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English & Tamil Price Rs 65/- Monthly Magazine Volume 05 • Issue 03 October 2021 05 Bharat, Hindustaan and India Salil Saroj 08 Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam - Career scientist and Science administrator Santha Indian Culture ● Indian Art ● Indian Lifestyle ● Indian Religion

Submit your artwork, articles & essays to the e.mail id: [email protected] A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 2 ● ●

FROM THE EDITOR A TO Z INDIA magazine covers the Indian through his art, culture, lifestyle, religion, etc. This magazine gives an insight into the life of Indians from an angle uncovered by others. Turn to find out what it is about and to immerse yourself into an entirely 05 different culture. BHARAT, HINDUSTAAN AND INDIA Publication Team: The politics of naming is part of the social production of the nation. Its EDITOR: Indira Srivatsa processes are shaped by broad socio-political conditions and can be studied ASSOCIATE EDITOR: from several angles. In the 19th century the name Bhārata was used to refer Dwarak, Srivatsa to the geographical, political and administrative entity that the colonial EDITORIAL power called ‘India’. CONSULTANTS: Santha, Bhavani, Srinivasan A TO Z INDIA: REPORTING: Raghavan 08 Read in Digital & Print PHOTOGRAPHY: Adithyan DR.APJ ABDUL KALAM: CAREER GRAPHICS ENGINEER: SCIENTIST AND SCIENCE Chandra ADMINISTRATOR Bharat Ratna Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Editorial Office: Kalam, was the 11th President E002, Premier of India (2002-2007). Grihalakshmi Apartments, Elango Nagar South, A TO Z INDIA: Virugambakkam, Editorial Address Chennai - 600092, Tamil Nadu, India. Communication Details: MOBILE: +91-7550160116 e.mail id: [email protected] Disclaimer: A TO Z INDIA Magazine has made a constant care to make sure that content is accurate on the date of publication. The views expressed in the articles reflect the inside author(s) opinions. A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 3

From the Editor's Desk: Human population - Milestones by the billions The population in 1 A.D. was 170 million; today, it’s 7.9 billion, according to the museum, which worked with Population Connection, the U.N.’s World Population Prospects, Worldometers and NASA on the project. As it follows the population explosion, the American Museum of Natural History points out specific events that encouraged population growth, such as the advent of farming, travel and trade on the Silk Road, and the development of modern medicine. At the dawn of agriculture, about 8000 B.C., the population of the world was approximately 5 million. Over the 8,000-year period up to 1 A.D. it grew to 200 million , with a growth rate of under 0.05% per year. A tremendous change occurred with the industrial revolution: whereas it had taken all of human history until around 1800 for world population to reach one billion, the second billion was achieved in only 130 years (1930), the third billion in 30 years (1960), the fourth billion in 15 years (1974), and the fifth billion in only 13 years (1987). During the 20th century alone, the population in the world has grown from 1.65 billion to 6 billion. In 1970, there were roughly half as many people in the world as there are now. It has also been estimated that a total of approximately 117 billion people have been born since the dawn of the human species, making the population currently alive roughly 7% of all people who have ever lived on planet Earth. The United Nations projects world population to reach 10 billion in the year 2050s. Indira Srivatsa Editor | A TO Z INDIA, [email protected],+91-7550160116 A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 4

Bharat, Hindustaan and India Salil Saroj, New Delhi e.mail id: [email protected] The politics of naming is part of the social production of the nation. Its processes are shaped by broad socio-political conditions and can be studied from several angles. In the 19th century the name Bhārata was used to refer to the geographical, political and administrative entity that the colonial power called ‘India’. The evidence presented shows that it was the Puranic memory of a naturally bounded (sea, mountains) and specifically socially organized territory where human beings could fulfill the specific sets of socio-religious duties required to maintain their cultural identity. That Bhārata—a cultural space whose unity was to be found in the social order of dharma—was a pre-national construction and not a national project. At the time of independence, India and Bhārata were equally worthy candidates to baptize the newly-born nation, along with ‘Hindustan’. But the opening article of the Constitution discarded Hindustan and registered the nation under a dual and bilingual identity: ‘India, that is Bharat’. One name was to be used as the equivalent or the translation of the other as exemplified on the cover of the national passport, where the English ‘Republic of India’ corresponds to the Hindi ‘Bhārata gaṇarājya’, or, perhaps even more telling, on India postage stamps, where the two words Bhārata and India are collocated. The name Hindustan has continued to be widely used in spite of, or may be thanks to, its plurality of meanings and the implication of the equivalence of Bharat with India has remained a subject of debate. It is likely that all these names will continue to be interpreted to fit new circumstances, to give new meanings to India’s national identity, an ongoing, open-ended process. Manu Goswami, Associate Professor of History, New York University has written eloquently on the conditions that allowed the emergence of new ways of viewing Indian past and has shown how the old Puranic conception of Bhārata acquired a new meaning for the Hindu intelligentsia during the colonial period. Whereas Bhārata was conceived as a social order, a space where specific social relations and shared notions of a moral order prevailed, (British) India referred to a political order, to a bounded territory placed under the control of a single centralized power structure and an authoritarian system of governance. By the mid-nineteenth century what educated Hindus called ‘Bharat’ was the territory mapped and organized by the British under the name ‘India’. The old and native name Bhārata became a workable concept for the national cause despite the forcefulness with which the British conception of ‘India’—and all it entailed in terms of spatial and political unity—was propagated and imposed. Now the reason why it retained its prestige for the educated Hindus is not only to be found in the uninterrupted transmission of the Puranic conception within their class. It is also due to the fact that from the mid-nineteenth century Orientalists gave ‘Bhārata’ a very special place in their discourse. Supported from all sides as it was, then, not only had the old name Bhārata not fallen into oblivion, but it had been invested with a new meaning and was ready to serve the emerging country. But Hindustan remained a worthy candidate for the same cause, as, among other reasons, it could claim a political career that was associated with the Moghul Empire and therefore predated the colonial period. It is noteworthy that although Bipin Chandra Pal somehow described Hindustan as ‘foreign’, he was keen to draw the attention of his young correspondent to the contribution of the Moghuls to the development of an Indian A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 5

