is the more
dominant. Crowned with the papal tiara and with her head surrounded by a radiance,
she holds the papal keys in her right hand while placing her left on a model of the
church. Justice (one of the four "cardinal virtues"), who regulates the actions of the
citizen, sits partly behind her, holding in her right hand a pair of scales, the symbol of
her impartiality, and supporting in her lap with her left hand the fasces (a scourge and
an ax), the symbol of her authority. Seen together, the two virtues may be taken to
signify the good governance of the city by Pope Clement X.
Maratti, the leading exponent of High Baroque Classicism, was the most successful
Roman painter of the second half of the seventeenth century.
44 ITALIAN SCHOOL
34 GIOVANNI BATTISTA
A Boy Holding a Pear
Black and white chalk on bluegray
paper (faded light brown), made up
of two pieces joined together
39.2 x 30.9 cm (15 7/16 x 12 3/16 in.)
Cat. II, no. 33; 86.GB.677
The drawing belongs to a series known as Teste di carattere (Character heads), which
together constitute Piazzetta's greatest contribution as a draftsman. The youth, who is
finely dressed in a brocaded vest, fullsleeved shirt, and feathered cap, holds up a pear
and gazes meaningfully at the spectator. This same boy, recognizable from his good
natured demeanor, who appears in a number of Piazzetta's other works, has been
identified as the artist's son Giacomo. The drawing may be compared in theme as
well as in the gesture of the sitter's right hand to a sheet in the Pierpont Morgan
Library, New York, showing a woman proffering up a pear, and to a painting in the
Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, with the same boy, also with a pear but represented
in profile. It has been suggested in connection with the New York drawing that the
woman may have been intended to personify the Sense of Taste.
Of the same scale as this example, or sometimes larger, the drawings in the series of
Teste are usually done in black chalk or charcoal, heightened with white chalk, on blue
gray or buffcolored paper. Piazzetta handled these materials with great flair, conveying
a haunting sense of lifelikeness in the figures. The chalk was applied with varying
degrees of pressure, the lightly shaded areas of midtone suggesting diffused light and
the more heavily drawn passages rich, velvety shadows or darks. The forms were then
further enlivened by white chalk highlights—in this example in the lace collar and
linen sleeves, in the pear, and on the tip of the boy's nose.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 45
35 GIOVANNI BATTISTA The Holy Family boarding a ferry during their flight into Egypt is not as common a
TIEPOLO subject in Christian iconography as the scene of their resting from their travels, though
Italian, 16961770 the ingredients were standard enough—a ferryboat in the charge of a boatman, and the
Flight into Egypt Holy Family stepping on board with the assistance of an angel or angels. Tiepolo has
Pen and brown ink with brown wash, interpreted the scene with great brio as well as with a Venetian's nautical expertise. He
over black chalk has chosen a flatbottomed vessel not dissimilar in type to those that still ply the waters
30.4 x 45.3 cm (12 x 17 13/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 48; 85.GG.409 of his native city. A sense of urgency is conveyed by the energetically applied washes
and by the dramatic action of the figures—the boatman about to push off from the
bank and the Virgin hurrying up the gangplank clutching the Christ Child, with
Joseph fast behind, glimpsed head and shoulders just above the stern.
The drawing has been dated 1725—35. The informality of Tiepolo's interpretation
of his subject is markedly different from the noble grandeur of Michelangelo's measured
invention of the more common scene of the Holy Family's rest on its journey, drawn
some two hundred years earlier (see no. 5). Indeed, the contrast between the two
images demonstrates the very great changes in Italian art that occurred over two
Tiepolo, whose work was once described as "all fire and spirit," was without
question the greatest Italian painter of the eighteenth century; he was also its greatest
draftsman as well as one of its finest engravers. His rich, colorful, and inventive style
marks the culmination of the decorative tradition in Italian art and embodies the
splendors of Venice in the period of its greatest glory.
46 ITALIAN SCHOOL
36 GIOVANNI BATTISTA
View of a Villa
Pen and brown ink and brown wash
15.3 x 26.1 cm (6 x l0 ¼ in.)
Cat. I, no. 49; 85.GA.297
Tiepolo was a gifted landscape draftsman, though his output of such drawings is tiny-
compared with the large number of his surviving figure studies (see no. 35). Why
Tiepolo drew landscapes is not entirely clear, though they were probably done for their
own sake, possibly for his diversion on summer visits to the countryside. The rapid pen
work together with the dark, fluid washes evoke the bright sunlight and open spaces of
the Veneto, the mostly flat terrain in the environs of Venice, dotted with noble villas,
houses, and farms.
In this study, the viewer's attention is caught by the stairway and by the fine
stonework of the outer wall. The eye follows the two visitors ascending the steps toward
the sunlit front of the villa, with its colonnaded portico and pair of round-headed
windows giving onto a balcony. The drawing has been dated about 1757-59; it is
associated with similar sketches made when Tiepolo was working at the Villa Valmarana,
Vicenza (1757), and in Udine (1759).
ITALIAN SCHOOL 47
37 CANALETTO On his visit to Warwick Castle in 1835, the nineteenthcentury German art historian
(Giovanni Antonio Canal) Dr. Gustav Waagen briefly touched on the "beauties and glories of this feudal pile, to
Italian, 16971768 which it would assuredly be difficult to find a rival, at all events in the same wellkept
Warwick Castle: The East Front state of preservation."
from the Courtyard
The castle stands on the south side of the town overlooking the river Avon.
Pen and brown ink with gray wash Although a fortress of some kind was erected on the site in about A.D. 915, the present
over black chalk
31.7 x 57 cm (12½ x 22 7/16 in.) exterior (which is the same as in Canaletto's day) dates from the fourteenth century.
Cat. II, no. 9; 86.GG.727 The view here, almost certainly drawn on the spot, is of the east front from the inner
court, with the clock tower at the center. It was used as the basis for a painting by the
artist in the City of Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery. A view drawn from the
other side of the same wing is in the Robert Lehman Collection of the Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York.
Canaletto, a Venetian view painter, visited England in 1746, where he achieved
success in painting views of London and of the country seats of the nobility, such
as Warwick Castle. His work brings a sense of atmosphere as a changeable presence
in what might otherwise be merely a topographical record. He often used a camera
obscura, a boxlike device that projects the image of the subject onto a sheet of paper,
thereby allowing the outlines to be traced. He had, moreover, an extraordinary eye for
architectural detail, while his often minuscule figures are credibly, though prosaically,
engaged in everyday activities. As this drawing shows, Canaletto adjusted well to the
representation of English scenes.
48 ITALIAN SCHOOL
38 FRANCESCO GUARDI
A Theatrical Performance
Pen and brown ink with brown wash,
over black chalk
27.4 x 38.4 cm (10 13/16 x 15 in.)
Cat. II, no. 19; 89.GG.51
The subject is a theatrical performance, apparently in the presence of a Russian noble
couple, christened by the Venetians the "conti del Nord" (evidently to avoid the
inconvenience of pronouncing their names in Russian). Grand Duke Paul Petrovitch
(the later Czar Paul I) and his wife, Maria Fedorovna, were the guests of the Venetian
republic January 18—25, 1782. Here the couple are seen enjoying a performance of
the commedia dell'arte staged on their behalf on January 21. The visit was considered
of such great moment that Guardi also recorded some of the other entertainments
arranged for them, such as a Concert (Canterbury, Royal Museum) and a Banquet
(Saint Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum).
Like his fellow Venetian Canaletto (see no. 37), Guardi was mostly a painter of
views of his native Venice, though in his lifetime he did not receive the acclaim of his
more illustrious contemporary. Compared with Canaletto's work, Guardi's more
vibrantly painted scenes, interiors as well as exteriors, with their much greater freedom
of brushwork, suggest instead a more bustling city. They convey the energy of
contemporary life, the sense of movement of the crowd, and the excitement of the
public spectacle. This same sense of energy is conveyed equally in his drawings.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 49
39 GIOVANNI BATTISTA The eighteenthcentury English collector, connoisseur, and man of letters Horace
PIRANESI Walpole wrote of one of Piranesi's compositions, close to this in type: "He piles palaces
Italian, 17201778 on bridges and temples on palaces and scales Heaven with mountains of edifices." This
An Ancient Port drawing is a study in the same direction, but to a smaller scale, for one of the prints in
Red and black chalk and brown and the series Prima parte di architetture e prospettive, published in Rome in 1743. The
reddish wash, squared corresponding print is the Parte di ampio magnifico porto, which, according to the
38.5 x 52.8 cm (15 x 20 13/16 in.)
Cat. II, no. 34; 88.GB.18 artist's lengthy inscription beneath it, was "for the use of the ancient Romans, where
can be seen the interior of a great commercial piazza superabundantly decorated
with rostral columns that denote the most worthy maritime victories, etc." The
miscellaneous engraved architectural compositions that make up the Prima parte gave
expression to Piranesi's personal and highly fanciful vision of antiquity, comprising
measureless heaps of marble set within vast spaces of baffling complexity.
Piranesi first drew the main outlines in chalk, then liberally added brown and red
wash for shading and for some of the details. The black chalk grid lines throughout
were made to assist the process of transfer of the design to the copperplate (see no. 9);
the wash gives a vibrancy to the whole. At least two drawings preceded this finished
50 ITALIAN SCHOOL
40 GIANDOMENICO The drawing belongs to a set of 103 illustrating the life of Punchinello, a character
TIEPOLO from the Venetian carnival who owes his origin to the commedia dell'arte, a traditional
Italian, 17271804 form of popular entertainment in Italy of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Punchinello Helped to a Chair "Sly, lazy...up to all sorts of tricks [and] primed with jokes that were often obscene,"
Pen and brown ink and brown wash he was the very antithesis of the noble hero. The compositions from the series range
over black chalk
35.3 x 47 cm (13 15/16 x I8 1/2 in.) from comedy to tragedy, from trivial incident to events of great moment. In nearly all
Cat. I, no. 50; 84.GG.10 of them, the tall, hunchbacked figure of Punchinello, clad in white costume, a ruff
about his neck, a sugarloaf hat, and black mask with beaky nose, appears amid his
companions playing his various, often bizarre, roles. The drawings came from an album
that originally bore the title Divertimento per li ragazzi (Entertainment for children),
made around 1800.
In this example Punchinello staggers in from the outdoors supporting himself with
a stick and is helped to a chair. As in other drawings from the series, there is extensive
underdrawing in black chalk.
Giandomenico Tiepolo was the eldest son, pupil, and collaborator of his father,
Giovanni Battista (see no. 35).
52 ITALIAN SCHOOL
41 GIUSEPPE CADES The Roman historian Livy tells us that Tullia was the daughter of Servius Tullius, a
Italian, 17501799 legendary king of ancient Rome; she persuaded Tarquinius Superbus to have her father
Tullia in Her Chariot about to murdered so that he might become king and she queen. Livy describes how, following
Ride over the Body of Her Father Servius's assassination in the streets of Rome, Tarquinius had tried to persuade Tullia to
Pen and brown ink, heightened with avoid the crowds surrounding the body. But she instructed her driver "to take her to the
white and gray bodycolor, over black Esquiline Hill; when the man gave a start of terror, and pulling up the reins pointed out
chalk on graybrown prepared paper
49.5 x 66.4 cm (19½ x 26 3/16 in.) to his mistress the prostrate form of the murdered Servius. Horrible and inhuman was
95.GA.25 the crime that is said to have ensued... for there, crazed by the avengingspirits, Tullia
drove her carriage over her father's corpse, and, herself contaminated and defiled, carried
away on her vehicle some of her murdered father's blood."
So far as it goes, the drawing accurately reproduces Livy's account, the artist
deliberately focusing on the horror of the event to which Tullia, with her commanding
gesture and relentless look, alone remains impervious; even her horses shy away from
the deed she is about to perform. Especially characteristic of Cades's draftsmanship is
the calligraphic pen work and decorative, formal rhythms of the design—particularly
well contrived in the interplay of hoofs and feet in the lower center.
By the 1770s, Cades was regarded as one of the best history painters in Rome.
He was associated with the colony of avantgarde foreign artists, mostly British and
Scandinavian, who developed an expressive, protoRomantic vision of classical
antiquity that tended to favor grand, often violent, interpretations of ancient
mythological themes from Homer, Norse mythology, or Macpherson's Ossian.
