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● ● English & Tam il Monthly M agazine Volum e 05 • Issue 05 Decem ber 2021 Indian Culture ● Indian Art ● Indian Lifestyle ● Indian Religion Price Rs 65/- Nitin Sharm a Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque 1190s, Qutb Minar complex, Delhi, India 05

A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 2 Submit your artwork, articles & essays to the e.mail id: [email protected] ● ●

A TO Z INDIA magazine covers the Indian through his art, culture, lifestyle, religion, etc. This magazine gives an insight into the life of Indians from an angle uncovered by others. Turn to find out what it is about and to immerse yourself into an entirely different culture. Publication Team: EDITOR: Indira Srivatsa ASSOCIATE EDITOR: Dwarak, Srivatsa EDITORIAL CONSULTANTS: Santha, Bhavani, Srinivasan REPORTING: Raghavan PHOTOGRAPHY: Adithyan GRAPHICS ENGINEER: Chandra Editorial Office: E002, Premier Grihalakshmi Apartments, Elango Nagar South, Virugambakkam, Chennai - 600092, Tamil Nadu, India. Communication Details: MOBILE: +91-7550160116 e.mail id: [email protected] Disclaimer: A TO Z INDIA Magazine has made a constant care to make sure that content is accurate on the date of publication. The views expressed in the articles reflect the author(s) opinions. 04 FROM THE EDITOR'S DESK: WHY NEW YEAR’S RESOLUTIONS MATTER MORE TODAY THAN YESTERYEAR Have a list of wishes for yourself, and turn them into action. Piles of research show that just dreaming about what you’d like to do , including making resolutions and setting goals, actually reduces the odds that you’ll achieve them . When done correctly, setting goals and making resolutions can shape our behavior for the better. 08 THE STORY OF A FAMINE THAT KILLED TEN MILLION INDIANS, AND BRITAIN'S GRIP ON THE NEW WORLD The story of how India helped shape America's destiny. A story that started with tea and ended with Hyder Ali. A TO Z INDIA: Editorial Address inside FROM THE EDITOR A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 3

really be any better? With fresh breeze and a new year coming, many are optimistic. But we are not at the end. We are in what I famously call the “messy middle,” where everything is hardest. When everything went sideways this year, we were collectively freaked out - and also energized. We bravely adjusted to massive changes in the way we work, educate our children, shop, and socialize. But in the midst of crisis, we’re seeing just how little support our society offers to working parents, the unemployed, and many others who are struggling. This is what happens with all big change, and the bigger the change, the more tempted we are to give up, to turn our attention to something shiny or delicious, to seek short-lived hits of pleasure in lieu of long-term meaning. Research shows that setting specific, difficult goals consistently leads to higher performance (if that’s what you’re after). Where in your life would you like to step things up? Perhaps you’d like set up a gratitude practice, or maybe you’d like to spend less time on social media. Where can you do better despite the odds (and everything else)? The goal is not to add more pressure to an already difficult time, but to identify goals that co uld help you feel better and have more energy at the end of the day. Have a list of wishes for yourself, and turn them into action. Piles of research show that just dreaming about what you’d like to do, including making resolutions and setting goals, actually reduces the odds that you’ll achieve them . We also have to make specific plans , map out potential obstacles , and find ways to make the process en joyable . When done correctly, setting goals and making resolutions can shape our behavior for the better. Our habits can make us feel happier, healthier and more connected to those around us. These are worthy goals in any year, whether we are in a difficult situation or not. From the Editor's Desk: Why New Year’s Resolutions Matter More Today than Yesteryear Indira Srivatsa Editor | A TO Z INDIA [email protected] +91-7550160116 A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 4 'Goodbye, 2021!', holiday cards announce. What a year! we exclaim to each other. We can’t wait for 2021 to be over. But as we settle into a hard winter, I can’t help wondering: Will 2022

