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A TO Z INDIA - JULY 21

P r English & Tamil i c e Monthly Magazine R s Volume 04 • Issue 12 6 5 July 2021 / - 06 GENDER INEQUALITY & BUDGETING ✒ SALIL SAROJ 09 NATUROPATHY & YOGA IN DISEASE PREVENTION 12 INDIRA GANDHI & BANGLADESH LIBERATION WAR ✒ JAYASURYA Indian Culture ● Indian Art ● Indian Lifestyle ● Indian Religion

Submit your artwork, articles & essays to the e.mail id: [email protected] A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 2

FROM THE EDITOR A TO Z INDIA magazine covers the Indian through his art, culture, lifestyle, religion, etc. This magazine gives an insight into the life of Indians from an angle uncovered by others. Turn to find out what it is about and to immerse yourself into an entirely 04 different culture. FROM THE EDITOR'S DESK:THE MOST POWERFUL INVESTMENT OF MANKIND Publication Team: - EDUCATION EDITOR: Indira Srivatsa There is no time to lose. Educated children are at theheart of healthy, ASSOCIATE EDITOR: productive and prosperoussocieties. If that is the future we want tomorrow, Dwarak, Srivatsa wemust invest today. If you have any ideas, do send us your ideas and EDITORIAL comments to my e.mail id. CONSULTANTS: Santha, Bhavani, Srinivasan havan REPORTING: Rag PHOTOGRAPHY: 06 09 Adithyan GRAPHICS ENGINEER: GENDER INEQUALITY AND THE IMPORTANCE OF Chandra BUDGETING NATUROPATHY AND YOGA IN Historically, women around DISEASE PREVENTION Editorial Office: the world have had less Modern medicine has over the E 002, Premier opportunity than men in past century helped Grihalakshmi education, employment, and significantly reduce the Apartments, health care, and less political burden of communicable Elango Nagar South, representation. diseases, it has not been Virugambakkam, enough to prevent Chennai - 600092, A TO Z INDIA: seases. Tamil Nadu, India. noncommunicable di EDITORIAL ADDRESS Communication Details: MOBILE: +91-7550160116 e.mail id: [email protected] Disclaimer: A TO Z INDIA Magazine has made a constant care to make sure that content is accurate on the date of publication. The views expressed in les reflect the the artic inside author(s) opinions. A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 3

From the Editor's Desk: The most powerful investment of mankind - EDUCATION More than two decades of experience in development and response have shown me how education can make a lasting difference in children’s lives. But education’s not just good for children, it’s good for nations. Investing in education isn’t just the right thing to do, it’s smart economics. That’s the argument I presented to leaders this month at the meeting in my country. ucation can put people on a path towards good Ed health, empowerment and employment. It can help to build more peaceful societies. And the benefits of girls’ education extends to their own children who are often healthier and more educated because their mothers went to school. Evidence shows that, on average, each additional year of education boosts a person’s income by 10 per cent and increases a country’s GDP by 18 per cent. Some researchers estimate that if every child learned to read, around 170 million fewer people would live in poverty. A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 4

Yet, there’s an education crisis. Right now, in 2015, more than 120 million children are out of school. And worse, we face a learning crisis. An estimated 130 million children cannot read or count despite reaching Grade 4. On top of that, the children who would most benefit from an education are those most denied it through no fault of their own. Perhaps their families are poor. Perhaps they live with disabilities and cannot access school. Perhaps they live in remote areas or belong to nomadic communities. So, what do we have to do to get more children in school and learning? There is no time to lose. Educated children are at the heart of healthy, productive and prosperous societies. If that is the future we want tomorrow, we must invest today. If you have any ideas, do send us your ideas and comments to my e.mail id. a ats v ri S ra i d n I Editor - A TO Z INDIA, [email protected], +91-7550160116 A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 5