ITALIAN SCHOOL 53
42 MARTIN SCHONGAUER During the late fifteenth century, people began to perceive the natural world in a
German, 1450/531491 radically new way. Rather than accepting ancient wisdom on the subject, they studied
Studies of Peonies and recorded nature firsthand. South of the Alps, Leonardo da Vinci was the major
Bodycolor and watercolor pioneer of this new attitude, while its principal Northern proponents included Albrecht
25.7 x 33 cm (10 x 13 in.) Durer and the greatest German painter of the previous generation, Martin Schongauer.
Cat. Ill, no. 72; 92.GC.80
Schongauer is the author of this large watercolor showing three nearly lifesized
studies of peony flowers (Paeonia officinalis L.) unfolding organically across the page.
At the upper left is an open blossom seen from its underside; the artist has carefully
rendered the transition from foliage to calyx, sepals, and finally petals. Below this
is a tightly closed bud, and, at the right, a fully opened flower, with delicately drawn
stamens and pistils. The artist has applied the watersoluble color relatively loosely,
making visible the liquidity of the paint and the individual brushstrokes. The free
manner of painting and the windtossed appearance of the petals and foliage evoke
the characteristic lushness of the peony. It is surprising to find such apparent ease and
magisterial assurance of execution in one of the earliest surviving Northern European
plant studies drawn from life.
Schongauer used it as the basis for some of the peonies in the background of his
most important painting, The Madonna of the Rose Garden, 1473 (Church of Saint
Martin, Colmar, France). Also attesting to its early date is the paper's watermark, a
gothic p, that appears on documents dating to the early 1470s. It is highly likely that
Albrecht Durer either owned or knew this drawing, for a closely similar configuration
of peonies appears in his watercolor The Madonna with a Multitude of Animals, around
1503 (Vienna, Graphische Sammlung Albertina).
54 GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS
43 ALBRECHT DURER
Watercolor and bodycolor; top left
corner added; tip of left antenna
painted in by a later hand
14.2 x 11.4cm (5 9/16 x 4½ in.)
Cat. I, no. 129; 83.GC.214
In this drawing Durer monumentalizes a humble stag beetle (Lucanus cervus L.).
Singling out an insect as the focal point of a work of art was unprecedented in 1505
when Durer made this drawing. The belief that insects were the lowest of creatures
eroded only as their scientific study developed during the sixteenth century.
Durer strives to create the illusion of the living animal creeping up the page. He
positions it diagonally on the sheet so that the eye moves up from its abdomen to its
raised head and open mandibles, and he carefully articulates the shadows to give a
sense of the legs raising the body off the ground.
For all of its prescient evocation of the modern scientific attitude, the Stag Beetle
is also suffused with Durer's pious empathy with the creatures of the natural world.
The pronounced serrations on the legs and the spiky mandibles suggest its kinship
to imaginary beasts encountered in late Gothic depictions of hell or the temptation
of Saint Anthony. The Stag Beetle exerted a hold on artists for several generations.
Together with his Hare (Vienna, Graphische Sammlung Albertina), it was Durer's
most influential and copied nature study.
56 GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS
44 ALBRECHT DURER
Study of the Good Thief
Pen and brown ink
26.8 x 12.6 cm(10 9/16 x 5 in.)
Cat. I, no. 130; 83.GA.360
Durer was the first Northern Renaissance artist to master and advance the classically
based articulation of the human form according to rational notions of proportion and
anatomy. His efforts culminated in his famous engraving Adam and Eve, 1504, and
are also evident in the present drawing, which dates to the same period. It depicts the
Good Thief, who accepted Christ's deity as he was being crucified with Jesus.
Because of his beatific character, the Good Thief was often shown in a less
contorted pose than the Bad Thief. Here, his anatomy exhibits a classical sense of unity
and integration; all of the parts interrelate to produce the effect of the body sagging,
its weight bending the cross forward. Durer carefully delineates bone and sinew, from
strained arms, to the skin stretched tightly over the rib cage, to the tautly braced legs.
He has repeatedly gone over the chest, stomach, and legs with hookshaped hatching,
which heightens one's awareness of the musculature beneath the skin. The drawing
also includes a difficult perspectival effect whereby the thief's left hand is convincingly
foreshortened above his head. According to the classical theory of art, physical
movement and facial expression should work in tandem toward the ultimate goal of
conveying the motions of the soul. This is apparent in the thief's profound and soulful
gaze at Christ, with Durer's shadowing of the face enhancing its depth of feeling.
GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS 57
45 LUCAS CRANACH
Portrait of a Man
Oil on paper
26.2 x 19.9 cm (10 5/16 x 7 in.)
Cat. Ill, no. 64; 92.GG.91
From 1504 until his death, Cranach served at the court of Saxony in Wittenberg,
where he devoted much of his artistic effort to portraits. This unidentified sitter's
portrait was made with brush and oil paint on paper, a technique uncommon in
Northern European drawings of the early sixteenth century. Cranach rubbed the paper
with oil to produce a brownish ground and then sketched in the outlines of the head.
He worked up the face meticulously, going over various parts, such as the eyebrows,
lashes, and outer facial contours, in pen and black ink. The contrast between the
luminous face with its gleaming white highlights and the brown ground makes the
sitter seem to move forward out of depth. The sense of living presence created by this
effect is further enhanced by the young man's large and intelligent eyes. The intensity
of expression plus the jewellike refinement of its surfaces combine to make this one
of Cranach's finest surviving portrait drawings.
58 GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS
46 JORG BREU THE ELDER The art of stained glass flourished in Renaissance Germany, ranging from monumental
German, circa 1475/761537 church windows to smallscale panels in secular buildings. All the major German and
Bridal Scene Swiss artists of the Renaissance produced drawings for stained glass, which served as
Pen and black ink, brown and models for the "glass painter," the master craftsman who translated them into leaded
orange wash glass.
Diam. 19.8 cm (7 13/16 in.)
Cat. II, no. 121; 89.GG.17 One of early sixteenthcentury Germany's most engaging designers of stained
glass was Jorg Breu the Elder of Augsburg. He particularly excelled at making designs
of secular subjects, such as the present example, which illustrates Tale 20 from the
fourteenthcentury book Gesta Romanorum (The deeds of the Romans). The story tells
of a boy who, cursed at birth by the emperor, eventually became his soninlaw. The
drawing combines two episodes (moving left to right): first, the youth's arrival at court,
and, second, his somewhat uncomfortable presence with the emperor's daughter in the
marriage bed, watched by the empress and her ladiesinwaiting.
The extensive use of yellow wash, the lavish costumes, and the grand architectural
setting with the ornate Renaissance bed make this a splendid drawing. Breu masterfully
combines the circular format of the drawing with the articulation of the architectural
elements to produce the effect of looking up into a domed space. His conversance with
classically inspired architecture and ornament suggests that he may have made this
drawing after a trip to Italy in 1514/15.
GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS 59
47 HANS SCHAUFELEIN
Christ Taking Leave of His
Pen and darkbrown ink over traces
of black chalk
27.5 x 21.2 cm (10 13/16 x 8 5/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 134; 85.GA.438
A painter and designer of woodcut illustrations, Schaufelein worked in Durer's atelier
in Nuremberg from 1503/4 to 1516/17. He often accompanied his initials by a
drawing of a Schaufelein (little shovel—the meaning of his name) as in this drawing,
signed and dated 1510.
The New Testament does not include the incident of Christ taking leave of his
mother; its literary sources are found in late medieval devotional writings. As the story
goes, the Virgin, accompanied by Mary Magdalene and Martha, begged her son not
to leave Bethany for Jerusalem, where he would be betrayed and eventually crucified.
Replying that he must go in order to save humanity, Christ gave his mother his blessing
as he departed, telling her that she would be enthroned with him in heaven.
Schaufelein depicts the moment of benediction, placing the event in front of a
rustic wooden city gate. To Christ's right the crowds make their way to Jerusalem for
Passover. At the center of the drawing is a feature unusual for this scene: a Gothic
church, which may refer to the Virgin Mary. Since the Middle Ages, the church was
thought to be the Virgin's physical embodiment on earth. Such symbolism would mean
that the image points hopefully beyond the sorrow of the Passion to the founding of
60 GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS
48 ALBRECHT ALTDORFER Altdorfer was the leading figure in the socalled Danube school. This designation
German, circa 1482/851538 refers to a group of artists working near and along the Danube, from Regensburg to
Christ Carrying the Cross Vienna, whose imagery features alpine landscapes and emotioncharged religious and
Pen and black ink, gray wash, mythological subjects. The present drawing is Altdorfer's only surviving design for
and black chalk a stainedglass window.
Diam. 30.4 cm (11 15/16 in.)
Cat. II, no. 113; 86.GG.465 Altdorfer often heightened the dramatic impact of a scene by showing it from
an unusual vantage point, as is the case here. The fallen Christ is seen from the rear,
with emphasis placed on his bent left leg, the exposure of the soles of his feet, and his
haggard profile. The violence and energy of the scene are further conveyed by crowding
the figures parallel to the picture plane and by the dynamic, unpredictably varied pen
work. Stylistic comparisons with other works by Altdorfer suggest a dating of around
1515 or perhaps a few years before.
GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS 61
49 NIKLAUS MANUEL
The Mocking of Christ
Pen and black ink, painted gold,
heightened with white bodycolor,
on redbrown prepared paper
31.2 x 21.7 cm (12 5/16 x 8 9/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 140; 84.GG.663
In addition to being a painter, graphic artist, and designer of stained glass, Niklaus
Manuel was a poet, mercenary soldier, and active in Bern city government, particularly
in furthering the cause of the Reformation. He probably made this carefully crafted
drawing of around 1513/14 as a finished work of art. After preparing the paper with a
reddishbrown ground, he drew the scene in black ink. The line work is energetic and
sharp. He then laid in the lavish white heightening with a brush, touched in Christ's
halo with gold pigment, and refined additional details in black ink. Further attesting
to the drawing's status as an independent work of art is the framing line, which appears
to have been made by the artist himself and is wittily called attention to at the bottom
by the soldier's foot that extends outside its bounds.
The vitality of the pen work and the extensive highlighting complement the
frenzied violence of the scene. The artist has devised a dynamic radial composition,
with Christ's luminous head as the focal point of attacks directed at him from all sides.
62 GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS
50 URS GRAF
Swiss, circa 14851527/29
Dancing Peasant Couple
Pen and darkbrown and black ink
20.6 x 14.7 cm (8 x 5 13/16 in.)
Cat. Ill, no. 66; 92.GA.72
Graf's drawings are notable for their brilliant, eccentric pen work and their focus on
violence and sexual innuendo, qualities that seem to bear a relation to his life. He is
documented as having hired himself out as a mercenary soldier on various occasions
and as having been banished temporarily from his home city of Basel as a result of
Graf brought this dark and satiric point of view to a series of nine sheets of
unknown purpose (now scattered in various museums), showing differently configured
dancing peasant couples. All bear his monogram, VG with the Dolch (the Swiss
dagger), and the date of 1525. The drawing in the Getty Museum depicts an
interlocking couple, with the male obscuring his partner's head and pinching her
buttock. The dagger and ax he carries heighten the lascivious and violent overtones.
This notion of the peasantry—brutal, fertile, and full of vital energy—is bolstered by
Graf's swift and incisive pen work.
GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS 63
51 HANS HOLBEIN Holbein moved permanently from Basel to London in 1532, and in 1536 he became
THE YOUNGER court painter to King Henry VIII. When Holbein died in 1543, his many drawings of
Swiss, 1497-1543 members of the court seem to have passed into the ownership of Henry VIII and were
Portrait of a Cleric or Scholar gathered into the so-called great booke, first documented in 1590. The renowned
Black and red chalk, pen and brush Holbein drawings in the Royal Library, Windsor Castle, are from the great book, and it
and black ink, on pink prepared paper
21.9 x 18.5 cm (8 x 7¼ in.) is possible that the portrait of an unknown sitter in the Getty Museum is as well.
Cat. I, no. 138; 84.GG.93 Holbein sketched the figure broadly in black chalk and subsequently added the ink.