Bharat, Hindustaan and India Salil Saroj, New Delhi e.mail id: [email protected] consciousness. It was during Moghul rule rather than during British rule, at a time when India was called Hindustan, that political unity had been achieved and added to the already existing cultural unity of Bhārata, allowing Indians to develop a complete sense of belonging together, irrespective of their religions. In 1904 when he penned his famous patriotic poem in Urdu Hamārā deśa, ‘Our country’, Mohammad Iqbal (1877-1938) also associated Hindustan with Indians at large and with a composite religious culture: Sare jahāṃ se acchā Hindustāṃ hamārā Ham bulbuleṃ haiṃ us kī, yi gulistāṃ hamārā The sense of belonging to a country (vaṭan) here overrides other loyalties. It is with this nationalist understanding of Hindustan that Iqbal’s song, which became immediately popular in anti-British rallies, was solemnly chanted on 15 August 1947, the day of the proclamation of India’s independence, along with Jana Gana Mana, composed by Rabindranath Tagore. Iqbal’s song is still widely sung in India today. On 14 August 1947 at midnight, India became independent. Two weeks later, on 29 August 1947, the Constituent Assembly, that had been meeting since December 1946, set up a Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of B.R. Ambedkar. From February 1948 to November 1949, the members of the Constituent Assembly examined the draft, moving and discussing in the process almost 2,500 amendments. On 26 November 1949, they finally adopted the Constitution of India and signed it on 24 January 1950. On 26 January 1950, the Constitution of India officially came into force, and the Constituent Assembly became the Provisional Parliament of India until the first general elections of 1952. As we know, the Constitution was drafted under the extremely difficult circumstances of the immediate post-partition period, just two years after horrendous chaos and bloodshed. It was a time, then, when the unity and stability of the new born country were in doubt. Was it because it was linked to its identity or for another reason that the question of its naming is found to have come relatively late in the long process of the adoption of the Constitution? Whatever the case, the section ‘Name and territory of the Union’ was examined only on 17 September 1949. The very touchy nature of its first article was immediately perceptible. It read: ‘India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States’. A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 6


Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam: Career scientist and Science administrator Santha A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 8

Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam: Career scientist and Science administrator Santha Bharat Ratna Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, generally known as Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, was the 11th Presidentof India (2002-2007). He was elected against Lakshmi Sehgal in 2002 and had support from both the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Indian National Congress, the two leading political parties of India. By profession, he was a scientist and an administrator in India. He worked with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as an aerospace engineer before becoming the President of India. His work on the development of launch vehicle and ballistic missile technology had earned him the name of the ‘Missile Man of India’. The Pokhran-II nuclear tests conducted in India in 1998 after the original nuclear test of 1974 saw him in a pivotal political, organisational and technical role. Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was the visiting professor at the Indian Institute of Management, Indore; the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad; and the Indian Institute of Management, Shillong. He was a professor of Aerospace Engineering at the JSS University in Mysore and at the Anna University in Chennai, apart from being an adjunct and visiting faculty at other research and academic institutions in India. He was the honorary fellow of the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, and the Chancellor of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology at Thiruvananthapuram. In his book ‘India 2020’, he recommended plans to make the nation a fully developed one by the year 2020. His interactions with the student community and his motivational speeches made him quite popular among the youth. In 2011, he launched a mission called ‘What Can I Give Movement’ aimed at the youth of India, which focused on defeating corruption in the country. Detailed Personal Background: Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was born in a necessitous and little educated Tamil family on 15 October 1931, at Rameswaram district of Tamil Nadu, India. His father, Jainulabdeen, was a boat owner, and his mother, Ashiamma, was a homemaker. He started working at a young age to support his father. He received average grades in school but was seen as a hardworking and bright student with a strong desire to learn things. He used to study for hours, especially mathematics. He completed his schooling from Rameswaram Elementary School. In 1954, he graduated in Physics from St. Joseph’s College in Tiruchirappalli, which was then affiliated to the University of Madras. Thereafter, in 1955, he moved to Madras (now Chennai) and joined the Madras Institute of Technology and studied aerospace engineering. His dream was to become a fighter pilot but he was ranked ninth while the IAF offered only eight slots. He remained a bachelor. Kalam rose from obscurity through his personal and professional struggles and his work on Agni, Prithvi, Akash, Trishul and Nag missiles became a household name in India and raised the nation’s prestige to international reckoning. Death: Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam passed away on 27 July 2015, due to a massive cardiac arrest during a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management, Shillong. A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 9

Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam: Career scientist and Science administrator Santha Journey and Achievements as a Scientist: After completing his graduation in 1960, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam joined as a scientist in Defence Research and Development Organisation’s Aeronautical Development Establishment. At the very start of his career, he designed a small helicopter for the Indian army. He also worked under the renowned scientist Vikram Sarabhai as a part of the committee of INCOSPAR. From 1963 to 1964, he visited the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, the Wallops Flight Facility located at the Eastern Shore of Virginia and the Langley Research Center of NASA situated at Hampton, Virginia. In 1965, he worked independently in Defence Research and Development Organisation for the first time on an expandable rocket project. The programme was expanded in 1969 and more engineers were included after receiving Government approval. He became the Project Director of India’s first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) when he was transferred in 1969 to Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). In July 1980, his team was successful in deploying the Rohini satellite near the orbit of the Earth. Dr. Kalam’s efforts in developing the projects on SLV-III and Polar SLV from 1970s to 1990s proved to be successful. Dr. Kalam directed Project Valiant and Project Devil that aimed at developing ballistic missiles using the technology of the SLV programme that was a success. It is known that the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, using her discretionary powers, allotted secret funds when these aerospace projects were disapproved by the Union Cabinet. Dr. Kalam and Dr. V.S. Arunachalam, on the proposal of the then Defense Minister R. Venkataraman, worked on developing a quiver of missiles instead of one at a time. Dr. Kalam was made the Chief Executive of the programme, which was named Integrated Guided Missile Development programme. From July 1992 to December 1999 he remained the Secretary of the Defence Research and Development Organisation, and also the Chief Scientific Advisor to the Prime Minister. This period witnessed the Pokhran II nuclear tests, when Dr. Kalam played a key technological and political role. At the time of the testing phase, he, along with R. Chidambaram, was made the Chief Project Coordinator. He developed a low-cost Coronary Stent along with Dr. Soma Raju, a cardiologist, in 1998. It was named “Kalam-Raju Stent” after them. Both of them also designed a tablet PC called “Kalam-Raju Tablet” for healthcare in rural areas. Dr. Kalam’s Tenure as President of India: The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government on 10 June 2002 proposed Dr. Kalam’s name for the Presidential post to the Leader of Opposition, Congress President Sonia Gandhi. The Nationalist Congress Party and the Samajwadi Party supported his candidature. Dr. Kalam served as the President of India from 25 July 2002 to 25 July 2007. He won the election, getting 922,884 votes, thus defeating Lakshmi Sehgal, who got 107,366 votes. Dr. Kalam succeeded K.R. Narayanan as the 11th President of India. He was the third President of India to have received the prestigious Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian honour. It was earlier given to Dr. Sarvapali Radhakrishnan in 1954 and Dr. Zakir Hussain in 1963. A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 10

Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam: Career scientist and Science administrator Santha He was the first bachelor and scientist to reside in the Rashtrapati Bhavan. Dr. Kalam was affectionately called the People’s President. According to him, the toughest decision taken by him as President was signing the Bill of Office of Profit. He was criticized as a President for his inaction to decide the fate of 20 mercy petitions out of 21, including that of the Kashmiri Terrorist Afzal Guru, who was convicted for the Parliament attacks in December 2001. Awards and Recognitions: The nation honoured Dr Kalam with Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award, in 1997 for his contribution in the field of scientific research, development and modernisation of technology in the defence sector of India. In 1990, he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan by the Indian Government for his work with the DRDO and ISRO and as scientific advisor to the Government. In 1981 he received the Padma Bhushan In 1998, the Government of India presented to him the Veer Savarkar Award. The Alwar Research Centre, Chennai, bestowed on him the Ramanujan Award in 2000. The University of Wolverhampton in UK bestowed on him the Honorary Doctorate of Science in 2007. California Institute of Technology, USA, honoured him with the International von Karman Wings Award in 2009. In 1997, the Indian National Congress conferred him with the Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration. He received the Hoover Medal from ASME Foundation, U.S.A, in 2009. The Royal Society of UK honoured him with the King Charles II Medal in 2007. In 2008, he received the Doctor of Engineering (Honoris Causa) from Singapore’s Nanyang Technological University. In 2010 The University of Waterloo honoured him with the Doctor of Engineering In 2011, he became an honorary member of the IEEE. In 2012, the Simon Fraser University conferred on him the Doctor of Laws (Honoris Causa). In 2013, he received the Von Braun Award from National Space Society in recognition of his excellence in the leadership and management of space-related projects. In 2014, he received an honorary degree in Doctor of Science from Edinburgh University, UK. 2015 – The United Nations recognized Dr. Kalam’s birthday as “World Student’s Day”. Documentaries and Books by Dr. Kalam: Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India My Journey: Transforming Dreams into Actions Developments in Fluid Mechanics and Space Technology, by Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and Roddam Narasimha India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium, by Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and Y.S. Rajan. Wings of Fire: An Autobiography, by Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam and Arun Tiwari, ... A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 11

Jay Jagannath �, Jagannath Puri Temple, Odisha Nagarjuna Besha T.K.V. Karuna [email protected] In local Odia language 'Besha' or 'Vesha' means 'Costume' or 'Dress' or 'Make Up'. There are two types of Beshas observered for the deities in the Jagannath temple of Puri, Daily Beshas and Beshas during festive occasions. During the celebration of different festivals, the deities put on different types of ceremonial costumes or dresses according to the custom of the festival. Nagarjuna Besha is not a daily Besha but is observed during festive occasion in the Kartika month. Kartika is the holiest of all the months in Hindu lunar calendar. It usually overlaps with the months October & November in the English calendar (Mapping of Odia Calender months with English Calender months). This is the most awaited month of the year for Odias. The last five days of the holy month of Kartika is considered highly auspicious and is known as ‘Panchuka’ in Odia language. Nagarjuna Besha (costume) is observed during the Kartika month occasionally when ‘Panchuka’ observed as six days instead of five days. As the ‘Panchuka’ during Kartika month will be observed for six days instead of five days in the year 2020, Lord Jagannath, Lord Balabhadra and Goddess Subhadra will appear in Nagarjuna Besha on this extra day (Dwadashi). In Nagarjuna Besha, the lords are dressed like warriors. As per custom, Lord Jagannatha and Lord Balabhadra are decorated with several weapons including arrows, bows, Hala (plough), Chakra (wheel) and Musala (mace) during Nagarjuna Besha. This auspicious day will be observed after 25 years in the month of Kartika on November 27, 2020. Nagarjuna Besha is also called as Bira Besha & Parashuram Besha.. Nagarjuna Besha was observed five times in the last 30 years Various scholars provided different opinion with regard to the origin of the Nagarjuna Besha. Some scholars are of the opinion that Lord Jagannath is decorated with Nagarjuna Besha to mark the victory of Lord Parashuram, the warrior incarnation (avatara) of Lord Vishnu over Sahashrarjuna. Some other scholars are of the opinion that the Nagarjuna Besha is adorned to remember a battle between Arjuna and his son Nagarjuna in the Mahabharat war. A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 12

Jay Jagannath �, Jagannath Puri Temple, Odisha Nagarjuna Besha T.K.V. Karuna [email protected] Some more facts.... In this Nagarguna Besha sixteen types of weapons are used to decorate the deities like a warrior. These costumes are prepared from Bijoya Dashami in Harachandi sahi (Puri) by Balarama khuntia. According to Pandit Surjya Narayana Ratha Sharma, the Nagarjuna Besha was introduced during the reign of Ganga Bansha Gajpati King Ananga Bhima Deva. As per the advice of Rajguru Gajpati king established a Chakrakota for preparation of the weapons for this attire of the deities & coincidentally the day the Trinity were adorned with this warrior attire was the extra day of kartika panchuka, from that day it's a tradition. Out of thirty six Beshas of Mahaprabhu Shri Jagannath (Trinity), Lord Jagannath & Lord Balabhadra have moustache & beard in this Nagarguna Besha only. This Besha can be done on extra day of Dwadashi, Trayodashi or Chaturdashi not on Ekadashi or Purnima, this year it's observed on extra day of Kartika Shukla Dwadashi. The Replica: Jagannath Puri Temple, Chennai is a Hindu temple dedicated to the divine trinity Jagannath, Baladeva and Subhadra in ECR Road Chennai, South India. A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 13

Chennai: Iyothee Thass Pandithar The man who gave Tamils a new identity Santha A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 14

Chennai: Iyothee Thass Pandithar The man who gave Tamils a new identity Santha Iyothee Thass in the last decade of the 19th Century was a writer, journalist and social reformer, Tamil and Buddhist Scholar. He edited and published ‘Tamizhan’, a journal devoted to social reform for eight years. He opposed Brahminism Vedic rituals and untouchability. He championed communal representation, women’s rights, self-respect, rationalism etc. Subramania Bharathiyar, V.O. Chimdambaram Pillai, Singaravelach Chettiar, Pandit U.V. Saminatha Iyer, Thiru.V. Kalyanasundara Mudaliar, Pandithurai Thevar, Mahavidwan Raghava Iyengar who lived during the same period in the Madras Presidency were honored for their scholarship and devotion. Iyothee Thass' contributions in various fields did not receive due recognition because he belonged to the Paraiyan caste. The neglect Iyothee Thass suffered was worse than physical violence. The higher-caste intellectuals in Tamil Nadu were adopting in practicing this variety of concealed violence. I are presenting before you the history of Tamil Nadu 100 years ago which was ignored by these castes intellectuals of Tamil Nadu. European merchants came to India in the latter half of the 17th century. They began as Traders but in course of time conquered and ruled large parts of the country including Madras State. During 1870’s, Englishmen came to India in large numbers to construct roads and bridges. Railway lines were laid and new departments like post and telegraph, police, military, etc. were created. They lived in colonies with their families and they required the services of interpreters, gardeners, servants, cooks and watchmen. Because the post required physical labor, people belonging to the dominant castes did not offer their services. Englishmen ate beef and that was an important reason why people from the dominant castes kept away from such services. The depressed classes of Tamil Nadu, the sons of the soil who were ignored by the caste ridden society were selected to do these jobs. The men who lived in the slums in and around Madras were selected to lay railway lines, run postal services and construct buildings. This resulted in the growth of big slums in Egmore, Chetput, Teynampet, etc. The depressed classes who lived in these slums organized associations like Panchamar Maha Jana Sabhas to forge unity among them and improve their living conditions. They demanded facilities for education for their children and employment for themselves. They also requested the Govt. to allot lands to the depressed classes for cultivation. The British Government accepted their demands and either directly or through Christian Missionaries implemented them. When Sir Thomas Munro was Governor of Madras, Mr. George Harrington was appointed under him as the Head of the State Construction Department. Thiru. Kandappan served under him. He was a Tamil Scholar and also Siddha Physician. He possessed a palm-leaf copy of the great Tamil work, Thirukkural. He understood its importance as a classic of world literature and so he carefully preserved the copy. Kandappan’s son Kandasamy who lived in the Thousand Lights area in Madras was also a Siddha Physician. His wife gave birth to a male child on 20.05.1845 and the child was named Kathavarayan. He was also initiated into the hereditary profession Siddha Medicine. Later he joined Iyothee Thass Pandit’s Village School. He developed great respect for his teacher and adopted his name. When English officials used to go to Nilgiris Hills during summer, George Harrington took his Butler Kandappan and his family members with him to Ooty. Iyothee Thass married Dhanalakshmi, sister of Rettamalai Srinivasan, who was his relative. Iyothee Thass started Advaita Philosophy during his stay at Ooty and formed the Advaithanandha Sabha to propogate Advaita Philosophy. Col. H.S.Olcott, President of the International Theosophical society had started 5 free schools for A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 15