Nitin Sharma A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 5 Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque, 1190s, Delhi, India The tomb that exhibits a blend of Hindu & Islamic influenc es: Qutb was a fanatical Muslim. When his garrison occupied Delhi under the command of Muhammed Ghari in 1192, he ordered the destruction of twenty-seven Hindu and Jain temples to furnish building materials for the construction of Delhi's first mosque. Quwwat-ul-Islam, the "Glory of Islam," was hastily erected by the young Amir, who conscripted an army of local craftsmen, presumably Hindus, to assembl e the structure. The Hindu stonemasons repurposed columns from the destroyed temples, but adapting them to use in a mosque proved problematic given Islam's injunction against the use of images in temples. The masons were forced to plaster over the highly sculpted Hindu columns and presumably cover them with geometric designs. However, after centuries of neglect the plaster has fallen away, revealing t he original Hindu carvings. Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque (built 1192-1316) Quwwat-ul-Islam was sponsored by Qutb-ud-din Aibak, founder of the Mamluk dynasty. Born a slave in Turkey, Qutb rose to prominence as a general during Muhammed Ghari's invasion of India in the 1180s. After Muhammed's assassination in 1206, Qutb seized the throne and crowned himself Sultan of the Mamluk dynasty, often disparagingly called the "Slave Dynasty" after Qutb's origins. Although the dynasty lasted for only a few centuries, Muslim rule in India endured up to the British occuption in 1858.

Nitin Sharma Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque, 1190s, Delhi, India A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 6 The tomb that exhibits a blend of Hindu & Islamic influenc es: Just to the west of the expanded mosque, Altamash built his own tomb, the first to be erected for the Delhi Sultanate. Despite the presence of Muslim craftsman, the tomb is mostly Hindu in design if not in execution. Much of the superstructure and most of the walls are built of pillaged building material. Altamash's body was laid to rest in a subterranean chamber beneath the tomb. The decline of Qu wwat-ul-Islam began during the rule of Ala-ud-din (1296-1316), known to the West as "Alladin". Ala-ud-din at first seemed inclined to patronize the mosque, even adding an enormous new courtyard wall and erecting the base of a huge new minar (tower). However, Ala-ud-dins dreams were so grand that he decided to abandon the Lal Kot (Delhi) capital and move to nearby Siri, whereupon Quwwat- ul-Islam lost i ts pre-eminence. The Quwwat-ul-Islam is best known for its tower of victory, celebrating the Muslim conquest of India. It is built of red sandstone, gray quartz, and white marble, but is probably inspired by the iron "Pillar of the Law" that stands on the site. Built in the Mauryan dynasty in the 6th century, it is the only piece of the temple that stands in its original location. Qutb built around it w hen he constructed the mosque. Although made of iron, it has resisted rust for over 1,500 years, evidence of the Mauryan's superb metallurgical skills. Expansion of the mosque continued after the death of Qutb. His son-in-law Altamash (or Illtutmish) extended the original prayer hall screen by three more arches (image 8). By the time of Altamash the Mamluk empire had stablized enough that the Sultan co uld replace most of his conscripted Hindu masons with Islamic ones. This explains why the arches added under Altamash are stylistically more Islamic than the ones erected under Qutb's rule.