He drew the outline of the hat with a pen, laid in the hair and collar with a brush, and
used a quite fine nib to delineate the contour lines of the face and various facial details,
such as the small dots suggesting the stubble of an incipient beard. The face is modeled
with the utmost subtlety using light applications of red chalk over the pink ground of
the paper. The figure's stasis and detachment coupled with the marvelous precision with
which Holbein captures his features enhance the portrait's aura of timelessness and
GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS 65
52 GEORG PENCZ Of all of Durer's pupils, Pencz, who appears to have visited Italy twice, strove most
German, circa 1500—1550 consistently to emulate the art of the Italian Renaissance. This design for a stainedglass
Study for a StainedGlass roundel conforms to Italianate norms with respect both to form and to content. The
Window with the Coat of Arms arms in the drawing are identified by the surrounding inscription as those of Marcus
of the Barons von Paar
Belidorus de Casnio (alive in 1170), an ancestor of the von Paar family which
Pen and brown ink and gray wash originated in Bergamo, Italy. The inscription hanging from the tree suggests the
Diam. 24.7 cm (9 11/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 133; 83.GA.193 continuation of the glory of his descendants, stating: "The family trees of heroes grow
greater through virtue and munificence." This is a humanist sentiment whose classical
basis is underscored by the lettering in ancient Roman inscriptional capitals. Pencz
has emphasized the sculpturally rounded contours of the female figure by modeling
them in carefully modulated tones of gray wash. The principal Northern note in this
configuration is the lively landscape vista at the lower right, with a turreted city
silhouetted against a mountainous backdrop.
66 GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS
53 JOSEPH HEINTZ
The Toilet of Venus
Red and black chalk
21.5 x 15.1 cm (8½ x 5 15/16 in.)
Cat. Ill, no. 67; 91.GB.66
In 1592, Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II of Prague sent Heintz, his court painter, to
Rome to make drawings of antiquities and to acquire works of art for the imperial
collections. Heintz was probably still in Rome when he executed this drawing, which is
signed and dated 1594. The prominent signature and the high degree of finish indicate
that the drawing was probably made as a work of art in its own right.
Under a parted curtain in her boudoir, Venus combs her long tresses. A highly
unusual feature is the female cherub holding the mirror, who replaces Cupid, Venus's
normal attendant. The ornamental gracefulness of the figures and the velvety surfaces
created by the subtle modeling in chalk are typical of Heintz's manner. He was
particularly attracted to the work of the sixteenthcentury Italian masters Correggio
and Parmigianino, gleaning elements from their styles as well as from other artists to
produce softly sensuous, often erotic, imagery. The blending of red and black chalk,
which had an extensive prior history in Italian draftsmanship, is used with exceptional
mastery by Heintz, both here and in other drawings.
GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS 67
54 ADOLF VON MENZEL In 1872 Menzel spent several weeks at the vast smelting works in Konigshiitte, Upper
German, 18151905 Silesia, making many drawings of the ironproduction process. He employed these
Figure Studies studies in the execution of his masterpiece, The Iron Rolling Mill, 1875 (Berlin,
Carpenter's pencil Nationalgalerie), one of the most important nineteenthcentury paintings of an
37.9 x 26.3 cm (14 15/16 x 10 5/16 in.) industrial subject.
Cat. I, no. 132; 84.GB.6
This study for The Iron Rolling Mill is clearly related to the figures in the center of
the composition who are moving a glowing piece of iron toward the rollers, while their
coworkers are shown eating and washing, indicating a change of shift. Menzel's almost
photographic ability to record the interaction of light and form is fully in evidence in
this drawing. The shifting, fractured quality of the shadows plus the roughness of the
carpenter's pencil enhance the sense of the worker's performing heavy, physical labor.
He is a monumental figure and as such embodies Menzel's view of the worker as the
heroic prime mover in the advancement and progress of society.
GERMAN AND SWISS SCHOOLS 69
55 FRANS CRABBE VAN
Flemish, circa 14801552
Esther before Ahasuerus
Pen and darkbrown ink,
with touches of gray wash,
over black chalk, incised for transfer
23.7 x 19.4 cm (9 5/16 x 7 5/8 in.)
Cat. Ill, no. 80; 90.GA.4
Crabbe, active in the city of Mechelen, northeast of Brussels, was among the most
accomplished and innovative Netherlandish printmakers of the early sixteenth century.
He successfully explored copperplate etching, then a nascent medium. His only known
surviving drawing, the present example, indicates that Crabbe made precise studies for
his etchings. The drawing corresponds almost exactly to the scale of his etching Esther
before Ahasuerus, which dates around 1525. Crabbe appears to have traced the drawing
directly onto the plate, as evidenced by the incising lines throughout the sheet. The
drawing also shows Crabbe to be a fluent and original draftsman, whose style combines
Netherlandish restraint of gesture and expression and an interest in effects of light and
shadow with the dashing, delicate pen work more typical of German artists of the period.
The story is from the Old Testament. Esther, a Jewish beauty, married King
Ahasuerus of Persia but concealed her religion from him. When a death edict was
placed on the Jews, she risked her life by petitioning her husband for the salvation of
her people. The drawing depicts the moment when the king places his golden scepter
on Esther's head, bidding her to speak.
Crabbe's portrayal evokes the typological significance that since the Middle Ages
had been associated with this story as a prefiguration of the Virgin's intercession with
God on behalf of the faithful. The carefully nuanced hatching throughout the drawing
establishes a wide range of tonal values, which the artist closely followed in the etching.
These are particularly important in the architectural passages in the etching, in which
the tones are translated into pools of light and shadow that lend lofty eloquence to the
events taking place below.
70 DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS
56 HANS BOL
Landscape with the Story of
Venus and Adonis
Bodycolor heightened with gold
on vellum (image) and wood (frame)
20.6 x 25.8 cm (8 x 10 3/16 in.)
Cat. Ill, no. 77; 92.GG.28
Highly regarded as a draftsman and designer of prints, Bol was most revered as a
miniaturist. An offshoot of manuscript illumination, miniature painting became
widespread at the end of the sixteenth century, when artists began to produce such
objects for collectors, who appreciated their preciosity and miraculously tiny scale.
This is one of Bol's finest and most unusual miniatures. It consists of two separate
parts: the central image on vellum mounted on wood, signed and dated HBol/1589,
and a frame painted on wood prepared with gesso and dated 1589 This latter element
cleverly combines the characreristics of a threedimensional picture frame with those of
the twodimensional illusionistic borders encountered in earlier manuscript illumination.
Bol's miniature depicts the life and death of Adonis. In the central panel, Venus
and Adonis embrace before he leaves on the fatal hunt, shown in the distance, in which
he is killed by a boar. The ovals within the frame show subsidiary incidents: clockwise
from the left, Myrrha, Adonis's mother, committing incest with her father, who thereby
fathered Adonis; Myrrha, having been punished by being turned into the myrrh tree,
gives birth to her son; Venus is struck with love for Adonis; and blood springing from
the dead Adonis turns into the anemone flower.
The story is from Ovid's Metamorphoses. This classical text profoundly influenced
the sixteenthcentury view of nature, characterizing it as being in a constant state of
flux and transformation, due to the restless, often reckless, amours of the gods.
References to transformation occur throughout Bol's miniature, including the
decorative frame, in which the myriad elements are densely interwoven, yet without
DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS 71
57 HENDRICK GOLTZIUS
Venus and Mars Surprised
Pen and brown ink, brown wash,
over black chalk, heightened with
41.6 x 31.3 cm (16 x 12 5/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 107; 84.GG.810
In 1583, Goltzius was introduced to the drawings of his contemporary Bartholomaus
Spranger. Court painter to Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II of Prague, Spranger was
a figure painter renowned for his mythological compositions featuring deliberately
complex, erotic poses. Goltzius had an extraordinary talent for mastering the styles
of other artists. So taken by Spranger was he that he not only produced virtuoso
engravings after Spranger's drawings but also devised compositions of his own
invention based on Spranger's manner.
The present drawing is a fullscale model for Goltzius's largest and most complex
engraving in the Spranger style, published in 1585. The composition, entirely
Goltzius's own, is based on the story recounted in both Homer's Odyssey and Ovid's
Metamorphoses. Apollo spotted the illicit lovers Mars and Venus and informed Venus's
husband, Vulcan, who forged a net in which to entrap them, as seen in the right
background of the drawing. In the foreground, Vulcan has ensnared the couple and
called in Hercules, Apollo, Jupiter, Neptune, and other Olympians to ridicule them.
This virtuosic orchestration of two registers of nudes, in a composition of
extravagant complexity made to appear effortless, helped secure Goltzius's reputation
as one of the premier Northern European figural artists of his day.
72 DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS
58 PETER PAUL RUBENS
Pen and brown ink
28 x 18.7 cm (11 x 7 in.)
Cat. II, no. 85; 88.GA.86
Executed in luminous lightbrown ink, the present example is one in a group of
drawings by Rubens portraying full or partial views of ecorches—anatomical figures
that show the muscles with the skin removed. The principal figure demonstrates the
musculature of the back, buttocks, and legs seen from a vantage point at the bottom
right, with subsidiary views of the same figure and a detail of the left arm seen from the
top left. The web of diagonals and orthogonals created by the figures and enhanced by
their lunging poses displays a complex and dynamic grasp of the human form. Shortly
after Rubens's death, the engraver Paulus Pontius reproduced several of Rubens's
anatomical studies, including that in the Getty Museum, in a series of prints after the
Anatomical Studies encapsulates the intensive and synthesizing study of the human
form that Rubens undertook during his youthful Italian sojourn (16001608). Calling
to mind his drawings after antique sculpture, the sheet also demonstrates a grasp of the
body's muscular structure that was probably informed by the greatest anatomy book of
the Renaissance, Andrea Vesalius's De humani corporis fabrica, 1543. One also notes
the impact of Michelangelo, both in the extensive, delicate hatching articulating the
musculature and in the surging, heroically proportioned forms.
DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS 73
59 PETER PAUL RUBENS This rural scene focuses on a rustic wagon shown in sharp perspective from the rear.
Flemish, 15771640 Although the wagon is stationary, it is charged with vitality. The rear wheels, axle, and
A Man Threshing beside a splayed side rails thrust outward toward the picture plane, while the front axle, which is
Wagon, Farm Buildings Behind out of alignment with the rear, simultaneously draws the eye into space. The dappled
Colored chalk and touches of pen sunlight and shadow on and around the vehicle lend it further vigor and expansiveness.
and brown ink on palegray paper
25.5 x 41.5 cm (10 x 6 5/16 in.) The man threshing beside the wagon heightens its monumentality. Rubens's
Cat. I, no. 92; 84.GG.693 experimentation with different positions of the flail increases its effect of upward
motion. The flail dynamically connects the motif of the thresher with that of the wagon
by creating a visual arch carried through the wagon shaft extending toward the flail.
The varied use of materials, from the red and black chalk and delicate pastels to the
rough brown ink with which Rubens picks out the iron bands and nails on the outside
of the rear wagon wheels, increases the verisimilitude and immediacy of the scene.
The wagon recurs in several of Rubens's paintings—The Prodigal Son (Antwerp,
Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten), Landscape with a Country Wagon (Saint
Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum), and Winter (Windsor Castle, Collection of
Her Majesty the Queen). The drawing is generally thought to have been made around
74 DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS
60 PIETER JANSZ. The subtle art of the architectural painter Pieter Saenredam records and immortalizes
SAENREDAM the historic edifices of his native Holland, primarily its churches. He depicted some
Dutch, 15971665 churches, such as Saint Bavo in Haarlem, repeatedly and from various vantage points.
The Choir and North Ambulatory Among the most symmetrical and balanced of his depictions of Saint Bavo's interior,
of the Church of Saint Bavo,
Haarlem this large, nearly square drawing takes in a deep vista, stretching from the Brewers'
Chapel on the south side of the church across the side aisles and nave and terminating
Red chalk, graphite, pen and brown
ink, and watercolor, the outlines in the Christmas Chapel, directly opposite. Known as a construction drawing, this is a
indented for transfer (recto); rubbed onepoint perspective rendering made in the studio, based on a study done on the spot
with black chalk for transfer (verso) in October 1634 (Haarlem, Municipal Archives).
37.7 x 39.3 cm (14 13/16 x 15 7/16 in.)