Chennai: Iyothee Thass Pandithar The man who gave Tamils a new identity Santha Panchama children in the centre of Madras. Col. H.S. Olcott also became acquainted with Rev. John Rathinam who started a school for the oppressed in Madras. Rev. John Rathinam formed Dravidar Kazhagam in 1882 and started the journal ‘Dravida Pandian’ in 1885. Iyothee Thass' friendship with the two persons mentioned above, introduced changes in his thinking. Iyothee Thass moved a resolution containing some demands. The opposition to his demands opened his eyes. Did he make revolutionary demands? No, he requested that Pariahs may be allowed entry into Siva and Vishnu Temples. He also sought facilities for educating Pariah children. These were ordinary demands but 100 years ago they met with stiff opposition. Entrenched casteism opposed his very ordinary demands. “You may call yourself a Hindu. But Siva and Vishnu are not your deities. Karuppasamy and Sudalamadan are your deities. Be satisfied with worshipping them” said caste Hindus. It was a defining moment in his life. Political activity of Iyothee Thass: As a young man of twenty-five, he had organized the Depressed Classes into ‘Advaidananda Sabha', whose objective appears to have been two-fold: one, opposition to the proselytizing activities of the Christian missionaries; two, to explore the emancipatory potentials of the Advaitic tradition in undermining varna/caste discriminations.’ His flirtation with Hinduism (or its advanced tenets) seems to have ended with his youth. His involvement with the problems and the situation of the Depressed Classes led him to validate their original identity and refute the imposed identity of Hinduism. The importance, he accorded to this can be understood in the light of the following incidents: “In 1881, he sought to intervene in the census process and demanded that the aboriginal and ‘Outcaste’ communities be recorded as ‘Original Tamils’ and this was followed by a declaration in 1886 that the original inhabitants of this area were not Hindus.” Ravikumar aptly identifies that Iyothee Thass’ urging ‘the so-called untouchables to register themselves as casteless Dravidians’ in the very first census ‘makes Tamil Dalits the true descendants of the anti-Brahmin legacy’. The Dravidar Kazhagam was founded by Rev. John Ratnam of the Wesleyan mission as early as 1886. Iyothee Thass was associated with him in bringing out a News-Magazine called the Dravida Pandian. The Dravida Mahajana Sabha was formed in 1891 under the leadership of Iyothee Thass in Ooty in the Madras Presidency. On the conclusion of the first state level Conference on 1 December 1891, he sent a copy of the resolutions to the Congress Party. Here merely received an acknowledgement, but no subsequent action was taken. Piqued by this, he remarked that the Indian National Congress was only a Bengali Brahmin Congress. His hostility towards the Congress made him anticipate and predict the self-fulfilling prophecy that “just like the caste system split to form the 1008 graded castes, the Congress would also split.” Apart from maintaining a highly activist lifestyle by leading the Dalit people, he also started the Tamilan magazine in June 1907 and ran the weekly continuously till his death in 1914. Dravida Mahajana Sabha - 1891: The Dravida Mahajana Sabha was formed in 1891 under the leadership of Iyothee Thass at Ooty on 1st December 1891. Ten resolutions were passed demanding civic rights, educational concessions, removable of certain objectionable rules in jail manual, economic advancement of the Depressed Classes, due share in appointment in government services including that of village offices. On the conclusion of the first state A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 16

Chennai: Iyothee Thass Pandithar The man who gave Tamils a new identity Santha level Conference, he sent a copy of the resolutions to the Congress Party. He merely received an acknowledgement, but no subsequent action was taken. He became a highly Dalit activist and led the people to the path of progress. British Rule- An age of Equality: The British repressive legal measures did not much affect the Depressed Classes. The Depressed Class Leaders considered the necessity of the British Rule for liberation of their people in all spheres. The British Rule heralded an 'Age of Equality', because the people who were oppressed for centuries due to the practice of untouchability and the rigid caste system began to feel the breath of freedom. Hence, due to the historical necessity, the activities of Depressed Class intellectuals were mostly pro-British. Even B.R. Ambedkar was considered as "the most pro-British Indian". A seven-member Dalit jury editing a supplement for The Pioneer on The Dalit Millennium ranked the arrival of Vasco Da Gama as the turning point in Indian history, for it was his discovery of the sea route that activated the arrival of the ideas of democracy, equality, rule of law. A new vision and a new worldview emerged which was against the established society. The western education was denied to the Depressed Class people. It was because of religious sanction. But the availability of the print medium helped in awakening the Depressed Classes. The Tamizhan weekly of Pandit C. Iyothee Thass was used as an instrument to protest against caste discrimination, propagate Buddhist ideology and to reclaim the original identity of the Depressed Classes. Oru Paisa Thamizhan (1907-1914): Iyothee Thass ideas and views were systematically argued out in a weekly that he launched in 1907. This weekly was called "Oru paisa Thamizhan" (one paise tamilian) and its first issue was brought out on June 19, 1907. Pandithar argues that the Pariahs were, in fact, the original Tamils whose religion was Buddhism. Pariahs were degraded and their religion systematically destroyed by the Aryan invaders from the North. The reason being that, the Brahmins will seek to remember their historical enmity towards Buddhism and fear to make Pariahs army commanders since the latter might plan revenge. To Pandithar, self government would be possible only when "Brahmina" cease to run away in fear on seeing a Pariah and when Pariahs cease to chase away Brahmins and throw cow dung at them when the latter enter the Pariah quarters in the village; and harmony prevails between the two and they come together as brothers and when the Buddha dhamma is realized. Women liberation: His newspaper was also used to further the cause of women and to expose the sufferings they undergo in Hinduism. He blamed the system of child marriage, the disparity in the treatment meted out to men and women, the taboos of widowhood (like the compulsory tonsure of hair, white clothes, denial of a pillow to rest her head on), the problems faced by the married women, remarriage etc. In an essay, 'The desires of Indian men and the difficulties of women', Iyothee Thass wrote thus: "It is an ideology of present day Hindus that men can fulfill all their desires, but only women should undergo suffering." He further added thus: “while a man can marry 100 wives even when his wife is alive, a woman cannot remarry even when her husband is dead." In condemning the plight of women, he knocked out at the root of caste-Hindu patriarchy. A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 17