Gender Inequality and Budgeting ✒ Salil Saroj Historically, women around the world have had less opportunity than men in education, employment, and health care, and less political representation. Many global gender gaps have narrowed in recent decades, particularly in education enrollment. Even so, the World Economic Forum estimates that at the current rate of progress it will take 170 years to close the overall global gender gap in economic participation and opportunity. With a prognosis so dire, eliminating gender disparities may seem daunting and perhaps even impossible. The moral argument for gender equality is clear, nonetheless, and the economic evidence for its benefits is mounting. Eliminating gender inequalities can increase female economic participation, boost economic growth, and improve health outcomes for women and children. Large gender disparities in education reduce gross national product. In countries where the female-to-male school-enrollment ratio is lower than 0.75, gross national product is approximately 25 percent lower than in countries with greater gender parity in education. One way to gauge progress in closing gender gaps is to examine such measures as educational enrollment, maternal mortality, labor force participation, and indices of overall inequality. Gender inequalities in these areas can harm overall economic growth. Promisingly, though, national and sub national policy measures exist to help reduce these gender disparities. Fiscal policy is one such lever, particularly gender budgeting— planning, allocating, and monitoring government expenditures and taxes to address gender inequality— which has been demonstrated to reduce gender disparities. Gender budgeting was first mentioned in India’s Tenth Five Year Plan, 2002–07, since then the country has incorporated both expenditure and revenue policies designed to reduce gender inequality. Although the Ministry of Finance played an active role in introducing gender budgeting, it is noted that its engagement in recent years has been more limited, with the Ministry of Women and Child Development taking the lead. The use of revenue policies, although somewhat limited, sets India’s effort apart from other nations, as most countries have typically focused squarely on expenditures to promote gender equality. Furthermore, India has national- and state-level gender budgeting, with 18 of the 29 states and union territories implementing some form of gender budgeting. The gender budget statement serves as an instrument that can potentially identify gender equality goals and budget allocations. The statement is separated into two parts, per the guidelines issued in the budget call circular: Part A focuses on programs that are 100 percent women-specific, and Part B reflects those pro‑ grams where at least 30 percent of the allocations are for women. The statement is publicly available. A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 6

Gender Inequality and Budgeting ✒ Salil Saroj However, as UN Women (2016) points out, the statement is not clearly linked with the budget- planning process and could suffer from arbitrary or inaccurate reporting. It was first introduced in the 2005–06 budgets and covered the allocations for nine departments and ministries; the percentage of the budget dedicated to gender equality programs and issues was 2.8 percent. The 2015–16 versions covered 35 ministries and departments and represented 4.5 percent of the total budget, while the 2016–17 statement saw an increase in spending on gender-related programs to 5.2 percent of the total budget. However, as UN Women (2016) points out, the statement is not clearly linked with the budget-planning process and could suffer from arbitrary or inaccurate reporting. It was first introduced in the 2005–06 budgets and covered the allocations for nine departments and ministries; the percentage of the budget dedicated to gender equality programs and issues was 2.8 percent. The 2015–16 versions covered 35 ministries and departments and represented 4.5 percent of the total budget, while the 2016–17 statement saw an increase in spending on gender-related programs to 5.2 percent of the total budget. As in many emerging and developing countries, India’s gender equality goals typically focus on improving girls’ access to and enrollment rates in education, addressing health needs, and investing in infrastructure. In the 2013–14 budget for example, 94 percent of funds allocated under Part A of the gender budget statement were for health and social welfare programs, followed by economic empowerment, then education and literacy at roughly 3 percent each. The 2017–18 gender budget includes programs to reduce maternal mortality rates and violence against women, provide childcare for working mothers, offer incentives for girls enrolling in training and education, and improve nutrition, for example. Programs such as Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (Save the Daughter, Educate the Daughter) work to address social biases and preferences toward male children and reduce potential barriers that girls face early in life, including child marriage, violence, and lack of education. A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 7

Gender Inequality and Budgeting ✒ Salil Saroj State-level gender budgeting efforts in India represent a diverse set of approaches, with models in some states, such as Madhya Pradesh, mimicking the national model through their use of gender budget statements. Karnataka, an early adopter of gender budgeting, has set up a gender audit process. In Kerala, the 2017–18 Gender and Child Budgeting plan calls out two target areas: (1) skill development, employment generation, and livelihood security with a priority to vulnerable women; and (2) preventing violence against women. To achieve these goals, the budget includes planned allocations aimed at supporting entrepreneur‑ ship, skills training and development, childcare, and gender-friendly infrastructure, among other programs. Civil society organizations have played an essential role in sustaining gender budgeting work in India at both the national and sub national levels. The Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability analyzes national government budgets and processes, while state-level budget groups work to include gender perspectives in the budget process. Donor support has immensely helped to develop and sustain gender budgeting in India. Salil Saroj. e.mail id: [email protected] A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 8