Cat. II, no. 105; 88.GC.131 The Museum's drawing exemplifies Saenredam's meticulous process of creating
a finely tuned, harmonic spatial complex, whose sense of balance is heightened by
calm sunlight suffusing the whole. He appears to have begun by making a series of
vertical and horizontal ruled graphite lines that, among other things, regularize the
relationships among various architectural elements and establish a central vertical axis
on which he placed the vanishing point, clearly visible between the figures at the
bottom. He then elaborately finished the sheet in pen and ink, wash, and watercolor.
Saenredam inscribed the righthand pier, recounting that he made the drawing in
November 1634 and finished the painting after the drawing on October 15, 1635. The
painting based upon the Museum's drawing, which contains still further alterations, is
in the Muzeum Narodowe, Warsaw.
DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS 75
61 ANTHONY VAN DYCK After some preliminary sketching in black chalk, Van Dyck drew the figures in pen and
Flemish, 15991641 ink and then went back over much of the composition with gestural strokes of dark
The Entombment brown wash. He also drew the framing line around the composition. The extremely fine
Black chalk, pen and brown ink, pen lines left visible on Christ's torso lend it poignant beauty, while the tenebrous wash
brown and reddish wash, red and creates a sense of dramatic motion around the dead Christ. The figure of Saint John
blue chalk, and white bodycolor
heightening the Evangelist in the middle of the composition, whose gracefully turning form links
25.4 x 21.8cm(10 x 8 5/8 in.) the pairs of figures flanking Christ, is reminiscent of types employed by Leonardo or
Cat. I, no. 86; 85.GG.97 Raphael. As a whole, the composition is inspired by Titian's painting The Entombment
(Paris, Musee du Louvre), which Van Dyck would have known from a copy by Rubens.
Van Dyck, however, exchanges Titian's sweeping horizontal composition for a more
tightly integrated, vertical format, which allows him to give greater monumental
prominence to the standing, shrouded Virgin, who holds the arm of her dead son.
This drawing is thought to have been made in 161718, probably in preparation
for a painting that was planned and abandoned or else does not survive.
76 DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS
62 REMBRANDT Among the most
HARMENSZ. VAN RIJN powerful and enigmatic
Dutch, 16061669 of any of Rembrandt's
Nude Woman with a Snake drawings of single figures,
Red chalk with white bodycolor this is his only surviving
24.7 x 13.7 cm (9 11/16 x 5 7/16 in.) redchalk drawing of a
Cat. I, no. 114; 81.GB.27 female nude. Based on a
live model, the woman
does not possess a fixed
identity, but rather
incorporates both real
and imaginary elements.
The snake and
headdress together with
the squeezing of the
breast suggest that
Rembrandt envisaged the
model as a historical or
but the identity of this character is difficult to decipher. While the most widely
accepted interpretation has been that of Cleopatra, it has recently been suggested that
the figure incorporates aspects of Eve: Rembrandt used the drawing as the basis for the
body of Eve in his etching Adam and Eve, 1638.
The drawing is a prime example of Rembrandt's mastery of the redchalk medium.
He applied the chalk energetically, rendering the model's belly with emphatically
horizontal strokes, while imparting taut strength to her legs through vertical shading.
He also exploited the chromatic brilliance and luminosity of natural red chalk by
applying white bodycolor underneath it, particularly in the model's right arm and
torso. The glowing quality of the red chalk with white underneath plus the forceful
threedimensionality of the form create an impression of energy radiating from the
woman. High Renaissance artists, such as Andrea del Sarto, had established red chalk
as the preferred medium for drawing the nude figure from life. In this vibrant and
monumental study, Rembrandt, perhaps selfconsciously, demonstrates a level of
draftsmanship worthy of the great masters of the past, while he simultaneously
pushes his medium in new directions.
78 DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS
63 REMBRANDT Rembrandt here eloquently captures the architecture of the Dutch landscape, with
HARMENSZ. VAN RIJN its flatness and expansive horizontality, punctuated by a lone sailboat. Anchoring the
Dutch, 16061669 composition in the left foreground is a mass of bulrushes. A breeze blows toward the
A Sailing Boat on a Wide Expanse right, animating the rushes, gently tilting the sailboat, and reinforcing the spatial sweep
(View of the Nieuwe Meer?)
of the vista that opens out. The eye follows ripples on the water, a spit of land, a house,
Pen and brown ink and brown wash and other features into the distance until discernible elements dissolve into a cluster
on lightbrown tinted paper
8.9 x 18.2 cm (3½ x 7 3/16 in.) of suggestive dots on the horizon. Bracketing the deepest segment of the vista are
Cat. I, no. 117; 85.GA.94 the rushes and the sailboat. The spatial complexity of the scene is increased by the
combination of deep recession with a heightened effect of lateral expansion. The beauty
of execution and the cateful calibration of the composition suggest that this drawing of
about 1650 was made as a finished work of art.
DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS 79
64 PHILIPS KONINCK Koninck is best known for his large oil paintings of landscapes, but he also depicted
Dutch, 16191688 scenes of this type in smallscale watercolors, such as this example of around 1675,
River Landscape which appears to have been made as an independent work of art. An imaginary vista,
Watercolor and bodycolor it is nonetheless inspired by the flat Dutch landscape. Its principal compositional
13.4 x 20 cm (5 5/16 x 7 in.) element is the axis leading into space that issues from the wedge of land in the
foreground of the image. Rivers, roads, and fields converge inward from both sides,
gradually leading the eye into the distance. The composition finds its point of
resolution at the farthest end of the river valley.
In contrast to the way in which many seventeenthcentury Dutch watercolorists
exploited the medium's capacity for brilliant, jewellike hues, Koninck adopts a soft
palette that includes buffs and browns, deep green, gray, and light blue. He also
makes extensive use of opaque color, applied thickly and loosely, particularly in
the foreground. This palette plus his painterly handling allow him to portray the
landscape as an integrated whole, governed by aerial perspective. Accordingly, space
progresses seamlessly from the more concrete, textured foreground to the incremental
fading of color and clarity in the distance.
80 DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS
65 AELBERT CUYP
View of the Rhine Valley
Black chalk, graphite, and gray wash
13.2 x 23.7 cm (5 3/16 x 9 5/16 in.)
Cat. II, no. 95; 86.GG.673
Cuyp made this unidentified panorama as part of a sketchbook of landscape views
compiled during a visit to Nijmegen and Cleves in 165152. He drew the foreground
in textural black chalk, switching to silvery graphite in the background to convey the
effect of aerial perspective. The compression of the landscape into thin strata trailing
unimpeded off both sides of the page, combined with the large area of blank sky, create
a strong sense of lateral expansiveness. Despite this implicit vastness, the view also
seems miniaturized because of the many details rendered on a tiny scale. These include
buildings, boats, figures, and even grazing animals indicated by flecks of chalk on the
field in the middle distance. While Cuyp used several of the landscapes from this
sketchbook in later paintings, he does not appear to have made further use of the
66 JOSEPHBENOIT SUVEE Suvee was a successful painter who assumed the position of director of the French
Belgian, 17441807 Academy in Rome in 1801 and supervised its relocation to the Villa Medici, where it
The Invention of Drawing remains today. This drawing, made as a gift to the painter Gerard van Spaendonck,
Black and white chalk on brown paper replicates a painting Suvee exhibited in the
54.6 x 35.5 cm (21½ x 14 in.) Paris Salon of 1791 (Bruges, Groeningemuseum).
Cat. II, no. 87; 87.GB.145
It shows the daughter of the sculptor
Butades tracing her lover's profile on a wall of
her father's studio to retain a remembrance of
his appearance after his departure. This story of
the invention of drawing, taken from Pliny the
Elder's Natural History, was frequently depicted
by eighteenthcentury artists. Suvee shows an
oil lamp throwing the pair's shadows on
the wall. He demonstrates a Neoclassical
archaeological interest in antique costume and
the accoutrements of an ancient pottery studio.
The art of drawing is thus shown as having its
origin in youthful passion and in the silhouette
as the trace of the lover's living presence.
DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS 81
67 VINCENT VAN GOGH As recorded in a letter to his brother Theo, Vincent sent this drawing on August 3,
Dutch, 18531890 1888, to the Impressionist painter John Russell. It is one of Vincent's many painted
Portrait of Joseph Roulin and drawn portraits of Joseph Roulin, the postman who became the artist's devoted
Reed and quill pens and brown ink friend during his residence in Aries in 1888/89. Although the drawing is based on a
and black chalk painting (Detroit, private collection), it is very different from the painting, due in no
32 x 24.4 cm (12 x 9 in.)
Cat. I, no. 106; 85.GA.299 small measure to the power and variety of its line work.
It is a deeply sympathetic portrayal. The postman's rugged face is alive with
dynamically converging curves and facets, articulated by exploratory hatching and
stippling. The only feature that diverges from the emphatic frontality of the figure is
the sideward gaze of the widely set eyes surrounded by luminous blank paper. With
dark, thick lines rendered by a reed pen, the artist has delineated the cap, beard, and
coat. The circularity of the cap is carried through in the coat, with the hatching of
its two sides seemingly pulled downward by the large button, which acts as a fulcrum
at the base of the lapels. The background is drawn with a quill pen and contains a
patchwork of nervous, intersecting lines that create an overall surface tension and
reinforce the energy emanating from the sitter. Van Gogh wrote in his letters that he
regarded Roulin as a Socratic figure. This comes through clearly in the present drawing,
which portrays him as a powerful presence, an unselfconscious man, both humble and
82 DUTCH AND FLEMISH SCHOOLS
68 JACQUES CALLOT An army, with captives and booty, marches, banners aloft, in procession from the gate
French, circa 15921635 of a burning castle or walled city and regroups in the lower right corner to the fanfares
An Army Leaving a Castle of trumpets. From the battlements, huge tongues of flame reach up into the darkened
Brush and brown wash over black sky (the black chalk underdrawing is clearly visible). The captives are guarded in forlorn
chalk groups by soldiers mounted on camels.
10.1 x 21.8 cm (4 x 8 9/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 63; 85.GG.294 Callot's technique of drawing and printmaking in miniature has long been held in
great esteem, the richness of his tiny compositions bearing witness to his exceptional
dexterity and powers of imagination. The action of the figures and their setting are best
appreciated with a magnifying glass.
The purpose of the study is not known, but it seems likely that it and a pendant
drawing, also in the Getty Museum's collection, were made for engraving, though
no such prints are known. Nor are the outlines of the two drawings gone over with
the stylus for transfer, a further indication that no copperplate was prepared for
either composition. In style, subject, and horizontal format, this drawing resembles
compositions from Callot's etchings, the Grandes Miseres de la guerre (1633), which
were done immediately after Cardinal Richelieu's devastating invasion of Lorraine,
though the dimensions are slightly smaller than those of the prints.
Callot was one of the most accomplished of all etchers and one of the first great
artists to work exclusively as a printmaker. At his death, he left a prodigious number
of plates—over fourteen hundred!
84 FRENCH SCHOOL
69 NICOLAS POUSSIN Mount Parnassus, a few miles north of Delphi, is celebrated as one of the chief seats of
French, 15941665 the sun god Apollo and the nine Muses and as an inspiring source of poetry and song.
Apollo and the Muses on Mount Apollo, seated to the left of center, plays a viol, while outside the circle of Muses
Parnassus surrounding him are figures of poets. The brook in the center foreground is the
Pen and brown ink and brown wash Castalian Spring, likewise a source of poetical and musical inspiration.
17.6 x 24.5 cm (6 15/16 x 9 11/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 82; 83.GG.345 This is a preparatory study for Poussin's picture of the subject in the Museo Nacional
del Prado, Madrid, now generally dated about 163032. The painting closely follows
the overall design of the drawing but differs considerably in the poses of the figures,
except for that of the poet at the extreme left striding into the composition, who is
much the same in both works. Raphael's wellknown fresco of this theme in the Stanza
della Segnatura in the Vatican, painted in 1511, and more particularly an engraving
after an early version of Raphael's design, by Marcantonio Raimondi, so strongly
governed Poussin's idea that the Prado picture must be seen as his act of paying homage
to this great master of the Italian High Renaissance. The drawing is remarkable for its
economy of line and abstract simplification of form: the foliage of the trees is rendered
by a few shorthand notations, while the geometrical forms of the figures have a
starkness entirely in keeping with the severity of Poussin's mind.