அன் ைன ெதேரசா - மனிதDŽலத்தின் ஒǖ காதல் Mother Teresa - A Love Of Humanity இராகவன் A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 18

Jay Jagannath �, Jagannath Puri Temple, Odisha Dhanu Muan and Pahili Bhoga T.K.V. Karuna [email protected] Dhanu Sankranti is celebrated on the first day of Pahili Bhoga: lunar Pousha month. The month of Pousha is First Food offered is early in the morning. It is a considered the month of plenty. After collecting the delicious Khechedi preparation. The episode runs harvest there is a festival of general rejoicing with that as Mahalaxmi, the divine consort moves to her special sweets of ‘Muan’(a traditional sweet dish) father’s house, Yosoda, the mother of Lord herself which is offered to Lord Jagannath in puja. In the prepare this delicious Khechedi to the utmost month of Dhanu Sankranti, Gopal Ballav Bhog is satisfaction of her son. offered along with Pahali Bhog (the first offering). As the celestial sun enters Sagittarius, the people of The Pahili Bhog is the traditional morning offering to Odisha observe Dhanu Sankranti with much joy and the Lord Jagannath, Balabhadra and Goddess gaiety. “Around 27 types of delicacies comprising of Subadhra (famously known as the Trinity) which different pithas are prepared for the Pahili Bhog. continues from the Dhanu Sankranti to Makara Dhanu Muan, a special sweet made of sweetened Sankranti as per the Odia almanac. rice flakes is a main attraction for the devotees who Dhanu Muan and Pahili Bhoga are alse offered at flock to the temple for the bhog. This offering Kantilo & Godess Mangala at Kakatpur. continues for about a month till Makar Sankranti (January 14-15). Gopal Vallabh Bhog: The offering is the first one of the daily Prasad to During this period, the people refrain from anything Lord Jagannath. The Bhogs are offered at the auspicious like marriages, engagements, thread Anabsar Pindi. Breakfast is a seven item treat – ceremonies, etc. World famous biggest open-air Khoya, Lahuni (butter), sweetened coconut grating, theatre Dhanu Jatra is held during this period in coconut water, and popcorn sweetened with sugar Odisha’s Bargarh City. The 11-day long Jatra known as khai and curd and ripe bananas. showcases scenes from Lord Krishna’s birth to the death of the demon king Kansa. Metaphorically, Bargarh becomes Mathura during this festival and river Jeera represents river Yamuna. A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 19

Incredible India: Images of India through Paintwork Chandra A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 20

Incredible India: Images of India through Paintwork Chandra A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 21

வாழ்வˢம் விவசாய�ம்: நம் சிந் தைனக் �... ஸ் ரவீ த் ஸா பக் திஸாரன் மாட் �ன் பாதம் மண் ணில் பட் � மாட் � சாணம் நிலத் தில் பட் � உ�� பயிற் ெசய் தேபா� நிலத் தில் ெபான் விைழந் த�. மாட்� வண் �யில் பயணித்தேபா� காற் �ம் மா�படவில் ைல. ேசற் றில் இரங் கி ேவைல ெசய் த விவசாயிக் � வரவில் ைல வியாதி. ஆேராக் கியமாக வாழ்ந் � வாழ்க் ைகைய ��ைமயாக வாழ்ந்தார்கள் நம் �ன் ேனார் கள் . உ�க வாகனம், பயிற் ெசய் ய வாகனம், பயணிக் க வாகனம், வாகனத்தில் இ௫ந் � வந் த பˢைக நாம் �வாசிக் �ம் காற் ைற மாசப�த் திய�. பˢவி பா�காப் பˢ வைளயத்ைதக் �ட விடவில் ைல. நாம் கண் � பி�த் த எந் திரங் களின் விைளவˢ, ெசயற் க் ைக உரம் �மிைய விசமாக் கிய�. பயிர் கள் , பழங் கள் , காய் கறிகள் , எல் லாவற் ைறயˢம் கலப் பினம் ெசய் ேதாம் . அைத உண் ேடாம்.விலங் �கள் , பறைவகள் , எைதயˢம் விட் � ைவக் கவில் ைல எல் லாவற் ைறயˢம் நாசமாக் கி இயற் க் ைகைய இயற் ைகயாக இ௫க் கவிடவில் ைல. எைதயˢம் விடவில் ைல மனிதன் வாழத்த�தியற் றதாக மாற் றி விட் டான் இந் த �மிைய. இப் ேபா� அைனத்ைதயˢம் ெதாைலத்�விட்� ேத� அைலகிறான் . மனிதன் இழந் த� கிைடக் �மா! மரணம் தான் கிைடத் த பரி�. A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 22

The blessed land, Rajasthan: A spiritually enlightening experience Dwarak Rajasthan houses an amazing display of Arts and Architecture, courtesy of it being a princely state. Each individual kingdom of Rajasthan has a distinctive styles of architecture and arts making it one of the most culturally diverse places in the world. In this article we shall list our the popular places to visit in Rajasthan. Rajasthan is such a blessed land as within its one can find the good number of 'mata' temples vicinity Lord Brahma dropped a lotus flower and a like Chamunda Mata Temple in Jodhpur; Adhar temple was brought into being. Enemies attacked Devi Temple in Mount Abu; Karni Mata Temple in many times; everything was destroyed, but it was Bikaner; Chamunda Mataji Temple in Jodhpur and Tanot Mata that went untouched. Since Rajasthan much more. is the abode of rajputs for the longest period, evidently here one can find a good number of an When it comes to the usual temples, Rajasthan ancient Hindu temples and has an own story to comes at the top of the list. In Karni Mata Temple, tell. Tulja Bhavani Temple (Chittorgarh), Meerabai Bikaner, more than 200 mice are revered even Temple (Chittorgarh), Madareshwar Temple, more because they are considered to be Karni Mata Kumbha Shyam Temple (Chittorgarh), Kalika Mata and her sons. No wonder, Rajasthan is a Temple (Chittorgarh) and Kalika Mata Temple miraculous place, where magical phenomenon (Pavagadh) are the famous ancient temples that takes place. When on a trip to Rajasthan for a draw a good number of tourists attention. Shiva spiritually enlightening experience, make a point worshippers should visit Eklingji Temple, to attend aarti at Varah Ghat in Pushkar. The Atmateshwar Temple (Pushkar), Atmateshwar above mentioned places are some that one should Temple (Dungarpur) and Ghushmeshwar (Sawai uncover on pilgrimage tour to Rajasthan. Madhopur). Interestingly in addition to Shiva, here A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 23

Pic of the Month: Gunja Narasima Swamy Temple, Mysore District, Karnataka Adithyan Gunja Narasima Swamy Temple dedicated to Bhagavan Narasimha Swamy situated in Tirumakudalu Narasipura Of Mysore District. It was built in the Vijayanagara Period. On the confluence of three Rivers Kaveri, Kabini and Spatika Sarovara the town got its name Tirumakudalu. Popularly known as Dakshina Kashi. A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 24