The Importance Of Naturopathy And Yoga In Disease Prevention ✒ Sankar Modern medicine has over the past century helped significantly reduce the burden of communicable diseases and related deaths, it has not been enough to prevent non- communicable diseases. A preventive approach to healthcare requires more than just treatment-based outcomes. It entails the promotion of a healthy way of living to reduce the incidence of lifestyle diseases. Putting preventive care on the front foot can help improve health outcomes and reduce the burden on our healthcare system. Alternative systems of medicine, particularly naturopathy, have a lot and dietary modifications, help in more to offer than modern medicine managing chronic conditions, and when it comes to prevention and vastly improve the quality of life. It disease management. Naturopathy is also allows people with chronic one such system that relies on the diseases to reduce their intake or power of the body to heal itself. dosage of drugs whose long term Naturopaths factor in physical, consumption may have negative environmental, psychological, and consequences on the body. In the long social factors when treating a patient. run, this translates to lower medical The unique patient-centric approach expenses and hospital visits. At the focuses on devising customized, non- same time, the adoption of invasive and drugless treatments to naturopathy and yoga in our daily treat chronic conditions. Research has lives serves to keep us healthy and found that their treatment modalities reduce the risk of non-communicable when combined with lifestyle changes diseases. A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 9

The Importance Of Naturopathy And Yoga In Disease Prevention ✒ Sankar Yoga is another holistic system of physical and mental exercises that have been shown to control non-communicable diseases, from diabetes and arthritis to hypertension and chronic respiratory diseases. Many physicians recommend it to their patients as a part of disease management and prevention. It is slowly but surely becoming an integral part of the multi- sectoral approach to tackling NCDs. The more primary care providers and patients are empowered to educate themselves on yoga, the better we will be able to integrate it with the existing system and harness its promotive and preventive health benefits. Following a healthy diet will give Trikonasana strengthens the spine your immune system an edge. A and abdominal muscles and opens up healthy gut is the foundation of a the chest and shoulders. Naukasana robust immune system, and making stimulates the digestive, circulatory, modifications to your daily diet can muscular, and hormonal systems. help fight diseases. Broccoli, Sethu bandha Sarvangasana chickpeas, garlic, mushrooms, and strengthens the back, stretches the yogurt have immunity-boosting neck, shoulders, and spine, and properties. Yoga can help the immune alleviates symptoms of anxiety and system fight invading microbes by stress. Matsyasana relieves improving the circulation, and keep respiratory problems, stretches the your stress levels under check. neck and upper back muscles, Standing asanas strengthen your stimulates the abdominal organs, and back muscles, increase oxygenation, improves digestion. and improve lung capacity. A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 10

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Indira Gandhi & Bangladesh liberation war ✒ Jayasurya The credit to Indira Gandhi was in denial of INDIRA Gandhi’s role and India’s in the liberation Bangabandhu’s leadership in uniting 75 million war of Bangladesh and its emergence as an people as a monolith and in preparing them to independent and sovereign country have been make any sacrifice for their freedom and talked about in Bangladesh across all divides independence. No leader in modern history came but mainly in private spheres, not public ones, close to the way he had united the people of and seldom in any details. There appears to be a Bangladesh to overcome the fear of death for taboo in the country about giving Indira Gandhi fighting for their independence. The official’s and India too much credit for reasons never reference to Bangladesh-India relations as those explained satisfactorily. between soul mates was in denial of reality. A senior political official at the Prime Minister’s Notwithstanding the above, Indira Gandhi and Office broke the taboo while speaking at the India played significant roles in the Victory Day celebrations of the Bangladesh independence of Bangladesh. After the Pakistani deputy high commission, Talkathon, on military attack on unarmed Bengalis on March December 17, 2019. He doubted whether 25, 1972, India kept its border open that allowed Bangladesh would be independent today the Bangladesh refugees in millions to take without Indira Gandhi and her decision to shelter inside India. support the freedom-loving people of Bangladesh with the might of the Indian armed In retrospect, Indira Gandhi’s decision to keep forces. He further said that since that decision, the India-Bangladesh border open was a Bangladesh-India relations have been between masterstroke because it ensured that the two soul mates and not just between two Bangladesh liberation war would succeed unlike friendly neighbours. He believed that Indira those in Africa that had failed. One such war Gandhi and India’s roles were the reasons still fresh in memories of many that had failed Bangladesh’s liberation war was successful was the attempt of Biafra. Lieutenant-Colonel while some of the wars of national liberation in Ojukwu had led the people of Biafra, a province Africa undertaken in more or less the same time of Nigeria, to war for national liberation were unsuccessful. between May 1967 to January 1970. Between 500,000 to two million people died of starvation The official went over the moon with the credit in that war and 100,000 military personnel were that he gave Indira Gandhi and India for the killed. Gabon, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Zambia, and emergence of Bangladesh as an independent and Tanzania recognised the independence of Biafra. sovereign country. He also went over the top Israel, Spain, Portugal, Norway, Rhodesia, and while describing the bilateral relations between the Vatican provided Biafra with support and the two countries as those between soul mates. assistance. A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 12