FRENCH SCHOOL 85
70 CLAUDE LORRAIN Claude was one of the greatest of all landscape painters. Like his nearcontemporary
(Claude Gellee) • Nicolas Poussin, Claude spent most of his career in Rome, and his work was strongly
French, 16001682 inspired by the Roman Campagna—the nearby countryside of plains, mountains, and
Coast Scene with a Fight
on a Boat sea so evocative of the pastoral serenity of a Golden Age. The basic themes of nature,
the ideal, space, light, harmony, repose, biblical story, and classical myth interlock in
Pen and brown ink and reddishbrown Claude's pictures to engender an extraordinarily poetic feeling. Perhaps more than
wash, heightened with white
bodycolor, on lightblue paper anything else, Claude showed his great mastery over light: his compositions portray
237 x 33.9 cm (9 3/8 x 13 5/16 in.) limpid skies and misty atmosphere that seem to sparkle from the trees, lakes, and
Cat. I, no. 77; 82.GA.80 buildings.
The drawing is a study, with differences, for the picture commissioned by Francois
Annibal d'Estrees, Marquis de Coeuvres, the French ambassador in Rome from 1638
to 1641, now in a private collection, though it has also been suggested that it may be a
ricordo (see no. 28) after the picture. The significance of the men on the boat fighting
two on the shore is unclear; in the painting, as well as in a drawing in the British
Museum, the skirmish takes place on a bridge and with more participants.
86 FRENCH SCHOOL
71 HYACINTHE RIGAUD
Portrait of a Man
Brush drawing in gray wash over
black chalk, heightened with white
bodycolor, on lightblue paper
35.4 x 28 cm (14 x 11 in.)
Cat. II, no. 74; 86.GB.612
The identity of the sitter remains unknown. He was at one time believed to be
FrancoisMichel Le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (16411691), Secretary of War to
Louis XIV, a man notorious for his persecution of Protestants as well as for the despotic
power he wielded over the army and the king. In the disagreeable demeanor; the
penetrating look to the eye; the long, rather broad nose; even the set to the chin, there is
some resemblance to Louvois. The principal difference is that Louvois, from his early
twenties onward, wore a distinctive pencil mustache, clearly absent from the lip of the
present sitter, and was generally plumper in the face. Moreover, the drawing seems to be
later, about 1710. Whoever he is, the opulent surroundings—a classical column draped
with damask, a velvetcovered chair on the back of which he rests his left hand, and the
cloak about his waist—serve to emphasize his power and wealth. The artist has lavished
particular care on the description of the texture of the clothes: the silk jacket and linen
shirt with lacetrimmed sleeves and collar are beautifully rendered with white highlights.
FRENCH SCHOOL 87
72 ANTOINE COYPEL Coypel was one of a family of French painters. Early in his career he studied at the
French, 16611722 French Academy in Rome, where he was influenced by the thenprevailing style of
The Crucifixion French Classicism. Following his return to Paris in 1675/76, he led a successful career
Red and black chalk, heightened with as a painter of official commissions, which included his most famous work, the ceiling
white bodycolor decoration of the chapel of the palace of Louis XIV at Versailles, painted in 1708, a
40.5 x 58.1 cm (15 15/16 x 22% in.)
Cat. II, no. 54; 88.GB.4l Baroque decoration closely based on Italian models. In the theoretical discussions that
took place in Paris at the end of the seventeenth century between the Rubenistes (those
artists who favored the exuberant and colorful style of the Flemish painter Rubens)
and the Poussinistes (proponents of Poussin's classicism and of the importance of lucid
composition), Coypel was a spokesman for the Rubeniste faction.
The drawing is a preparatory study for a painting commissioned in 1692 by the
due de Richelieu and first exhibited in 1699 at the French Salon, the official annual art
exhibition of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture (called the "Salon" from the
Salon d'Apollon in the Louvre, where the exhibitions were held). The painted work
(Toronto, private collection) includes fewer figures, many of which are posed differently
from their counterparts in the drawing. Perhaps ironically, the composition is closely
dependent on Poussin's great picture of 1644 of the same subject, now in the
Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut.
88 FRENCH SCHOOL
73 ANTOINE WATTEAU Watteau's sureness of touch and crispness of accent make him one of the great
French, 16841721 draftsmen of the Western European tradition. His friend the picture dealer
Two Studies of a Flutist and EdmeFrancois Gersaint recognized this great facility and maintained that the artist's
One of the Head of a Boy drawings were to be prized above his paintings. Watteau was especially sensitive to the
Red, black, and white chalk play of light on drapery and possessed a genius for distilling the essence of a given pose.
on buffcolored paper Most of his drawings are of the human figure, usually two or more studies to the sheet
21.4 x 33.6 cm (8 7/16 x 13 3/16 in.)
Cat. II, no. 79; 88.GB.3 as in this example, but with the compositional relationship between the studies often
left unclear. He was a master of the technique known in French as trois crayons, a
combination of red, black, and white chalks, usually on tinted paper.
In this sheet the artist has well observed the particular exertion of the fluteplayer—
the unflattering, pentup expression the musician must make as he directs his breath
through pursed lips is set against the graceful movement of his fingers on the keys as he
holds the instrument elegantly to one side. Although, characteristically, the connection
of the three studies—one of the head of a boy onlooker and the other two of the
flutist in different positions—is undefined, they seem to combine in the spectator's
imagination to form a single scene.
Watteau was greatly influenced by Rubens, in whose work lay the origin of
Watteau's wellknown pictorial type, the fete galante—compositions showing a world
of enchantment in which elegant young men and women dally in an open landscape
to the sound of music, captivated by feelings of love.
FRENCH SCHOOL 89
74 FRANCOIS BOUCHER The figure appears in reverse, with a large musical score propped up in his lap, in the
French, 17031770 right foreground of the tapestry The Charlatan and the Peep Show, where he is one of
Reclining Guitar Player a trio of figures, the two others being a young couple who study another musical score
Black, red, and white chalk on from which they are about to sing. Boucher has drawn the youth with the reversal in
lightblue paper mind, since he has shown him with the stem of the guitar in his right hand instead of
27.9 x 44.1 cm (11 x 17 in.)
Cat. I, no. 60; 83.GB.359 his left so that the instrument would be held correctly when the figure was transposed
in the finished tapestry (for an explanation of the reversal of tapestry designs as part of
the process of transfer, see no. 11). The trois crayons technique (see no. 73) is attractively
handled on a lightblue paper background.
The Charlatan and the Peep Show is the first in a series of fourteen tapestries
known as Les Fetes italiennes or Les Fetes de village a l'italienne, which the artist
designed between 1734 and 1746. The composition shows a charlatan or saltimbank
on a stage among ruins selling potions, aided by a woman accomplice with a monkey.
To the right of the stage is a peep show, while in the foreground are desultory groups
of figures, including children and the group of singers already mentioned.
Boucher was one of the great decorative painters of the French Rococo. In 1723
he went to Rome to study at the French Academy. On his return to France in 1731
he quickly gained the favor of the French court, including the powerful Mme de
Pompadour, Louis XV's mistress.
90 FRENCH SCHOOL
75 LOUIS CARMONTELLE
The Duchess of Chaulnes
as a Gardener in an Allee
Watercolor and bodycolor
over red and black chalk
31.7 x 19 cm(12½ x 7½ in.)
Cat. Ill, no. 93; 94.GC.4l
In 1758, Marie d'Albert de Luynes, the fourteenyearold daughter of the due de
Chevreuse and granddaughter of the duc de Luynes, married her cousin, Marie Joseph
Louis d'Albert d'Ailly, the vidame d'Amiens, who later became duc de Picquigny and,
in 1769, duc de Chaulnes. Her husband left for Egypt the day after their wedding and
stayed there for several years. On his return he refused to see her and to consummate
the marriage. Condemned to lifelong virginity, she dressed in white, as seen in this
The vogue for gardening among women of noble rank gained in popularity with
the ardent support of Queen Marie Antoinette, who followed the pastime at the Royal
Palace of Versailles, most notably at the famous Hameau, her mockNorman farm built
in the palace garden.
This is one of a series of some 750 portraits that Carmontelle drew of members of
the court of the duc d'Orleans. At its numerous social events held at the PalaisRoyal in
Paris, Carmontelle entertained the guests by making portrait drawings on the spot in
the technique of trois crayons (see no. 73), to which he subsequently added watercolor
and bodycolor. The artist later bound them together into eleven albums, and the whole
group forms an exhaustive record of court personages and court life before the French
Revolution, with Mozart, Voltaire, and Franklin among the sitters.
FRENCH SCHOOL 91
76 JEAN-BAPTISTE GREUZE
The Father's Curse:
The Ungrateful Son
Brush and gray wash,
squared in pencil
50.2 x 63.9 cm (19¾ x 25 3/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 74; 83.GG.231
In this scene of paternal malediction, the father extends his hands in anger toward his
son who has just enlisted in the army. A young girl kneeling in front of the father is
trying to pacify him, while the mother embraces her son; on the threshold of the
door the recruiting sergeant contemplates the spectacle with indifference. The drawing
corresponds closely with Greuze's famous picture of the same title in the Musee du
Louvre, Paris, painted in 1777-78. The pendant picture, The Father's Curse: The Son
Punished, also in the Louvre, shows the same family at the old man's deathbed giving
vent to its grief, as the son, who has now returned to the paternal roof, repents too late
of his misconduct.
Late twentieth-century taste is not attuned to Greuze's moralistic storytelling,
but his attraction to the protectors of religion and morality of his own day ensured
his contemporary success. The vogue for sentimental, moral subjects to which his work
appealed arose in mid-eighteenth-century French painting partly as the result of the
influence of English novels and the moralistic writings of such famous contemporary
authors as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, whose speculations on moral, social, and political
topics caught the popular mood.
The overserious content of many of Greuze's pictures is often the target for mockery,
as in this passage from the nineteenth-century French critics the Goncourt brothers:
Examine his work: You will observe how, having sought to embellish beauty,
he proceeds to adorn poverty and destitution. Look at his children, his little
tatterdemalions with their torn trousers; are they not, in fact, Boucher's cupids
who have dressed themselves up as chimney sweeps and broken into the house
by coming down the chimney? It is as if the hand of a theatrical producer had had
a finger in all his compositions: The figures act, group themselves in a tableau vivant,
their occupations are artificially regulated, their work is a mere semblance.
92 FRENCH SCHOOL
"Oh! If Only He Were
as Faithful to Me!"
Brush and brown wash over black
24.8 x 38.3 cm (9¾ x 15 in.)
Cat. I, no. 69; 82.GB.165
The abandoned young woman, dressed only in a neglige, kneels on her unmade bed
with her hands clasped in despair and fixes a yearning gaze on her little dog. The
faithfulness of the pet, which stares back at her devotedly, is a foil for the waywardness
of her absent lover. He is reproached in her sigh, "S'il m'etait aussi fidele!"—the
sorrowful quote that forms the title of an engraved version of the composition by
Abbe de Saint-Non, published in 1776. If the mood seems exaggeratedly dire, there
is a compensating touch of humor. The wronged young woman depends in pose on
representations of the penitent Saint Mary Magdalene, the reformed courtesan of the
New Testament who anointed Christ's feet and whose hair is similarly untied, long and
Fragonard's drawings in brush and wash are among the most accomplished of the
whole eighteenth century. His facility in the medium is astonishing. Especially well
judged are his light, fluent washes that here convey the sense of abandonment of the
very bedclothes; such passages contrast with the arrestingly exact precision of the small
marks with the point of the brush that make up the eye, nostril, and mouth of the girl's
attractive profile and are the essence of her expression of sexual regret that so permeates
the work. The drawing is one of a number devoted to erotic themes carried out by the
artist in the later 1760s.
Fragonard's freely painted and colorful pictures of landscape and history subjects
are among the most complete embodiments of the French Rococo style.
FRENCH SCHOOL 93
78 JEANMICHEL MOREAU
"Have No Fear, My Good
Pen and gray ink and brown wash
26.7 x 21.6 cm (10½ x 8½ in.)