If the stories of Britain's affluence and American independence were boiled down to one single commodity, it has to be the humble ubiquitous tea. Although all of it first came from China, India is where the money to buy it came from. Sometime in the 18th century, this cash cow came down with a famine that killed two things — ten million Indians, and Britain's grip on the New World. This story explores how, and much more. Europe stepped into the seventeenth century with an abundance of commercial activities. A vast new world was just opening up for unbridled trade and exploitation. Many were about to get very rich. Europe looked to the East. Britain looked to the West. There were opportunities everywhere. Contrary to popular notion, Britain didn't enjoy a head start on the colonization game. The Du tch were already in on it, as were the Portuguese, the French, and the Spaniards. But now it was determined to catch up. Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter to a group of merchants keen on colonizing the East, more specifically, China and India. What resulted was a monopoly on all British trade in India and East Asia for a company called the London East India Company . This proved wildly successful. In time, another group of merchants decided to hop on the gravy train and received a charter as the English East India Company . British coffers started bursting at the seams. By the 1700s, the two companies had merged into one as the ‘ United Company of Merchants Trading to the East Indies ,’ later renamed the East India Company . Around the same time as the London East India Company, other charters were a lso given out. These were to companies looking westward. Two of these were the Plymouth Company and the London Company . They were to explore, colonize, and exploit for trade, a whole new world across the Atlantic — America. As we can see, imperialism was a non-government affair those days, left to private businesses with reasonable autonomy. Soon after receiving their respective charters, the two compa nies in business with America decided to join hands as the Virginia Company . This is how the American state of Virginia got its name. Back in the day, it was the Colony and Dominion of Virginia. This was the first British territory in the New World. It's here that the first town, a trading outpost, was established. They named it Jamestown, after King James I, the man who granted them their charter. No w, while the Virginia Company got busy colonizing, the East India Company stayed focused on commerce. Their most significant trade was this strange new herb that had been a staple in the Chinese beverage culture since at east 700 AD. They called it tea. Even then, tea wasn't confined to China. The Arabs and the Russians had been importing it since antiquity thanks to the Silk Route. Even the Dutch wer e familiar with the beverage and had a steady trading relationship with China through an outpost in Jakarta, then Batavia. But Britain was still new to this. People drank coffee there; nobody knew anything about tea. That changed in 1662 when King Charles II got himself a new Portuguese bride, Catherine of Braganza. Just like the Dutch, the Portuguese were also familiar with tea and traded extensively in it. Catherine brought with her a precious dowry, the island of Bombay. And she introduced Charles and England to tea. Shortly after that, tea was being actively traded for the British aristocracy. Santha A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 8 The story of a famine that killed ten million Indians, and Britain's grip on the New World The Cash Cow which revolutionized the American Revolution:

Thomas Garraway's coffee house was one of many that lined a street in the city of London called Change Alley. A bustling financial district crawling with stock jobbers, ship chandlers, and goldsmiths, Change Alley was never out of action. Its coffee houses served as the preferred stock-trading hotspots, for there was no formal stock exchange those days. Of these, three were of particular import — Llo yd's, Jonathan's, and Garraway's. Lloyd's later evolved into the Lloyd's Register and Jonathan's is where the trading of shares first commenced. Garraway's Coffee-House matters to our story. Sometime toward the end of the 1660s, Thomas Garraway put out an advertisement inviting "All Persons of Eminence and Quality" to his coffee house to buy a brand new kind of beverage from China at sixty shillings a p ound. This was a game-changer. The mysterious elixir from the Orient was meant to cure everything from insomnia to anorexia, and from lethargy to fever. That elixir was tea. Given its novelty, the commodity was imported in tiny quantities at the time. In 1664, for instance, the East India Company brought home only a shade over two pounds of it. The entire consignment was given away as political presents . Garraway's is credited as the first retail seller of tea and the enterprise proved extremely successful. In less than a century, England would go from coffee to tea. One business made all the money — The East India Company . Given its monopoly over all British trades in the region, every ounce of tea that hit British shores came on Company's ships. When Britain entered the eighteenth century, it was consuming well over 45 tons of tea a year. That was just Britain. A whole new market awaited exploitation elsewhere, thanks to the East India Company's western counterpart, the Virginia Company . The colonizers in the New World were slow to adopt tea. Life in America was more demanding than in Europe and tea was an expensive commodity. Some of the early adopters were wealthy plantation magnates and me rchants of South Carolina, Virginia, New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. But this changed over the years. By the mid- 1700s, the average American was guzzling over 120 cups a year . Sure, all this made the East India Company obscenely rich, but not as much as one would expect. On paper, their monopoly was intact and no tea was reaching England in a boat that wasn't theirs. But the reality was slightly d ifferent. There were other players in the arena — smugglers. The Company was spending one shilling for a pound of tea in Canton and selling it for about five. But it didn't make three shillings in profits, for two went in taxes. So that left them with barely two shillings in net profits. It was twice the investment but still not a whole lot. They couldn't raise the price beyond four shillings. But tea was much cheaper in Amsterdam and Paris. This meant opportunity; if you could somehow manage to bypass the Company, buy tea from one of these cities, and get it directly into the coffee houses of London. If you did all this without paying any taxes, which is the most likely scenario, you made at the very least, three shillings to a pound. Soon, almost half of all tea in England was smuggled and the C ompany could do nothing about it. But smuggling wasn't just a European problem. America had its share of undercutting thanks to the "Pirates of the Caribbean." A bigger share, since Americans, being relatively poorer and less discerning as tea connoisseurs, consumed a cheaper kind than their British counterparts. Here, nearly 90 percent of all tea was smuggled. The Company bled. A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 9 The story of a famine that killed ten million Indians, and Britain's grip on the New World Santha The Cash Cow which revolutionized the American Revolution:

By this time, having shown the door to the Dutch in the 1674 Treaty of Westminster after the Third Anglo- Dutch War, Britain had long consolidated its hold on the New World. India being the jewel in its crown, America was the quintessential cornucopia of fur, tobacco, sugar, and lots more. But smuggling was still a big problem. The problem only compounded by the middle of the eighteenth century when E urope broke into what one could truly call the first world war in the most technical sense of the term. Just like the more widely-known First World War of 1914, this one also started in Austria — with the death of a royal. The year was 1740. Back then, Austria was part of the Holy Roman Empire ruled by the House of Habsburg. At the helm of this dynasty was Emperor Charles VI. When he died in 1740, he di dn't leave a desirable legacy behind. The dead king only had a daughter, Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina, and no sons. Some supported the young princess, and some didn't. The two sides went to war. Maria eventually got her crown, but the war lasted almost a decade and changed history in more ways than possible to speculate. On one side were those that liked her — Britain, Hanover, and the Nethe rlands, collectively the Pragmatic Allies. On the other were those that didn't — France, Prussia, and Bavaria. But the canvas stretched way beyond Europe. In America, the engagement came to be known as King George's War and was fought between Britain and France. Here, the Colonists and the British, technically both British, teamed up in the summer of 1745 to lay siege to and capture Louisbourg, a Fren ch outpost in today’s Nova Scotia. The French tried real hard to recover their losses for almost a year but gave up after losing a commander and many men to bad weather and disease. But since losses must be compensated, they looked elsewhere. An opportunity showed up in India. The British had a small, weakly- fortified garrison at Madras back then. On September 4, 1746, officer Bertrand-Frangois Mahé d e La Bourdonnais led a naval squadron to Madras. The first step was a blockade of the port. In less than a week, the garrison surrendered. Madras fell into French hands. This was the first milestone in the Indian theatre of the War of Austrian Succession. On October 18, 1778, Britain, France, and the Netherlands signed the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (today, Aachen in Germany) putting an end to the confli ct. Finally, Europe was at peace! Or, was it? Less than six years after the signing, the two were at each other's throats again, this time entirely in America. But the French weren't Britain's only problem. Their troubles came from within. The Colonists who had wagered life and limb on the heroic capture of Fortress Louisbourg weren't particularly happy about the treaty. It undid all their efforts by re turning the outpost to the French. Although this didn't have any immediate impact, cracks had begun to appear between the Colonists and their British compatriots. Meanwhile, both Britain and France entered a new race — the race to colonize the Great Lakes and the Ohio Valley. Whoever owned the waters, owned the commerce. The maneuvers were fierce and aggressive. This led to the French and Indian War of 1754, which lasted almost a decade. It drove the wedge further between the British and the Colonists. Wars are expensive and this one was prohibitively so. The war destroyed Britain's economy. Wars basically cost two resources — men and money. Since the venue was across the The story of a famine that killed ten million Indians, and Britain's grip on the New World Santha The Cash Cow which revolutionized the American Revolution: A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 10