Indira Gandhi & Bangladesh liberation war ✒ Jayasurya The Biafran attempt for liberation failed nevertheless not because only a few countries recognised it or the superior military might of integrity of a UN member nation were part of Nigeria. It failed for quite different reasons. The the international law. However, the newly Biafran liberation war was fought during the independent countries were not the only ones cold war when many countries in Africa, Asia, that faced the pressure of secession during the and Latin America became independent as a cold war; some of the major powers faced consequence of the process of decolonisation similar predicament as well. Thus, although no following the end of the Second World War. The nation opposed national liberation movements colonising powers left their former colonies in a based on the right to self-determination during hurry. In many of the newly independent the cold war when it came to choosing between countries, they drew international boundaries the right to self-determination and the and internal ones arbitrarily. Thus once the territorial integrity and sovereignty of a member colonial powers left, many of the newly nation of the United Natons, it was without independent countries faced tremendous question that the preference of states pressure of secession from sections within their everywhere was for the latter, not the former. national boundaries and from across their borders. That was why the Biafran war of liberation failed and to this day, Biafra is a part of Nigeria Ironically, these secessionist movements in the together with all other secessionist movements newly independent countries to which the senior during the cold war. Bangladesh’s war of political official at the PMO alluded in his liberation ended successfully because Indira Kolkata speech used the principle under Gandhi used the presence of 10 million international law, namely the right of self- Bangladeshi refugees on the Indian soil to set determination that the newly independent aside Pakistan’s argument like that of Nigeria in states themselves used to fight for their freedom case of Biafra that what was happening in from colonial powers. The right to self- Bangladesh was its internal matter under the determination in the international law had been primacy of the international law related to well established before the decolonisation sovereignty and territorial integrity of a member process started and was eventually codified in nation of the United Nations over the right to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. self determination. Indira Gandhi argued on her state visits to France, Belgium, Austria and the At the time of the cold war, particularly when United Kingdom that Pakistan by sending 10 Bangladesh was fighting its war of million refugees fleeing to its soil had committed independence, both the right to self- an act of war and that India had the right to determination and sovereignty and territorial retaliate. A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 13