Cat. I, no. 81;85.GG.416
The drawing was engraved in the Monument du costume (1776), a series of prints that
illustrate the life of a woman of society and intended to represent fashionable life of the
time. The heroine, Cephise, reclines on a settee, apprehensive about her impending first
confinement. The following snippet of conversation between her and the marquise
(the earnestlooking woman seated in front of her) and the abbe (the man standing to
the left with a somewhat haughty expression), taken from the text accompanying the
prints, sets the scene: "The moment it [the birth] is over, you won't give it a thought...
I have had four children and am none the worse for it."
The title of the composition is their exhortation to Cephise; the title of the next
composition in the series, "It's a boy, sir" (the announcement of the happy news to the
husband), settles their point.
The artist has signed and dated the work in the lower left corner: JM moreau le
94 FRENCH SCHOOL
79 JACQUESLOUIS DAVID The drawing, which is signed and dated on the base of Brutus's chair L. David faciebat
French, 17481825 1787, is a study for the wellknown painting of the subject in the Musee du Louvre,
The Lictors Returning to Brutus Paris, commissioned by Louis XVI and completed in 1789, the very year of the French
the Bodies of His Sons Revolution.
Pen and black ink and gray wash The subject, which is full of republican overtones, is taken from ancient Roman
32.7 x 42.1 cm (12 x 16 9/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 68; 84.GA.8 history. Junius Brutus, in 509 B.C. one of the first two Roman consuls instituted after
the fall of the Tarquins, the family of tyrannical kings of Rome, is here shown soon after
the execution of his two "royalist" sons, who had betrayed him by attempting to restore
the Tarquins. Brutus is seated at the foot of the statue of the goddess Roma; in the
painting, he holds in his hand the letter written by his sons to Tarquin. On the right,
his wife and daughters succumb to their grief at the sight of the lictors bringing back
the bodies. "Thus patriotic duty overcomes the mere responsibility of the father, and
family happiness is subverted by political loyalty."
David was one of the great Neoclassical painters of his age. He was in active
sympathy with the French Revolution, giving expression in his paintings to the new
sense of civic virtue that it heralded. He was later official painter to Napoleon Bonaparte.
FRENCH SCHOOL 95
80 JACQUESLOUIS DAVID During the French Revolution, between Thermidor 10 and 12, year II (July 2830,
French, 17481825 1794), Robespierre and about a hundred of his followers were guillotined, thus ending
Portrait of AndreAntoine the Reign of Terror. Soon thereafter charges were brought against David, for his
Bernard, Called Bernard des support of Robespierre and his signing of a number of arrest warrants while serving as
a member of the Committee on Public Safety. David was arraigned on August 3 and
Pen and india ink and gray wash, imprisoned, first in the Hotel des Fermes and later in the Palais du Luxembourg until
heightened with white bodycolor,
over graphite his release on December 28. On May 28, 1795, he was rearrested and incarcerated in
Diam. 18.2 cm (7 in.) the College des QuatreNations, from which he was freed on August 4.
95.GB.37 While in the QuatreNations, he made a number of portrait drawings of fellow
prisoners that comprise a vivid pictorial record of personalities from the French
Revolution. Among the most striking of the group is this example of the lawyer
AndreAntoine Bernard. A participant in the Assemblee legislative in 1791 and a deputy
at the Convention nationale in 1792, Bernard was imprisoned in the QuatreNations
with David, who made the portrait on July 24, 1795, according to an old inscription
on the drawing's backing. Released in October of that year, Bernard was exiled in 1816
for having voted to execute Louis XVI; he went to Brussels and then emigrated to
America, where he died.
David's intense portrayal of Bernard des Saintes seems to extend beyond its
function as an individual likeness to evoke the drama of the revolution in which both
artist and sitter had played a part.
FRENCH SCHOOL 97
81 ANNE-LOUIS GIRODET This is a highly finished preparatory study for
DE ROUCY TRIOSON one of the illustrations to a deluxe edition of
French, 1767-1824 the work of the great seventeenth-century
Phaedra Rejecting the Embraces French tragedian Jean Racine, published by
Didot between 1801 and 1805. Girodetwas
Pen and brown and gray ink, one of seven artists from the circle of Jacques-
heightened with white bodycolor,
over graphite Louis David who collaborated on the project,
33.5 x 22.6 cm (13¼ x 8 in.) being responsible for five illustrations each for
Cat. I, no. 71; 85.GG.209 Andromaque and Phedre. This drawing shows
the moment when Theseus returns and is
shocked by the cold reception he receives
from his wife and from his son Hippolytus.
The controlled compositional balance and clarity of both meaning and form are
exemplary of the entire series of illustrations. One critic regretted these qualities,
observing that the engravings "resemble copies after bas-reliefs; they show the
personages as imposing, immobile, and as cold as marble, the figures geometrical and in
rectilinear attitudes," commenting further that the illustrators would have better "taken
as their starting-point the work of Racine himself." Be that as it may, the compositions
are undoubtedly a reflection of the profound impact of David's austere Neoclassical
style on French taste at the beginning of the Napoleonic era.
82 JEAN-AUGUSTE- The drawing shows Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba, receiving from the
DOMINIQUE INGRES archbishop of Mechelen a hat and sword blessed by Pope Pius V. The scene is the
French, 1780-1867 Cathedral of Sainte-Gudule in Brussels, where Alba is being honored for suppressing
The Duke of Alba Receiving the Protestant heresy. In 1566, Philip II of Spain sent the duke to reestablish the king's
Pope's Blessing in the Cathedral
of Sainte-Gudule, Brussels authority in the Netherlands and to root out Protestantism. As the tyrannical governor
general from 1567 to 1573, Alba formed the so-called Council of Blood, which set
Pen and brown ink, and brown wash,
heightened with white, over black and aside local laws and condemned some eighteen thousand Protestants to death.
red chalk and graphite This is an elaborate, fully worked-out study, with considerable differences, for the
43 x 52.9 cm (16 15/16 x 20 13/16 in.) unfinished painting commissioned by the fourteenth duke of Alba, which Ingres
worked on between 1815 and 1819. Disturbed at having to celebrate a man for his
cruelty and religious intolerance, Ingres, who was born in Montauban, a traditional
stronghold of French Protestantism, did not complete it. Although the drawing gives
the appearance of a successfully resolved composition, the painting is changed to an
upright format and the duke is no longer the principal protagonist. The artist has
removed him from the foreground, placing him instead, a diminutive figure, on a
throne at the top of a high dais, carpeted in the brightest red, which gives the whole
scene the sense of being bathed in blood. (It is one of the ironies of history that the
picture was looted by the Nazis and ended up in the possession of Marshal Goring;
after its recovery at the end of World War II, it was allocated to the Musee Ingres.)
98 FRENCH SCHOOL
83 JEANAUGUSTE As an impoverished young artist living in Rome, Ingres earned his living almost entirely
DOMINIQUE INGRES from drawing portraits of wealthy visitors to the city, though he despised the activity,
French, 17801867 regarding history painting as his true vocation. "Damned portraits... they prevent me
Portrait of Lord Grantham from getting on to great things," he once complained. But none of his reluctance
Graphite emerges in this vivid likeness, whose abstract purity of line is so typical of the artist's
40.5 x 28.2 cm (15 15/16 x 11 1/18 in.) best portraiture—a sense of refinement that made his wealthy, noble patrons return to
Cat. I, no. 76; 82.GD.106
him for more portraits.
This drawing is signed and dated: Ingres Del. Rome. /1816. The sitter, the English
peer Thomas Robinson, third Baron Grantham and later Earl de Grey, was thirtyfive
when he submitted himself to Ingres for his portrait. It must have been at the artist's
request that Grantham removed his right glove, tucked his right hand behind the
buttoneddown front of his tailed jacket, and crooked his arm to establish a dynamic
counterpoint to the relaxed appearance of the rest of his body—the left arm hanging
down limply, with the gloved hand holding his top hat and right glove, and the half
"at ease" position of the legs. For all this, the handsome young nobleman looks back
at the spectator a little shyly. The drawing shows the Basilica of Saint Peter in the
background, viewed from the Arco Oscuro, a vantage point that Ingres chose also
for other portraits.
FRENCH SCHOOL 101
84 THEODORE GERICAULT
Watercolor and bodycolor
21.1 x 23.8 cm (8 5/16 x 9 in.)
Cat. II, no. 60; 86.GC.678
Subjects taken from the works of the great English Romantic poet Lord Byron were
popular on the Continent from the time of their first appearance. The Giaour: A
Turkish Tale, 1813, is a story about a Christian outlaw of the time of the Crusades.
This drawing illustrates the passage in which the giaour, defying the hostile elements
and overcoming his horse's fear, surveys with rage a distant Turkish town in the dead
He spurs his steed; he nears the steep,
That, jutting, shadows o'er the deep;
His brow was bent, his eye was glazed;
He raised his arm, and fiercely raised,
And sternly shook his hand on high.
Gericault well captures the hero's sense of resolve in this watercolor of around 1820,
done for a lithograph (what was then a new process of printing from a stone block)
published in 1823, in which the Turkish town appears in the lower left. The moonlit
scene, with dark, threatening sky, windblown rock, and distant sea, shows Gericault
responding positively to the popular literary Romanticism of the time. He also pays lip
service to the contemporary fashion for things Islamic, a vogue that stemmed in part
from Napoleon's campaigns in Egypt and Syria at the turn of the century.
Gericault was one of the originators of the Romantic movement in French
painting. His art was greatly affected by his passion for horses, which he represented
with remarkable understanding, as in this example.
102 FRENCH SCHOOL
85 EUGENE DELACROIX The subject is taken from Lara, a poem by Lord Byron published in 1814. Lara, a
French, 17981863 Spanish overlord, returns from exile accompanied by Kaled, a page "of foreign aspect,
The Death of Lara and of tender age," only to encounter the wrath of a neighboring baron, Otho. Lara
Watercolor with some bodycolor becomes the leader of a peasant revolt, which is eventually suppressed by Otho. In a
over underdrawing in graphite final battle against overwhelming odds, the hero is mortally wounded by an arrow.
17.9 x 25.7 cm (7 1/16 x 10 in.)
94.GC.51 He dies in the care of his faithful Kaled, who in the end is revealed to be a maiden in
disguise who is in love with him.
In this watercolor Kaled is patently a young woman, her distant origin symbolized
by her cap and her plaid or tartan cloak. In the midtolate 1820s, the probable date
of the watercolor, Delacroix made a special study of armor and of tartans. More
importantly, his knowledge is here revealed of the brightly colored watercolors of
history subjects by the early nineteenthcentury English painter Richard Parkes
Bonington, who was active mainly in France.
Delacroix was the greatest painter of the French Romantic movement. As the
freedom of touch and brightness of color of his paintings grew, he came more and
more into conflict with the exponents of the great French classical tradition of painting,
FRENCH SCHOOL 103
86 HONORE DAUMIER
A Criminal Case
Watercolor and bodycolor, with pen
and brown ink and black chalk
38.5 x 32.8 cm (15 x 12 13/16 in.)
Cat. II, no. 55; 89.GA.33
Daumier's first job as a youth was as an errand boy to an usher at the Palais de Justice
in Paris. From an early age he was thus able to watch the comings and goings of
lawyers in their dark flowing robes, accompanied by their bedraggled, despondent,
even bestiallooking clients from the criminal classes. With remarkable candor,
Daumier studied the interaction between these two groups, the lofty and impatient
gestures of the advocates contrasting with the helpless expressions of their ignorant
victims, tangled within the complex mesh of the judicial system. In this drawing the
murderer leans over the dock to "consult" with his lawyer, who is clearly in control of
the exchange, governing it by his raised right hand and pointing index figure and by his
seizure of a sheaf of papers for reference. The guard stands behind, impassive as a dolt,
oblivious to the meaning or purpose of the conversation. The drawing may have been
done as an end in itself, though it depends to some extent on a lithograph (see no. 84)
of 1846, one of his series Les Gens de Justice, 184548.
Principally a caricaturist but also a painter and sculptor, Daumier is best known
for the political cartoons he regularly contributed to the antigovernment weeklies La
Caricature and Le Charivari. On average he designed two such cartoons a week and is
said to have made over four thousand lithographs by the time of his death.
104 FRENCH SCHOOL
87 HENRI LEHMANN
(Karl Ernest Rodolphe
Heinrich Salem Lehmann)
Lamentation at the Foot
of the Cross
Gray wash, heightened with white
chalk, over black chalk and graphite,
on brown paper
42.8 x 29.2 cm (16 x 11½ in.)
