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15 to the preservation of Korean culture and the growth of nationalism, it showed clear limitations in widening global insights. The Nosa School’s beliefs deepened conflict with Western imperial powers and formulated brutal policies that killed thousands of Christians in Korea. However, it was also the Nosa School’s beliefs that became the basis of struggles against invasion. Arising from the thought of Ki Jeong-jin in the Jeolla area, the Nosa School spread to form the Joseon government’s strong nationalism and inspire the militias of commoners who fought against coastal intrusions by Western forces in latter 19th century Korea. ▲ The French Fleet at Ganghwa Island. Arranged by David Shaffer. every creation had its own place. Therefore, he saw incidents such as a wife taking her husband’s place, a subject taking his sovereign’s place, or barbarians taking China’s place as causes of the greatest troubles of the world. His writings fascinated many neo-Confucian scholars to the extent that he gathered as many as 600 students who studied his thought. This was the beginning of the Nosa School in the early 1840s. In politics, Ki Jeong-jin mainly argued for centralization of the government and Korean solidarity. He claimed that in order to correct the cultural disorder and defend the country against imperialism, a strong monarch should rule the country. Further, he argued that this strong monarch should care for his citizens as a governess cares for her charges and demanded the fast implementation of reforms that would benefit farmers. www.gwangjunewsgic.com However, he also formulated some radical concepts such as the “human–beast theory,” which compared the West and Christians to barbarians or beasts. He argued that only those holding neo-Confucian beliefs were human and that communicating with the West would turn such neo-Confucianists into barbarians, as well. Ki Jeong-jin’s argumentation was supported by Heungseon Daewongun, who was the father of F King Gojong and the center of Korean power ebruar at the time, and because of this, Korea became much more defensive and skeptical of Western influences. y 20 The effectiveness of the Nosa School’s policies is ▲ Page from a volume of the Nosa Collection, the writings of Ki Jeong-jin. 2 debatable. While the Nosa School contributed (Encyclopedia of Korean Culture) 2 202202.indd 15202202.indd 15 2022-01-24  1:25:162022-01-24  1:25:16

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