Atlantic, logistics were a challenge. William Pitt the Elder, the British Paymaster of the Forces, came up with a viable solution. Money being more portable than people, he decided to recruit fighters from amongst the Colonists and ship money from England. This made logistical sense. Now, the Colonists weren't just British. These were men from all kinds of backgrounds. There were Swedes, Germans, Irish, and Dutch. They all fought as one against a common immediate adversary, the French. This helped forge something unique — A distinct American identity. Many young men were trained by officers of the British army to fight against the French. Among them was a young George Washington . This war ended in crushing defeat for the French with the signing of the 1763 Treaty of Paris. The victory was hard-earned and celebrated in both Britain and America. But the euphoria didn't last. Within years, the rift between the Colonists and the British became prominent. This was primarily over whose role was decisive in the war's outcome. The former felt it was their men who lay their lives in the battlefields; the latter felt it was their hard-earned money that bankrolled the whole enterprise. Being one of the most hea vily taxed people in Europe, the British were right in feeling the way they did. The Colonists at the time were barely taxed. There was a sound reason for this tax disparity though. After India, British America was the Empire's biggest cash cow accounting for nearly 40 percent of its GDP. So, low taxation was just a means to keep them from rebelling. But the average British resented this. This problem w as further compounded by the absolute ruination of the British economy thanks to the series of expensive wars it fought over the years. In 1769, a mere six years after the Treaty of Paris, Bengal was visited by a famine that claimed between two and ten million lives in the space of two years. It all started with one failed monsoon which the British administrators didn't take seriously. Instead o f stocking up on food supplies for the famine ahead, they resorted to brutal tax terrorism. And if the famine weren't enough, there was small-pox. The epidemic itself claimed more than half a million lives including a Nawab . Large parts of Bengal suffered depopulation as people started abandoning farms. Many took to a life of crime out of desperation and Bengal became a hunting ground for thugs an d bandits. This famine would serve as the turning point in the story of America, half a world away. It drove the East India Company to near insolvency. As a bailout, the British Parliament made it a loan of £1.5 million (£270 million in today's money) and an absolute monopoly to sell tea in British American. Besides exempting it from all taxation. This bailout came codified as the Tea Act of 1773 , and if the entire American Revolution were to be pinned on one unambiguous flashpoint, this was it. All tea came from China even though Assam grew its own too. What this means is that while the British just took commodities from India like cotton and spices, tea from China had to be bought with silver. Most of this silver came from selling what was taken from India. That's what made the Bengal Famine pa rticularly devastating for the Empire. When land revenues fell, the East India Company resorted to inhuman means to squeeze out whatever it could from whatever remained. These were desperate times as the Company struggled to pay dividends to its shareholders. India was exploited to absurd lengths. But there's only so much a famine-struck nation could yield, and that's when the Company has to be bailed out. The story of a famine that killed ten million Indians, and Britain's grip on the New World Santha The Cash Cow which revolutionized the American Revolution: A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 11