Cat. II, no. 63; 86.GB.474
This is a finished preparatory study for Lehmann's picture of the subject in the Chapelle
de la Compassion, Church of SaintLouisenl'Ile, Paris, painted in 1847. Lehmann
was inspired by The Descent from the Cross, painted in 1789 by JeanBaptiste Regnault
for the chapel of the Chateau de Fontainebleau (Paris, Musee du Louvre).
The drawing exemplifies the fashionable academic style that so dominated the
art of the French Salons (see no. 72) from the middle of the nineteenth century to
the beginning of the twentieth. The longstanding twentiethcentury vogue for
Impressionism and PostImpressionism has tended to hinder our appreciation of the
many excellent qualities of this official style of painting, which favored history subjects
above all other genres and admired a neoGreek model that also allowed for multiple
references to the great painting of the past. It is only recently that the work of these
"official" painters, such as Lehmann, has come to be appreciated on its own terms for
its gracefulness, remarkable proficiency of execution, and independent poetic power.
Lehmann's speciality was history painting, often of scriptural subjects, such as the
present example. He was employed in mural decorations, among them the galleries of
the Hotel de Ville, Paris. In 1861 he was made head of the Academie des BeauxArts,
and in 1875 professor at the Ecole des BeauxArts.
FRENCH SCHOOL 105
88 JEANFRANCOIS MILLET A cloud has passed over the sun, casting the scene into gloom. The shepherdess, her
French, 18141875 flock of sheep, and the sheepdog stand halfsilhouetted against the pale sky and the
A Shepherdess and Her Flock weakly lit surface of the field. Waiting patiently and with dignity was part of the endless
Pastel routine of the peasant, whose simple life Millet sought to ennoble in his work, which
36.4 x 47.4 cm (14 x 18 11/16 in.) brought him accusations by contemporary critics of Socialist leanings.
Cat. I, no. 80; 83.GF.220
In the Salon of 1864 Millet exhibited his painting A Shepherdess and Her Flock
(Paris, Musee du Louvre), which received great acclaim as one of his classic depictions
of peasant life. This is one of several pastels connected in composition to that work—
two are in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; one in the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore;
and one was formerly on the art market, New York.
The son of a peasant farmer from Normandy, Millet was inspired by his rural
background to make peasant life the subject of his painting. From 1849, he joined
a group of painters working at Barbizon, a small village at the edge of the Forest of
Fontainebleau, whose mission was to paint from nature directly as they saw it, and
whose work together constitutes the Barbizon school, an important forerunner of the
FRENCH SCHOOL 107
89 EDOUARD MANET The composition is reminiscent of the painting Episode in a Bullfight, which Manet
French, 18321883 exhibited at the Salon of 1864 and then cut up following adverse criticism; the lower
Bullfight section, The Dead Toreador, is in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; the
Watercolor and bodycolor upper, Toreadors in Action, which strongly recalls the upper part of this drawing, is in
over graphite the Frick Collection, New York.
19.3 x 21.4 cm (7 9/16 x 8 7/16 in.)
94.GC.100 In August 1865 Manet travelled to Spain, a visit that was profoundly to influence
the rest of his career. In a letter that September to a friend he mentioned a "superb"
bullfight he had witnessed: "You can count on it that upon my return to Paris I shall
put the fleeting aspect of such a gathering of people onto canvas." He also wrote of the
"dramatic part, with picador and horse upended and gored by the bull's horns and a
horde of ruffians trying to control the furious beast." Manet's picture of the subject
(Paris, Musee d'Orsay) was painted in the same year, though it differs considerably
from the drawing in its wider angle of vision, which allows more space for the artist's
interest in the crowd but diminishes the dramatic focus on the bull savaging the
Manet was one of the most prodigiously gifted painters of all time, his brushwork
remarkable for its naturalness and fluency. His liking for popular subject matter (at the
time construed as offensive) established him in the forefront of avantgarde painting of
the day. Beginning with The Absinthe Drinker (Copenhagen, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek),
rejected by the Salon jury in 1859, and culminating in the Dejeuner sur l'herbe and
Olympia of 1863 (both Paris, Musee d'Orsay), his work was widely acclaimed as the
"painting of modern life," for which the eminent nineteenthcentury critic Charles
Baudelaire had so long appealed. Although he refused to take part in the Impressionist
exhibitions of the 1870s, Manet nevertheless influenced most of the members of the
108 FRENCH SCHOOL
90 EDGAR DEGAS
Oil on paper, laid down on canvas
20.6 x 15.9 cm (8 x 6¼ in.)
Drawing, which underlies every form of pictorial or plastic expression, often overlaps
with other media. Although drawings are invariably made on paper, not all works on
paper necessarily spring to mind as drawings. Sketches like this Self-portrait by Degas
or The Entombment by Barocci (no. 22), both in oil on paper, straddle the divide
between drawing and painting. Seen by some as a painting because of the medium
employed, Degas's Self-portrait is a work on paper and has the directness of touch and
intimacy associable with a drawing.
Degas made this Self-portrait around 1857—58, during his youthful sojourn in
Italy. The period was one of self-education, and he painted and drew prolifically.
Following the advice given him by Ingres, he devoted much of his time to making
copies after Renaissance masters. Like many young artists, Degas found that he himself
was his most amenable sitter: while in Italy, he made fifteen or more self-portraits in
various media, most of which show him three-quarter face with his eyes turned to the
side to look piercingly at himself, and hence at us.
Degas's grounding in the Old Master tradition gave his work a strength of form
that sets it apart from the Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painters with whom he
is usually grouped. His introduction to this circle occurred in 1862 after his meeting
with Manet, an association that resulted in his turning from history painting to
subjects from contemporary Parisian life—scenes of racecourses, cafes, ballet, theater,
washerwomen, and brothels (see nos. 91-92).
110 FRENCH SCHOOL
91 EDGAR DEGAS This is a sketch from an album of pencil sketches drawn by Degas around 1877 (see
French, 1834-1917 no. 92). The inscription, in the hand of Ludovic Halevy, identifies the studies as being
Procession at Saint-Germain from a procession at the Church of Saint-Germain in Paris, in June 1877. It is easy to
Graphite see why the different subjects caught the artist's eye: the little girl with a pretty hairstyle
24.8 x 33 cm (9¾ x 13 in.) holding a candle, bottom left; the haughty man with a flower in his buttonhole,
immediately behind her; the eccentric-looking priests, including the balding one in
profile, with a coif at the front of his head and the remnant of hair at the back brushed
forward; and the array of not-so-good-looking middle-aged women on the right.
Drawn with great rapidity, the line is muscular, economical, and sure. Each head is a
recognizable, particularly observed individual, and there is no trace of repetition or
relapse into formula, so often a weakness of caricature.
The row of three female heads in profile, or near profile, top right, should be
compared with the caricature "cameo" of three bearded men in profile, top right of the
Agostino Carracci drawing (see no. 25). Both the Carracci and the Degas are within the
tradition of grotesque or caricature drawing that goes back to Leonardo da Vinci.
FRENCH SCHOOL 111
92 EDGAR DEGAS Like no. 91, this drawing is from an album of pencil sketches made by Degas around
French, 1834-1917 1877, during weekly soirees at the household of his friend Ludovic Halevy, a writer
Reyer with Washerwomen of opera librettos (including Bizet's Carmen) and popular romances, as well as a keen
Graphite follower of ballet, like Degas himself. According to Halevy, at these evening gatherings
24.8 x 33 cm (9¾ x 13 in.) (each folio) Degas would draw members of the company as well as make studies for his own work.
The sketches embrace a variety of themes but are mostly of the cafe-concert and ballet
and reflect Degas's constant processing and reprocessing of material for his paintings
and prints. Altogether thirty-eight of the artist's sketchbooks survive, twenty-nine in
the Bibliotheque Nationale de France, Paris.
These pages show the composer Ernest Reyer sitting among washerwomen. The
inscription at the top of the page states that "for a long time Reyer has been offering a
112 FRENCH SCHOOL
thirdfloor [and thus cheap theater] box to a washerwoman." He is shown sheepishly
proffering a slip of paper to the woman holding an iron somewhat coquettishly to her
cheek in order to judge its heat. Although the precise meaning of Reyer's offer is unclear,
there may be a sexual inference, especially given the fact that, in the nineteenth century,
washerwomen often turned to prostitution to supplement their low income.
In spite of a long friendship going back to their schooldays, Degas broke abruptly
with Halevy in 1898, following the infamous Dreyfus scandal. Although brought up a
Catholic, Halevy was Jewish; in the polarization of Parisian society that resulted from
the scandal, Degas was determinedly antiDreyfus and therefore strongly antiSemitic.
This twist brings poignancy to the book, which long remained in the possession of the
Halevy family and is so patently a document of profound artistic friendship.
FRENCH SCHOOL 113
93 PAUL CEZANNE Datable around 1900, this is perhaps the most finished of a group of large watercolors
French, 18391906 of stilllife subjects made toward the end of Cezanne's career. This example is close in
Still Life composition to a watercolor in the Ford Collection, Crosse Pointe Shores, Michigan,
Watercolor over graphite which seems to precede it in execution. The Getty Museum's watercolor is remarkable
48 x 63.1 cm (18 15/16 x 24 in.) not just for its scale, degree of finish, and overall quality but also for its exceptional state
Cat. I, no. 65; 83.GC.221
Cezanne's monumental conception of form is seen here: the jug, the two pots—one
white, one blue—and the apples indeed assume a physical presence greatly beyond our
normal perception of their existence. These elements, togethet with the tablecloth,
tapestry cover, and background wainscot and wall, are represented according to the
artist's highly personal use of watercolor, in small, superimposed patches of translucent
tint that somehow evoke the plasticity of substance with extra resonance, in spite of the
apparent frailty of the medium. The contrast between these intense passages of color
and the untouched ateas of paper merely emphasizes this powerful physical effect.
Cezanne was probably the greatest and most influential of the painters loosely
termed Impressionist who were active in France toward the end of the nineteenth
century. He brought to the fleeting quality of Impressionism, with its freedom of touch
and use of small brushstrokes, a new abstract, intellectual force that gave his pictures a
sense of classical, rational, and therefore timeless order.
114 FRENCH SCHOOL
94 BARTOLOME ESTEBAN The youthful Saint John the Baptist is seated in the wilderness, holding his reed cross
MURILLO with his left hand and the Paschal Lamb with his right. The Lamb and the accompanying
Spanish, 16171682 inscription, Ecce Agnus Dei, which normally appears on the scroll attached to the cross,
The Youthful Saint John the derive from the Fourth Gospel (1:36), "And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he [John]
Baptist with the Lamb
saith, Behold the Lamb of God." The drawing may well have been made for a painting,
Pen and brown ink over black chalk possibly one of a series showing different saints and archangels, since a study identical
27.2 x 19.2 cm (10 11/16 x 7 9/16 in.)
Cat. Ill, no. 114; 94.GA.79 in style and of about the same size in the British Museum, London, shows the standing
figure of the archangel Michael. Like many drawings by Murillo, those in the Getty
Museum and in London are identically inscribed, Bartolome Murillo fat (short for
faciebat = "made it," a Latin abbreviation commonly found on prints and drawings):
it is not a signature, but a note of authorship, written after the artist's death, possibly
by his executor.
Murillo was one of the leading Spanish painters of the seventeenth century.
His mature work is naturalistic and strongly tenebrist in style, partly as a result of the
influence of his fellow Sevillian, Diego de Velazquez (1599—1660). In later works
Murillo softened his earlier stark chiaroscuro into a warmer, more diffuse kind of
SPANISH SCHOOL 117
95 FRANCISCO JOSE DE A man with features much resembling those of Goya himself gestures contemptuously
GOYA Y LUCIENTES (and possibly obscenely) at two disagreeablelooking dwarfs dressed in military regalia
Spanish, 17461828 who threaten him with daggers; their uniforms have been interpreted by some as those
Contemptuous of the Insults of generals in Napoleon's army. Despreciar los ynsultos (Despise the insults) is inscribed
Brush and india ink below the image, bottom center, a title that seems to signify Goya's defiance toward
29.5 x 18.2 cm (1 1 x 7 3/16 in.) the French military occupation of Spain. The point is reinforced by the difference in
Cat. I, no. 142; 82.GG.96
scale between the figures—the tall, urbane Spaniard patronizing his squat and gloomy
The drawing is number 16 from the "Dark Border Set" (called Album E), which
may originally have contained as many as fifty drawings. The album was made around
1805, some six years after the artist published his famous series of etchings Los
Caprichos (Caprices), a bitter attack on contemporary customs and manners, and some
thirteen years following the mysterious illness that left Goya completely deaf, an event
that altered the direction of his work from an extrovert, decorative style to one obsessed
with the morbid and bizarre.