அன் ைன ெதேரசா: மனித�லத்தின் ஒ� காதல் ஆதித் தியன் அன் ைன ெதேரசா ஆகஸ் ட் 27, 1919 ஆம் ஆண் � பிறந் தார் . அவள் ஆக் னஸ் ேகான் ஷா ேபாஜா�ியˢ என் � அைழக்கப் பட் டாள் . அவள் உலகம் ��வ�ம் ஏைழகள் மற் �ம் தாழ்த் தப் பட் டவர் களின் �கமாக மாறினாள் . ஆக் னஸ் மிகவˢம் இளைமயாக இ�ந் தேபா� அவர� தந் ைத காலமானார் . "அப் பா எங் ேக?" என் � சி�மி ேகட் டாள் . "அவர் தி�ம் பி வரமாட் டார் " என் � அம் மா ஆ�தல் ெசான் னாள் . மிஷனரிகளின் கைதகைளச் ெசால் வதன் �லம் அவ�ைடய தாய் அவைளப் ஆ�தல் ப�த் தினாள் . ஆக் னஸ் கடவˢளிடம் நிைறய ேநரம் ெசலவிட் டார் . பன் னிரண் � வயதில் , அவள் தன் வாழ்க் ைகைய கடவˢ�க் � அர் ப் பணிக் க ��வˢ ெசய் தாள் . பதிெனட்� வயதில் , அவள் அயர்லாந் தில் உள் ள 'சேகாதரிகள் ேலாெரட் ேடாவில் ' ேசர் ந் தாள் . அ�த் த ஆண் � ஆக் னஸ் இந் தியாவˢக் � வந் � கன் னியாஸ் திரி ஆனார் . கல் கத் தாவில் ஒ� கான் ெவன் ட் �ல் கற் பித் தார் . அவ�க் � "அன் ைன ெதரசா" என் � ெபயரிடப் பட் ட�. ஏைழக�க்� உதவˢமா� இேய� அவளிடம் ேகட்ட� ேபால் தி�ெரன் � அவள் உணர்ந் தாள் . "நான் ெதாண் � நி�வனத்ைத உ�வாக்�ேவன் " என் � அவள் ��வˢ ெசய் தாள் . ஆகஸ் ட் 17, 1948 அன் �, அவள் கன் னியாஸ் திரியின் வழிகைளக் ைகவிட்�, நீல நிற பார் டர் ெகாண் ட ெவள் ைள பˢடைவைய அணிந்தாள் . அவர் ஏைழ �ழந் ைதக�க்� �காதாரமான பழக் கங் கைள கற் பிக் கத் ெதாடங் கினாள் . A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 25

அன் ைன ெதேரசா: மனித�லத்தின் ஒ� காதல் ஆதித் தியன் 1950 இல் அவள் தன� நி�வனத் ைதத் ெதாடங் க அ�மதிக்கப் பட் டாள் . பல ெபண் கள் அவ�டன் ேசர் ந் தனர் . கல் கத் தாவில் அந் த அைமப்பˢ பதின் �ன் � உ�ப் பினர் க�டன் ெதாடங் கிய� . அன் ைன ெதேரசா ெதாடர் ந் � ஏைழகைளப் உதவத் ெதாடங் கினாள் . யார் யா�க் � அவள் ேதைவப் ப�ம்ேபா�, அவள் அவர் க�க் � உதவி ெசய் ய தயாராக இ�ந் தாள் . ் � இல் லத் ைத அன் ைன ெதேரசா ஏைழ மற் �ம் ேநாய் வாய் ப் பட் � இறப் பவ�க ெதாடங் கினாள் . அங் � அவர் க�க் � சிகிச்ைச அளிக் கப் பட் �, அவர் கள் கைடசி நாட் கைளக் கழித் தனர் . அவள் ஒ� ெதா�ேநாய் இல் லத் ைதயˢம் திறந் தாள் . 1971 இல் ேபாப் ஆறாம் பால் அவ�க் � ேபாப் ஜான் XXII அைமதிப் பரிைச வழங் கினார் . "அைமதி மற் �ம் ெதாண் �க் கான உங் கள் �யற் சிகைள நான் மதிக் கிேறன் " என் � அவர் �றினார் . ெபய் �ட் �ற் �ைகயின் ேபா�, �ழந் ைதகள் ம�த் �வமைனயில் சிக் கினர் . “தயவˢெசய் � சண் ைடைய நி�த் �ங் கள் . �ழந் ைதகைள விட் � வி�ங் கள் , "என் � அன் ைன ெதேரசா ேவண் �ேகாள் வி�த் தாள் . �தியவர்கள் ஒப் பˢக் ெகாண் � ீ �ழந் ைதகைள மட்டனர். பின் னர் 1985 இல் , அெமரிக் க ஜனாதிபதி ெரானால் ட் ரகீ ன் அவ�க்� ஜனாதிபதி �தந்திரப் பதக் கத் ைத வழங் கினார் . 1996 வாக் கில் , அவள் 500க் �ம் ேமற் பட் ட ெதாண் � பணிகைள கடந் தாள் . A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 26

அன் ைன ெதேரசா: மனித�லத்தின் ஒ� காதல் ஆதித் தியன் எத் திேயாப் பியாவில் பஞ் சம் ஏற் பட் டேபா�, அன் ைன ெதேரசா அங் � ெசன் � தன் னால் ��ந் தைதச் ெசய் தாள் . அவர் ெசர் ேனாபி�க் �ம் ெசன் றாள் , அங் � பலர் வாயˢ கசிவˢ காரணமாக கதிர் வசீ ் சால் பாதிக் கப் பட் டனர் . காலம் ெசல் லச் ெசல் ல, அன் ைன ெதேரசா ேநாய் வாய் ப் படத் ெதாடங் கினாள் . ஆனால் இ� அவைள தன் பணியில் இ�ந் � த�க் கவில் ைல. அவள� இ�தி நாட் களில் அவள் பார் ைவயாளர் கைளச் சந் தித் தம் , சேகாதரிக�க் � அறிவˢைர �றியˢம் ேநரத் ைத ெசலவிட் டாள் . ெசப் டம் பர் 5, 1997 அன் �, அன் ைன ெதேரசா காலமானாள் . உலகம் இரங் கல் ெதரிவித் த�. "அவள் இைறவனிடம் ெசன் றாள் " என் � அவர் கள் அ�தனர் . அவளால் உலகம் ��வ�ம் 4000 சேகாதரிகள் மற் �ம் 610 அறக் கட் டைளகள் அைமக் கப் பட் டன. அன் ைன ெதேரசா பˢனித மதங் களின் தாய் இல் லத் தில் அடக் கம் ெசய் யப் பட் டாள் . இ� யாத் திைரக் கான இடமாக மாறிய�. அவள் நம்பிக் ைக, சிந் தைன மற் �ம் ெதாண் � மரைப விட்�ச் ெசன் றாள் . A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 27

Sai Baba Punyatithi 2021 Date: 15 October 2021 Raghavan A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 28