The stories of Company excesses in India eventually reached America. They learned all about how poor farmers were driven to death to keep the Company financially afloat. And they loathed it. If that could happen to India, it could also happen to them! Remember how 90% of all tea entering the American markets was smuggled? Well, the Tea Act put them out of business. It exempted the East India Company f rom any taxation besides giving it a monopoly over the commodity's trade anywhere in the world. East India Company was a global villain now, one that rallied bitter sentiments on two opposite ends of the world. Pamphlets condemning Company actions went up all over British America. The humble herb from China bought with spoils from India was about to dictate the course of British and American history. Te a was now an active symbol of oppression and tax terrorism. The Boston Tea Party was not exactly a feast, as the name suggests. It was a symbol. An unofficial inauguration of America's defiance. The Boston Tea Party wasn't an isolated event. Remember the First Carnatic War that ended the War of Austrian Succession? Eight years later, it was followed by a second. This one was India's — more specifically, Hyderabad's — own war of succession. The Nizam had died, and the throne had become a bone of contention between his son and his nephew. One had support from the British, the other from the French. It became a proxy war between the two European powers. The end of this war in 1763 coincided with the end of the French and Indian War on the other side of the globe. And just when the British and the French slugged it out with each other through proxies, a man named Hyder Ali rose into prominence. Ali entered the Second Carnatic War as a Sepoy, and before it ended, he was on the throne of Mysore. The French had a role to play in his stellar ascent and Ali never forgot that. This placed him perpetually at odds with the British East India Company. France's association with Ali was part of a bigger plan. We 've already seen how the French and Indian War broke Britain's economy. But it also broke the French. To remedy this, Louis XV needed friends. So he set out to build a global network of allies. The idea was to bleed Britain through a million paper cuts, in this case, proxy wars. One such ally was Ali. Now, although all ground engagements were off, the waters remained British. The Americans needed mone y that could only come from international commerce. Commerce that could only happen through its harbors. These harbors were still under an impenetrable British blockade. That changed on April 8, 1782. Philadelphia merchants were losing many ships to the Royal Navy and Crown privateers waiting in ambush at the mouth of Delaware Bay near Cape May. So, they agreed to put together a fund to buy a sloop, a small square- rigged sailboat with two or three masts, and rig it up for battle. They named it Hyder Ally and put it under the command of a 23-year-old Captain Joshua Barney. On April 8, 1782, Captain Barney commanded Hyder Ally into the Delaware Bay to take on a much larger and heavily-armored British vessel, HMS General Monk. What Captain Barney scored that day was America's first naval victory agai nst what was then the world's most formidable navy. Philadelphia celebrated this with parades and ballads to Ali in the streets. Ali succumbed to cancer while fighting the British later that year. On September 3, 1783, facilitated by France, the two belligerents signed a Treaty of Paris recognizing the United States of America as a sovereign nation. Yes, that's the actual date of American independence — September 3, 1783, not July 4, 1776. So, this was the story of how India helped shape America's destiny. A story that started with tea and ended with Hyder Ali, a Muslim king who once died fighting the British Empire. The story of a famine that killed ten million Indians, and Britain's grip on the New World Santha The Cash Cow which revolutionized the American Revolution: A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 12

Lekhani Sebaka Byanjana Dwadashi: Byanjan Dwadashi is observed on the 12th day of the bright lunar phase of the month of Margashira of the Hindu calendar. It is believed that on this day Mother Yasoda used to prepare hundreds of dishes for Lord Krishna. “Hundreds of devotees of Lord Jagannath come together and prepare these dishes at the mutt. 555 dishes are prepared and offered to Lord Jagannath and his siblings as well as Radha and Krishna. The dishes included a number of preparations made of rice, pulses and vegetables. After offering the dishes to the deities, it is served to the devotees”. The special feature of Byanjan Dwadashi at Gourbihar mutt is that every year more items are added to the menu. Byanjana Dwadashi Jay Jagannath, Jagannath Puri Temple, Odisha Content provided by T.K.V. Karuna e.mail id: [email protected] A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 13 In an extravagant affair, as many as 555 dishes are offered to the deities of Lord Jagannath, Balabhadra and Devi Subhadra on the occasion of Byanjan Dwadashi at the Gourabihar mutt in Odisha’s holy town Puri.

Hello everyone... My first article on this magazine starting with an unknown historic site... Everyone has heard about Markandeya Hill in Vokkaleri. But this hill is just nearby to Markandeya Hill, known as Bili Betta (meaning white hill). Bili Betta is located near Markandeya Hill, Vokkaleri, Kolar District, Karnataka. Bili Betta is related to the Ramayana epic. The author of Ramayana, Rishi Valmiki had conducted his routine rituals here. With the help of ashes from the ritual he conducted (Yagna), Rishi Valmiki drew a picture of Lord Anjaneyaswamy on the rock located there. This picture is said to have developed into an idol by the rishi's penance and yagna. Currently, there is Anjaneyaswamy Temple located on the hill. The idol is believed to be more than 6000 years old. There are two water retain ing sites on the hill named Rama theertha and Lakshmana theertha. These are said to have been used by the great Sage Valmiki. Bili Betta, near Markandeya Hill, Vokkaleri, Kolar District, Karnataka Kusal Ancient Cultural Site in India: A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 14