Goya was appointed painter to King Charles III of Spain in 1786 and court painter
to King Charles IV in 1789. The turmoil that beset Spain during the Napoleonic wars,
to which this drawing makes reference, also inspired Goya's Disasters of War (181023),
a series of etchings that show with stark brutality the consequences of such conflict.
118 SPANISH SCHOOL
96 THOMAS The sitter and her child are unknown, but it is likely that the two figures were intended
GAINSBOROUGH as portraits of individuals from the English aristocracy. The large picture hat and
British, 17271788 flamboyant hairstyle were in vogue around 178590. According to Gainsborough's
Lady Walking in a Garden friend William Pearce, the artist went on a sketching trip to Saint James's Park in
with a Child
London to draw the "highdressed and fashionable ladies" in order to prepare his
Black chalk with stumping on neverexecuted picture of The Richmond WaterWalk (so called from the promenade
lightbrown paper, heightened
with white pastel along the Thames at Richmond, a few miles west of London), which was to show
50.5 x 22.1 cm (19 7/8 x 8 11/16 in.) "Richmond WaterWalk, or Windsor—the figures all portraits." This was commissioned
96.GB.13 around 1785 by King George III as a companion to The Mall in Saint James's Park
(New York, Frick Collection), a magnificent picture showing elegantly dressed ladies
parading along this wooded walk, "all aflutter, like a lady's fan," as one commentator
This drawing, along with two in the British Museum, London, and one in the
Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, were probably done from life and are among
Gainsborough's greatest figure drawings, with this arguably being the finest of the
group. Much the same magical touch as in his best painted work is seen here. The
liveliness of the sweeps of charcoal and white highlight is a metaphor for the woman's
movement—the turn of her head, the lightness of her step, even the sense of breeze
blowing her skirts and gently agitating the surrounding foliage.
Gainsborough's sophisticated and elegant style of portraiture is epitomized by
The Blue Boy (San Marino, Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical
Gardens). His later portraits show a sensitive harmonization of human and natural
forms united by brushwork of extraordinary inventiveness and freedom.
BRITISH SCHOOL 121
97 WILLIAM BLAKE
Satan Exulting over Eve
Watercolor, pen and black ink, and
graphite over color print
42.6 x 53.5 cm (16¾ x 21 1/16 in.)
Cat. I, no. 146; 84.GC.49
Although Blake was one of the greatest British artists of the Romantic period, he is less
well known than some of his contemporaries. One reason for this is the poetic and
visionary basis of his art, which embodies his own personal philosophy and mythology.
His powerful images reflect his visions, which he insisted were not "a cloudy vapour or
a nothing; they are organized and minutely articulated beyond all that the mortal and
perishing nature can produce." Yet, in spite of this subjective inspiration, the compositional
formulae and figure types in his work depend on those of the great Old Master
tradition of painting and drawing, works with which he was familiar from engravings.
Just as Degas's Self-portrait (see no. 90) belongs to the gray area between painting
and drawing, so Satan Exulting over Eve straddles drawing and printmaking. It is one
of twelve color prints done in 1795 that were made by drawing and brushing a design
in broad color areas onto a piece of millboard, printing them on a piece of paper, and
working them over considerably in watercolor and pen and ink. Each version of the
various designs is therefore unique, and in no case are more than three variants of a
design known to survive. Satan flies in malevolent glory over the beautiful nude figure
of Eve, who is entwined by his alter ego, the serpent of the Garden of Eden.
Blake was trained as an engraver. Most of his career was spent publishing his own,
uniquely illustrated, poetry and prose.
122 BRITISH SCHOOL
98 SIR DAVID WILKIE
Sir David Baird Discovering
the Body of Tipu Sahib
Watercolor, pen and brown ink,
and black chalk
41.6 x 28 cm (16 x 11 in.)
This is an elaborate compositional study for Wilkie's painting in the National Gallery
of Scotland, Edinburgh, commissioned in 1834 and completed by 1838. The drawing
shows Sir David Baird regarding the body of Tipu Sahib, the last independent sultan
of Mysore, whose capitulation and death marked the final consolidation of British rule
in India. Sir David Baird was defeated in the First Mysore War and was imprisoned
from 1780 to 1784 in Seringapatam, capital of Mysore. He returned to India to lead
the successful storming of the city on May 4, 1799, in which Tipu was killed.
The artist based his composition on a contemporary description of the finding of
the dead sultan: "About dusk, General Baird... came with lights to the gate... to search
for the body of the sultan; and after much labour it was found, and brought from
under a heap of slain to the inside of the gate." In the drawing, Baird stands at the
gateway under which Tipu received his death wound. At Baird's feet is a grating, a
reference to the dungeon in which he himself had been incarcerated.
Wilkie was among the most popular and innovative of the history painters in England
in the first half of the nineteenth century. He was also one of the finest draftsmen of his
period. During the early part of his career, he achieved wide popularity with his peasant
genre scenes, but later he pursued history painting, and his style changed accordingly.
Combining the influence of the great masters of the past with the Romanticism of
contemporary painters, he evolved a new, popular style of history painting.
BRITISH SCHOOL 123
99 JOSEPH MALLORD This is the largest and most elaborate of Turner's four surviving watercolors of Conway
WILLIAM TURNER Castle, a late medieval castle on the northern coast of Wales. The Welsh landscape
British, 17751851 exerted a strong influence on the young Turner, and he made several sketching trips there
Conway Castle, North Wales in the 1790s; this example was probably made following his tour of 1798. The castle
Watercolor and gum arabic towers over a windy bay as fishermen struggle to pull their boats ashore. Turner's special
with graphite underdrawing gift in representing dramatic effects of natural light is seen here as a break in the clouds
53.6 x 76.7 cm (21 x 30 in.)
95.GC.10 allows the sunshine to illuminate the building and the coast beyond. The tiny figures
of the fishermen caught in this vast expanse prompt thoughts on man's place in the
natural world, which is so governed by physical and temporal forces beyond his control.
Turner was the foremost British painter of the first half of the nineteenth century,
and one of the great figures in the history of landscape painting. His landscape imagery
was transformed into a vehicle whose dramatic power and universality rivaled that
of contemporary history painting. Among his most famous watercolors are those
connected with visits to Venice in 1833 and 1840 and to Switzerland, especially the
Lake of Lucerne. His later masterpieces, such as The Fighting "Temeraire, " 1839
(London, Tate Gallery), and Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying, 1840
(Boston, Museum of Fine Arts), show his celebrated representation of meteorological
effects as embodiments of the forces of nature.
BRITISH SCHOOL 125
100 SAMUEL PALMER The subject is freely adapted from a passage in the Elizabethan poet Edmund Spenser's
British, 18051881 Faerie Queene, first published in 1590. In the boat to the left stand Sir Guyon and the
Sir Guyon with the Palmer palmer, a character from the poem with whom the artist clearly identified (a "palmer"
Attending, Tempted by Phaedria is a pilgrim who has returned from the Holy Land, in sign of which he carries a palm
to Land upon the Enchanted
Islands—"Faerie Queene" branch or leaf). Phaedria stands in the boat to the right, gesturing invitingly toward the
Enchanted Isle, festive with dancing nymphs and glittering in the evening sun. In Book
Watercolor and bodycolor, with
some gum arabic, over black chalk 2, canto 6, of the poem, Phaedria, however, refuses to take the palmer, much against Sir
underdrawing, on "London Board" Guyon's wishes:
53.7 x 75.2 cm (21 x 29 9/16 in.)
94.GC.50 But the Blacke Palmer suffred still to stand,
Ne would for price, or prayers once affoord,
To ferry that old man over the perlows foord.
This watercolor, conceived as a finished work of art in its own right, was exhibited
in 1849 at the Old Watercolour Society. The range of effects that a great watercolorist
such as Palmer can achieve are spectacular—from the wonderfully convincing
clouddappled sky ("Margate mottle," as the artist referred to such effects), to the
"protopointillism" (a technique of applying regular small touches of pure color, which
are then mixed "optically" by the viewer) of several areas of the foreground, most
notably in the foliage on the island, to the right.
126 BRITISH SCHOOL
INDEX OF ARTISTS
Numerals refer to page numbers
Altdorfer, Albrecht 61 Girodet de Roucy Trioson, Pencz, Georg 66
AnneLouis 98 Perino del Vaga, Pietro Buonaccorsi,
Barocci, Federico 29 Giulio Romano, Giulio Pippi, called 23
Bartolommeo, Baccio della Porta, Peruzzi, Baldassare 17
called Fra 11 Gogh, Vincent van 82 Piazzetta, Giovanni Battista 45
Bernini, Gian Lorenzo 42 Goltzius, Hendrick 72 Piranesi, Giovanni Battista 50
Blake, William 122 Goya y Lucientes, Pontormo, Jacopo Carrucci, called 21
Bol, Hans 71 Pordenone, Giovanni Antonio de'
Francisco Jose de 118
Boucher, Francois 90
Graf, Urs 63 Sacchis, called 20
Breu the Elder, Jorg 59
Greuze, JeanBaptiste 92 Poussin, Nicolas 85
Cades, Giuseppe 53 Guardi, Francesco 49 Previtali, Andrea 15
Callot, Jacques 84 Guercino, Giovanni Francesco Barbieri,
Canaletto, Giovanni Antonio Canal, called 38 Raphael, Raffaello Sanzio, called
called 48 18, 19
Heintz the Elder, Joseph 67 Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn
Carmontelle, Louis 91 Holbein the Younger, Hans 65
Carracci, Agostino 32 78, 79
Carracci, Annibale 35 Ingres, JeanAugusteDominique Rigaud, Hyacinthe 87
Cezanne, Paul 114 98, 101 Rosa, Salvator 43
Claude Lorrain, Claude Gellee, Rosso Fiorentino, Giovanni Battista di
Koninck, Philips 80 Jacopo di Gasparre, called 22
Correggio, Antonio Allegri, called 20 Lehmann, Karl Ernest Rodolphe Rubens, Peter Paul 73, 74
Cortona, Pietro Berrettini, called Heinrich Salem Lehmann, called Saenredam, Pieter Jansz, 75
Pietro da 41 Henri 105 Savoldo, Giovanni Girolamo 25
Coypel, Antoine 88 Leonardo da Vinci 9 Schaufelein, Hans 60
Crabbe van Espleghem, Frans 70 Ligozzi, Jacopo 31 Schongauer, Martin 54
Cranach the Elder, Lucas 58 Lippi, Filippino 10 Strozzi, Bernardo 37
Cuyp, Aelbert 81 Lotto, Lorenzo 14 Suvee, JosephBenoit 81
Daumier, Honore 104 Manet, Edouard 108
Mantegna, Andrea 8 Tiepolo, Giandomenico 52
David, JacquesLouis 95, 97 Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista 46, 47
Degas, Edgar 110, 111, 112 Manuel Deutsch, Niklaus 62
Maratti, Carlo 44 Titian, Tiziano Vecellio, called 16
Delacroix, Eugene 103 Turner, Joseph Mallord William 125
Domenichino, Domenico Zampieri, Menzel, Adolf von 69
called 36 Michelangelo Buonarroti 12 Veronese, Paolo Calieri, called 26
Durer, Albrecht 56, 57 Millet, JeanFrancois 107
Moreau the Younger, JeanMichel 94 Watteau, Antoine 89
Dyck, Anthony van 76 Wilkie, Sir David 123
Murillo, Bartolome Esteban 117
Fragonard, JeanHonore 93
Palmer, Samuel 126 Zuccaro, Taddeo 28
Gainsborough, Thomas 121 Parmigianino, Francesco Mazzola, Zucchi, Jacopo 30
Gericault, Theodore 102 called 24