Indira Gandhi & Bangladesh liberation war ✒ Jayasurya The European nations did not openly support the Indian argument. They did not reject the India spoiled Pakistan’s strategy by a surgical argument either. The Indians took advantage of military action in Bangladesh. The ease with the ambivalence of the European nations. India which it forced the Pakistan milit had been giving active support to the ary to Bangladesh freedom fighters from the very surrender in just 14 days on December 16, 1971 beginning when the latter took up arms against was, of course, due to reasons stated above that the occupation Pakistan army. On November 21, Bangabandhu united the nation to make any 1971, India formally formed the joint command sacrifice and the armed Bangladesh freedom composed of the Indian Armed Forces and the fighters fought, weakened and demoralised the Bangladesh freedom fighters, also called the Pakistan military with the total support of the Mukti Bahini, and placed it under Lieutenant people. Therefore, the senior political official at General Jagjit Singh Aurora shortly after Indira the PMO’s contention that without Indira Gandhi Gandhi’s trip to Europe had encouraged no and India, Bangladesh would perhaps still not doubt by the reactions of the European leaders. have become independent was one that gave too much credit to India and Indira Gandhi and The war of liberation was on an irreversible undermined Bangladesh’s glorious war of track when the joint command was formed. liberation, easily one of the best liberation wars Bangabandhu’s confidence in his people was in fought in modern history. full evidence. The Mukti Bahini with the people There had never been for a moment any doubt behind them successfully cornered the 93,000- during the war of liberation that the Pakistan strong Pakistan military into a hole where military would not be defeated and Bangladesh defeat stared them in the face. The formation of would not be liberated. If India and Indira the joint command sent out the signal to Gandhi had allowed Bangladesh’s glorious war Pakistan that India was preparing a military of liberation to run its natural course and not strike. Ironically, it also provided Pakistan with intervened militarily, the people of Bangladesh the opportunity of an exit out of the deep hole would have suffered Pakistan’s occupation its military was in Bangladesh. The Pakistanis longer but the country would have achieved its thus made the first move on December 3, 1971 independence united as a monolith without and attacked positions on the western front to being tied in eternal gratitude to India and, in start the third Pakistan-India war hoping to take retrospect, without sowing many of the seeds of the conflict to the UN Security Council and get a dissension that the country is facing today. ceasefire. A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 14

A TO Z INDIA - JULY 21 - Page 15

Know My Name: Lakshmi Sahgal ✍ Chandra Lakshmi Sahgal started and ended her career as a doctor, but in between, she became a soldier. Inspired by India’s efforts for independence, she joined the Indian National Army (INA) in 1943 to fight the British Empire. The INA’s founder recognized Sahgal’s tenacity and made her captain of the Rani Jhansi Regiment, a women’s military unit and the first of its kind in Asia. After being taken prisoner by the British, “Freedom comes in three forms,” she said. “The Captain Sahgal (or Captain Lakshmi as she’s first is political emancipation from the commonly called), returned to her medical conqueror, the second is economic practice in India. During the partition riots, she [emancipation], and the third is social… India gave medical care to Hindus and Muslims alike. has only achieved the first.” In 1981, she helped found the All India Democratic Women’s Association (AIDWA), According to The Hindu, Captain Sahgal began which fought for women’s education and fighting for the third — India’s social freedom — employment, among other causes. When anti- as early as childhood. Despite her Sikh mobs flooded the streets in the wake of grandmother’s outspoken disdain for castes of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s assassination, people “whose very shadows were polluting,” Sahgal protected Sikhs in her area from Sahgal took the hand of such a girl and invited violence and harassment. her to play. It may come as no surprise, then, that Sahgal’s compassion for others lasted a lifetime. As a doctor, she continued to treat patients into her 90s. A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 16

Indian Poet: Born and brought up in Farrukhabad, Agra, she was originally put in a Mahadevi Convent School, and later joined the Crosthwaite Girls College in Allahabad. Mahadevi initially wrote Varma her poems in secret but her inner talent was exposed by her roommate ✍ Chandra B Subhadra Kumari Chauhan. Both these young girls decided to write poetry together. They would often Mahadevi Varma was not only a Hindi submit their poems to weekly poet but also a freedom fighter and magazines where they got published. educationist from India. Once a They would also attend poetry secretive poet, now regarded as the seminars and meet eminent poets. modern Mirabai, she was a prominent Sometimes they also read out their leader. poetry to the audience. Mahadevi A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 17

Indian Poet: Varma often writes about the time when a girl child was considered a Mahadevi burden to the family. She was grateful to be born in a liberal household where her mother was well Varma educated and fluent in Sanskrit and English. Her grandfather envisioned ✍ Chandra B her to become a great scholar. In 1903, she started her professional career by teaching at village schools around Allahabad. She was greatly influenced by Gandhi’s ideology and adopted his ideals. She became the headmistress and later the chancellor of Allahabad Mahila Vidyapeeth but she continued to write extensively while teaching. Her notable works include Yama, Mera Parivar, Path Ke Saathi and her famous childhood biography, Mere Baachpan ke Din. One of her heart touching stories is Gillu, the story of a little squirrel. Some of her works are also included in various board syllabi. She was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1956 and the Jnanpith Award for her extensive poetry collection. A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 18