ப�ைமயான நிைனவ�கள் : பகிர் ந் �ண் � பல் �யிர் ஓம் பிய காலம் சந் திரா ஏழ்ைமயி�ம் ெசம்ைம இ�ந் த காலம் ஒன் � இ�ந் த�. பற் றாக் �ைறயி�ம் உள் ளம் நிரம்பி வழிந் த�. பக் கத் � வ�ீ ம் நம் வடீ ் �ன் நீட் சியாக நகரங் களி�ம் அன் ப�க் கரம் நீட் �ய மனநிைல அன் �. எப் ேபா� ேவண் �மானால் நம்மிடம் இல் லாதைதப் பக் கத் � வ�ீ களில் ேகட் �ப் ெபறலாம் என் ப� எத் தைன ெபரிய வசதி. அன் � பண் டம் மாற் ��ைற பாசத் தால் நிகழ்ந் த�. ப�திதாக நம் வடீ ் � வத் தக் �ழம்ப� சின் னக் கிண் ணத் தில் அ�த் த வடீ ் �க் �ப் பயணிக்�ம். அங் � ைவத்த மிள� ரசம் இங் � பதி�க் � வந் � ேச�ம். எந் த விேசஷமாக இ�ந்தா�ம் அதற் காகச் ெசய் த பலகாரம் �ற் றிய�ள் ள வ�ீ க�க் �ம் �டச்�ட வழங் கப் ப�ம். நம் வடீ ் � ��ங் ைக அதிகம் காய் த் தால் , அ� அ�த் த வடீ ் �னர் சாம்பார் ைவப் பதற் காகவ�ம். பக் கத் � வடீ ் � ெசவ் வாைழ தார் ேபாட் டால் தண் �ம் பழ�ம் கண் �ப் பாக நம் சைமய�க் � வந் � ேச�ம். பால் காரர் மா� கன் � ேபாட் ட�ம் மறக் காமல் சீம் பால் அளிப் ப� உண் �. அதற் காகேவ நாங் கள் அவர் கள் ைவத் தி�க் �ம் மா� எப் ேபா� கன் � ேபா�ம் என் � காத் தி�ந் த�ம் உண் �. பாலில் கலக் �ம் தண் ணைீ ர சீம்பாலால் அவர் கள் சரிெசய் � வி�வார் கள் . இ�ப் பவர் இல் லாதவ�க் �த் த�வ�ம், அதிகம் இ�ப் பவர் அ�த் தவரிடம் பகிர் வ�ம், யா�ம் உபேதசிக் காமல் அன் � மக் கள் கைடப் பி�த் த ெநறி�ைறயாக இ�ந் த�. ஒேர ெபா�ளாதார நிைலயில் இ�ப் பவர் கள் அ�க�ேக வாழ்ந் த �ழல் அ�. எல் ேலாரிட�ம் அவ் வப் ேபா� பற் றாக் �ைற தைலநீட் �ம். அைத ப�ைரேய�ம் தைலையத் தட் �க் ெகா�ப் பைதப் ேபால �ற் றியி�ப் பவர் கள் தங் கள் தாராளத்தால் அ�க் கி வி�வார் கள் . A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 29

ப�ைமயான நிைனவ�கள் : பகிர் ந் �ண் � பல் �யிர் ஓம் பிய காலம் சந் திரா நாங் கள் சி�வராக இ�க் �ம்ேபா� எங் கள் வடீ ் �க் � எதிேர மாட் � வண் � ஓட் �ம் அண் ணன் தம்பிகள் ஐவர் இ�ந் தனர் . அவர் க�க் � நாங் கள் ைவத் த ெபயர் ’பஞ் ச பாண் டவர் ’. காைலயில் பள் ளிக் �ச் ெசல் �ம் வழியில் நாங் கள் தட் �ப் பட் டால் ஒற் ைறக் ைகெகா�த் � எங் கைள ஏற் றிக் ெகாண் � பயணித்�ப் பள் ளியில் இறக் கிவி�வார் கள் . ��� கிேலா அரிசி �ட்ைடகைள அலாக் காக ��கில் ��க் �வார் கள் . உடலில் இ�ம்ைபய�ம் உள் ளத்தில் காந் தத் ைதய�ம் ைவத்தி�ந் தவர் கள் அவர் கள் . சமயத்தில் தீக் �ச் சிகைள இரவல் ேகட் � இரவில் வ�வார் கள் . தீப் ெபட் ��ட சமயத்தில் வாங் க ��யாத �ழல் இ�ந் தைத இன் ைறயத் தைல�ைற நம்ப ம�க்�ம். அந் தத் ேதாழர் கள் வடீ ் �ப் ெபண் கள் அரிசி கைளந் �, ப�ப் ப� ேவகைவத்�, சாதம் வ�த்� பாைனயில் ஊற் றிய நீைரெயல் லாம் எ�த் �க் ெகாண் �, ைகநிைறய சாணத்ைத வடீ ் �ல் ேபாட் �விட் �ச் ெசல் வார் கள் . சமயத் தில் மிஞ் சிய �ழம் ைபய�ம் , ேசாற் ைறய�ம் ெகா�த் தால் ம�க் காமல் வாங் கிச் ெசல் வார் கள் . நள் ளிரவில் அரிக் கன் விளக் ேகா� ெவளிேய வந் தால் அலறிய�த் �க் ெகாண் � 'என் ன ஆபத் ேதா!' என் � விசாரிக் க வ�வார் கள் . 'அண் ணன் ’ என் �ம் ’தம் பி’ என் �ம் உறவ� ைவத்� அளவளாவ�வார்கள் . அத் தைன அந் நிேயான் யம். அன் � அவசரத் திற் ெகான் � ேகட் ப� கவ�ரவக் �ைறச்சல் அல் ல. அதிகாைலயில் காப் பித் ��ள் டப் பா வறண் � �ப் பைதப் பார் த் �, பக் கத் � வடீ ் �ல் ஒ� �வைள இரவல் வாங் கி தி�ப் பித் த�வ� உண் �. இரண் � நாட் கள் ெவளி�ர் ெசன் �விட் � வந் தால் பா�க் �ப் ப�ைர�ற் ற பக் கத் � வடீ ் �ல் இரண் � கரண் � தயிர் வாங் கி வ�வ� A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 30

