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14 ▲ Gosan Academy in Jangseong where Ki Jeong-jin taught. (Encyclopedia of Korean Culture) In response, the government of Joseon banned 1866 caused the government to side more with those who Christianity, which was viewed as the key connection wanted to prohibit Western influences. This initiated the to European countries. Despite severe oppression, rise of the Nosa School, which greatly influenced Korean however, the number of believers in Korea grew, and diplomacy for years to come. the government became wary of its influence. It was feared that Christianity would disrupt the traditional THE INFLUENCE OF THE NOSA SCHOOL Confucian mindset, and to prevent the further spread of Joseon Korea had ostracized other ideologies since the Christianity, the government publicly executed thousands beginning of the dynasty (1398–1905). Joseon’s politics and of Christians. social structure were largely based on neo-Confucianism, which criticized other beliefs and religions. Following European countries saw this oppression as an opportunity this logic, Joseon ostracized Buddhism and Taoism, and 2 to invade Korea. In 1866, Father Felix Clair Ridel, who fled used neo-Confucianism to maintain and strengthen 2 Korea for fear of persecution, informed French Admiral the authority of the ruling class. In the late 1800s, these y 20Pierre Roze in Beijing of the massacre of Christians that beliefs were emphasized due to the advancement of was happening in Korea. The French admiral decided to Christianity, which was challenging the traditional values attack Korea and even notified the Chinese government and, along with people’s distrust of European explorers not to take any action regarding the planned offensive. and imperialists, were contributing factors that led to the ebruarThe assault by the French fleet lasted three months. Korea birth of the Nosa School (노사학파, Nosa-hakpa). F managed to secure its capital, but the French plundered Ganghwa Island to the west of Seoul and took away much The Nosa School followed the logic of neo-Confucianism. of its weaponry and many books. Ki Jeong-jin (기정진, 1798–1879) was the founder of the Nosa School and was a well-known neo-Confucian This incident further aggravated the relationship between scholar. He was born in Sunchang (North Jeolla Province), Korea and the West. Originally, Korea was divided into and later worked actively just south of there in Jangseong two camps: those who claimed that they should accept (South Jeolla Province). In his 40s, he published a series Western culture and embrace its advanced technology and of writings that emphasized the function of Yi, the Nosa weaponry, and those who wanted to prohibit any Western Collection (노사집, Nosa-jip; Ki’s scholarly moniker influence. The constant irritation and plundering of the was “Nosa”). He believed that Yi (理), which was the Jeolla coastline and the French campaign against Korea in reasoning of heaven, provided all of creation and that www.gwangjunewsgic.com 202202.indd 14202202.indd 14 2022-01-24  1:25:152022-01-24  1:25:15

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