த��க் �றள, ✒ இநத�ரா ் ் ் காமத் �பபால: �வத் ஸா ் ் ் தைகயணங��த்தல ் ் ேநாக் க�னாள ேநாக் ெகத�ர் ேநாக் �தல தாக் கணங� ் ் தாைனக் ெகாண டனன �ைடத்�. ் ் -> விளக் கம: எனைன அவள ேநாக்க�னாள. ் ் ் — ப�ல��ர்க் ேகச�கன ் ் ் ் ேநாக் க�ய அவள பார்ைவக் � எத�ேர ேநாக் �தல தாேன தாக் க� வ�த் �ம அணங�, ஒ� ் ் ் ் ேசைனையய�ம ெகாண� வந� தாக் க�னாற ேபானற�. ் ் — ǀ. வரதராசன ் ் ்் ் என பார்ைவக் � எத�ராக அவள எனைனப பார்பப�, தாேன தாக் க� எவைரய�ம ெகால�ம ஒ� ெதயவம, ் ் ் ் ் ் ் ் ் தாக் �வதற�ப பைடகைளய�ம �ட� வநதத� ேபால இ�க் க�ற�. ் ் ் — சாலமன பாபைபயா ் ் ் ் அவள வசீ ��ம விழ�ேவ�க் � எத�ராக நான அவைள ேநாக் க, அக் கணேம அவள எனைனத் த��மப ் ் ் ் ் ேநாக் க�ய� தாென�த் த� மட�ம தாக் �வ� ேபாதாெதன�, ஒ� தாைனய�டன வந� எனைனத் ் ் ் ் ் தாக் �வ� ேபான� இ�நத� . ் ் — ǀ. க�ணாந�த� ் ் ஆஙக�லம (English): She returns my look with looks that strike Like darts of an armed angel. A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 19

Incredible India: Images of India through Paintwork ✍ Chandra A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 20

Incredible India: Images of India through Paintwork ✍ Chandra A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 21

MEENAKSHI THIRUKALYANAM MARRIAGE OF PARVATI DEVI WITH LORD SHIVA IN PRESENCE OF GOD VISHNU A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 22

் ஜவஹர்லால ேந�: ச��வர்களின ் ் ச�றபப� பக் கம ் ் ✍ சமபத் ் ் ் ் ் ஜவஹர்லால ேந� 1889 ஆம ஆண� நவமபர் 14ஆம ் ் ் ் நாள ேமாத�லால ேந�விற�ம �வ�ப ராணிக் �ம ் ் மகனாகப பிறநதார். ் ் ் ் இள வய� �தல ேமலநாட� நாகரிக ் ் ் ் வாழக் ைகயில வளர்க் கபபட�. பத��னறாம ் ் ் வயத�ல வடீ �ேலேய ஆச�ரியைர வரவைழத் � ் ் கலவி பயினறார். ் A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 23

் ஜவஹர்லால ேந�: ச��வர்களின ் ் ச�றபப� பக் கம ் ் ✍ சமபத் ் ் பிற� இஙக�லாந� ெசன� 7 வ�டஙகள ் ் ் ் பயின� இநத�யாவிற� ஒ� ச�றநத ் ் ் ் வழக் கற�ஞராக த��மபினார். ் ் ் ் 1914 ஆம ஆண� �தலஉலகபேபார் ந�க�ம ேந� ் ் வழக் கற�ஞராக பணியாறற�னார். இநத�யர்கள ் ் ் �தநத�ரமைடய ஆஙக�ேலயர்க�க் � உதவினர். ் A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 24

் ஜவஹர்லால ேந�: ச��வர்களின ் ் ச�றபப� பக் கம ் ் ✍ சமபத் ் ் 1916 ேந�வ�க் �ம கமலாவ�க் �ம ச�றபபாக ் த��மணம நடநத�. ் ் ் ேந� இநத�யர்கள ஆஙக�ேலயரிடம �னபப ் ் ்் ப�வைத உணர்ந� காநத�ய�டன இைணந� ் ் ் ் ் இநத�ய �தநத�ரத் த�ற� பா�படடார். ் ் ் A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 25