ப�ைமயான நிைனவ�கள் : பகிர் ந் �ண் � பல் �யிர் ஓம் பிய காலம் சந் திரா உண் �. அவற் ைறெயல் லாம் மகிழ்ச்சிேயா� ெகா�த் தார் கள் , மன நிைறேவா� பகிர் ந் தார் கள் . ஜ�க் காள�ம் மடக் � நாற் காலிய�ம் மரச் சாமான் கள் அன் � விைல அதிகம். வடீ ் ட�க் கான �க் கியப் ெபா�ட்களில் அவற் றிற் � �தலிடம் இல் ைல. ெப�ம்பா�ம் ெபண் க�க் � பாேய விரிய�ம். ெகாஞ் சம் வசதி இ�ந் தால் ஜமக் காளம் விரிக் கப் ப�ம் . ஆண் கள் அமர ஒன் றிரண் � இ�ம்ப� மடக் � நாற் காலிகள் . சி�வர் கள் தைரயில் அமர ேவண் �ம். வ�கிற உ�ப் ப� அதிகமானால் மர ஸ் �ல் கள் ேமலி�க் �ம் அரிசி �ன் கள் இறக் கப் பட் � �ணியால் அவசரமாக �த் தம் ெசய் யப் பட் � இ�க் ைககளாக மா�ம். இன் �ம் சிலர் ��தலாக வந் தால் அண் ைட வ�ீ களில் இ�ந் � நாற் காலிகள் இறக் �மதி ெசய் யப் ப�ம். வி�ந் தினர் ெசன் ற�ம் உடன�யாகத் தி�ப் பி ஒப் பைடக் கப் ப�ம். ஏணி என் ப� ஒ� சில வ�ீ களில் மட் �ேம இ�க் �ம் . பரணில் இ�க் �ம் பாத் திரம் எ�க் கவ�ம் , �ைரயில் ஏறி ப�� பார்க் கவ�ம் ேவண் �யேபா� அ�த்தவர் ஏணி நமக் � ஏற் றம் தர சித் தமாக இ�க் �ம் . மரணம் என் ப� ெப�ம்பா�ம் வேயாதிகத்தில் வ�ம். இறந் தவைர சாய ைவக் கிற நாற் காலி�ட இரவலாய் ப் ேபாகிற இடங் கள் உண் �. நம் மிடம் ேபாதிய நாற் காலிகள் இல் ைலேய என் � யா�ம் வ�த்தப் பட் டதில் ைல. உடேன இரவல் வாங் கி வர மகன் கள் இ�ந் ததால் . ேதாைச ��வதற் � அம்மாக் கள் ைகவசம் �க் காலி இ�க் �ம். வி�ந் தினர் அமர் ந் � சாப் பிட நான் ைகந் � பலைககள் இ�ந் தன. தைரயில் அமர் ந் � சாப் பி�ம் ேபா� அளேவா� சாப் பிட் டேதா� மட் �மல் லாமல் , �ட் � வலிய�ம் �ழங் கால் வலிய�ம் வராமல் எல் ேலா�ம் திடமாக இ�ந் தார் கள் . A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 31

ப�ைமயான நிைனவ�கள் : பகிர் ந் �ண் � பல் �யிர் ஓம் பிய காலம் சந் திரா பக் கத் � வடீ ் � அட் �ைக அவசரம் என் றால் அ�த் த வடீ ் �னரிடம் மிதிவண் �ைய இரவல் வாங் �வ� உண் �. தி�ப் ப�ம்ேபா� மரியாைதக் காக காற் ைற நிரப் பித் த�வார் கள் . சைமயல் எரிவாய� தி�ெரனத் தீ�ம்ேபா� பக் கத் � வடீ ் � உபயத் தால் அ�ப் ைபப் பற் ற ைவப் ப�ம் உண் �. அன் � கத் தி �தல் �த் தி வைர ேதைவயான ெபா�ைள வழங் கிக் ெகாள் வதில் நட் ப�ம், உரிைமய�ம் ேசாம்பல் �றித் தன. ைகக் �ம் வாய் க் �ேம வ�மானம் நீ�க் �ம் பரிதாப நிைல ந�த் தரக் ��ம்பங் களில் நர் த் தனமா�ய�. ெபண் பார் க் க வ�கிறேபா� பக்கத்� வடீ ்� அட் �ைக�ட ெபண் ணின் க�த்ைத அலங் கரிக் கப் பயன் ப�ம் . இரவல் என் ப� சின் ன நகரங் களில் மட் �ேம இ�ந் த�. கிராமங் களில் யார் ேவண் �மானா�ம் எந் த ேவப் ப மரத் தி�ம் பல் �லக் க �ச்சிைய ஒ�த்�க் ெகாள் ளலாம். எந் த ேமாட் டார் ஓ�னா�ம் தங் கள் �ணிகைள �ட்ைடயாக எ�த் �ச் ெசன் � �ைவத்�க்ெகாள் ளலாம். ஓ�கிற தண் ணரீ ில் சிண் �கள் ேசாப் ப�த் ேதய் த் �க் �ளித் �க் ெகாள் ளலாம் . அதற் காகேவ ெபரிய ெதாட் �கள் . உழவர்கள் தங் கள் நிலத் தில் இன் �ம் வாணிகம் ெசய் வதில் ைல. வ�ேவார் ேபாேவார் ஆைசேயா� மாங் காய் ேகட்டால் கா� வாங் காமல் பறித் �த் த�வார் கள் . க�ம் ப� வயல் களில் அங் ேகேய ஒ�த் � �சிக் கத் தைடயில் ைல. �ழந் ைதக�க் �ப் பால் என் � ேகட் டால் பணம் ெபற் �க் ெகா�ப் பதில் ைல. இந் த அரிய பண் ப�களால் சிற் ��ர் களில் இன் ன�ம் மனிதம் ஜவீ ித் தி�க் கிற�. வடீ ் �க் �ள் ேளய�ம் இரவல் உண் �. அண் ணன் வளர் ந் த�ம் தம் பிக் � அந் த சட் ைட தானாக வ�ம். அக் காவின் தாவணி தங் ைகக் �த் தாைர வார்க் கப் ப�ம். ஐந் தாவ� ப�க் �ம் அண் ணன் �� ஆண் �த் ேதர் வ� ��ந் த�ம் நான் காம் வ�ப் ைப ��த் த தம் பிக் � ப�த் தகங் - A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 32

ப�ைமயான நிைனவ�கள் : பகிர் ந் �ண் � பல் �யிர் ஓம் பிய காலம் சந் திரா -கைள அப் ப�ேய ஒப் பைடக் க, அவன் அதிேலேய ப�ப் ைபத் ெதாட�ம் சிக் கனங் கள் உண் �. வசதியற் ற மாணவர் கள் மற் ேறார் ப�த் த ப�த் தகங் கைள அைர விைலக் � வாங் கி அவற் ைற ைவத்�த் ேத�வ� உண் �.வண் ணப் ெபன் சில் கள் வடீ ் �ன் ெபா�வ�ைடைம. ீ ேவண் �யேபா� அண் ணன் தம்பிகள் எ�த் �ப் பயன் ப�த் தி மள ைவப் ப� மரப�. இன் � ெபா�வ�ைடைம என் ப� இல் லத் �க் �ள் ேளேய இல் ைல. அண் ண�க்� வாங் �வைத தம் பிக் �ம் த�விக் க ேவண் �ம். இல் லாவிட் டால் தகரா�. அவசரத்�க் � என் � அ�த் தவரிடம் ேகட் ப� அநாகரிகம். அ�கி எறிவார் கேள தவிர, பகிர் ந் � மகிழ மாட் டார் கள் . பற் றாக் �ைற இல் லாத நிைல பல வ�ீ களில் இன் � இ�க் கிற�. ெபட் �யில் இல் லாத வ�ைம உள் ளத்ைத நிைறத்தி�ப் ப� உண் ைம. A TO Z INDIA ● OCTOBER 2021 ● PAGE 33

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