் ஜவஹர்லால ேந�: ச��வர்களின ் ் ச�றபப� பக் கம ் ் ✍ சமபத் ் ் ் 1926 ஆம ஆண� கமலா ேந� ம�கவ�ம ேநாயவாய பட� உயிர்நீத் தார். ் ் ் ேந� இநத ��க் கத் த�ல��ந� மீள இநத�ய ் ் ் ் �தநத�ரத் த�ற� பா�படடார். காநத�, இநத�ய ் ் ் ் ் ் காஙக�ரஸ�ன பிரச�ெடணடடாக ேந�ைவ ் ் ந�யம�த் தார். A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 26

் ஜவஹர்லால ேந�: ச��வர்களின ் ் ச�றபப� பக் கம ் ் ✍ சமபத் ் ் ேந� பல �ைற ஆஙக�ேலயர்களால ் ச�ைறகளில அைடக் கபபடடார். ்் ் ேந� ஒ� ச�றநத எ�த்தாளர். ச�ைறயில ் ் ் இ�க் �மேபா� தன �யசரிதத் ைதய�ம, 'Discovery ் ் of India' எனற ப�த் தகத் ைதய�ம எ�த�னார். ் A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 27

் ஜவஹர்லால ேந�: ச��வர்களின ் ் ச�றபப� பக் கம ் ் ✍ சமபத் ் ச�ைறயில இ�ந� வநதவ�டன, அவர் ் ் ் 'Vice President of Executive Council' ் எனற பதவிைய ெபறறார். அபேபா� ் ் ் ் ் இநத�யாவிற� தனி நா� ேவண�ம ் எனற ேகாரிக் ைக எ�நத�. ் ் ் ேந�, ஒேர நா� என�ம ெகாளைகேயா� ் ் ் ் ீ் இ�நதார். ஆனால �ஸலமகள ் ் ் ் ் ் ் பாக�ஸதானிற�ம, இந�க் கள இநத�யாவிற�ம ் ் ் பிரிநதனர். ் A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 28

் ஜவஹர்லால ேந�: ச��வர்களின ் ் ச�றபப� பக் கம ் ் ✍ சமபத் ் ் ் ் 1947 ஆம ஆண� ஆகஸ� 15 ஆம நாள இநத�யா ் ் ் ் �தநத�ரமைடநத�ம ேந� இநத�யாவின �தல ் ் ் ் பிரதம மநத�ரியானார். அபேபா� ் ் ் ் �ழநைதகளிடம ம�க் க அனப� ெகாணடவரானார். ் ் ் ் 1964 ஆம ஆண� ேம 27ந ேதத� ேந� ் உயிர்நீத் தேபா�, அவர் மகள ் ் இநத�ராகாநத� அவர் அ�க�ல ் ் இ�நதார். ் A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 29

் ஜவஹர்லால ேந�: ச��வர்களின ் ் ச�றபப� பக் கம ் ் ✍ சமபத் ் அவரின உடல ய�ைன ் ் நத�க் கைரயில உளள சாநத� ் ் ் ் ் வனத் த�ல நலலடக் கம ெசயயபபடட�. ் ் ் ் ் ் ேந� இநத�ய மக் கள அைனவரா�ம வி�மப�ம ் ் ஒ� ச�றநத மனிதன. அவரின பிறநதநாள ் ் ் ் ் ் �ழநைதகள த�னமாக ெகாணடாடபப�க�ற�. ் ் ் Owned, Published & Printed by INDIRA SRIVATSA, Printed at SRI AATHI LAKSHMI GRAPHICS, 14/33, Sivan Koil Cross Street, Kodambakkam, Chennai - 600024 & Published from E 002, Premier Grihalakshmi Apartments, Elango Nagar South, Virugambakkam, Chennai - 600092. EDITOR: INDIRA SRIVATSA A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 30

் -> உஙக�ைடய பைடபப�கைள ் ் அDžபபேவணǍய ் ் ம�னனஞ் சல �கவரி: ் [email protected] A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 31

A TO Z INDIA, ENGLISH & TAMIL MONTHLY MAGAZINE, PUBLISHED ON THE FIRST WEEK OF EVERY MONTH, REG. UNDER REGISTRAR OF NEWSPAPERS FOR INDIA UNDER NUMBER TNBIL/2017/75531 R. DIS NO. 757/2017 Varanasi cityscape from Ganges. A TO Z INDIA ● JULY 2021 ● PAGE 32

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