தமிழினியன ் ஆதியில ் உமாேதவிக ் � ஸ் ரீ பரேமச ்வர ன் ெசா ன் ன காே வரி மகா த் மியத ் ைத , ேதவ வன ் மன ் என் ற அர ச�க ் � , �மத ் திரங ் கி என் ற ரிஷி ெசா ல் லத் ெதாடங ் �கிறார ் . ஒ� சமயம ் பார ் வதி - பரேமச ்வர ன் அவர ் கள் ஒ� நந ் தவன த் தில ் தங் கியி�ந ் தேபா � அங ் � பறைவக ள் வ�வில ் வந ் த நதி ேதவைதக ள் , �லா மா தத ் தில ் காே வரியில ் ஸ் நா னம ் ெசய ் �விட ் � அவ ் வி�வைரயˢம ் தரிசிக ் க வந ் தனர ் . அவர ் கள் ேவண ் �ய வரங ் கள் எல் லா வற ் ைறயˢம ் தந ் த ஈச ்வர ன் , ேம�ம ் �றலா னார ் : " கங ் ைகக ் � நிகரா ன கா வி ரியில ் நீரா�னா �ம ் , தரிசித ் தா �ம ் , அதைன பக ் தியˢட ன் ெதாட ் டா �ம ் அதன் கைரயில ் தா னம ் , தர ் ப் பணம ் ெசய ் தா �ம ் எல் லா பா வங ் க�ம ் வில கி , பˢண் ணியம ் கிட ் �ம ் . இதன ் கைர களில ் கா சிக ் � சமமா ன ஸ் தலங ் க�ம ் இ�க ் கின ் றன . நிைன த் தைதத ் த�ம ் சிந ் தாமணியா ன காே வரியின ் ெப�ைமைய இன ் �ம ் ெசா ல் கிேறன ் ேக ள் " என் றார ் . அஸ ் வேமத யா கம ் ெசய ் யத ் ெதாடங ் கிய அரிச ்சந ் திர மகாராஜா ைவ , �னிவர ் கள் , பிராயச ்சித ் தமா க �லா மா தத ் தில ் கா விரியில ் நீரா�விட ் � வர ச்ெசா ன் னார ் கள் . A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 15 �லா காே வரி மஹா த் மியம ் ஆன் ம ீ கம ் :

தமிழினியன ் A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 16 கா விரி உ �வா ன க ைத : காே வர ன் என் ற அர சன் , தன க் �ப ் பˢத ் திர பா க் கியம ் இல ் லா ததா ல் பிரம ்மா ைவக ் �றித ் �த ் தவம ் ெசய ் தா ன் . பிரம ்மா வா னவர ் , " உ னக் �ப ் பˢத ் திர பா க் கியம ் இல ் லா விட ் டா �ம ் , ஒ� �ழந ் ைதைய அளிக ் கிேறன ் " என் � �றி , தன மன த் தா ல் ஒ� ெபண ் �ழந ் ைதைய உண் டா க் கி அவனிடம ் அளித ் தார ் . காே வரி என் ற ெபயரில ் அவனிடம ் வளர ் ந் த அப ் ெபண ் , த�ந ் த கணவைன ேவண ் �த ் தவம ் ெசய ் யலா னா ள் . பின ் னர ் , அகஸ் த் திய �னிவைர க் கண் ட காே வரியா னவள ் , இவேர தன � மணா ளர ் ஆவார ் என் � நிைன த் � , ேலாபா �த ் ரா என் ற ெபய�ட ன் அவைர தி�மணம ் ெசய ் �ெகா ண் டவˢட ன் , அவள ் வி�ம ்பியப�ேய , நதி �பமா கி , பிற நதிக�க ் �ம ் மனிதர ் க�க ் �ம ் ஏற் பட ் ட பா வங ் கைள நீக் கவˢம ் , ேமா�த ் ைத அளிக ் கவˢம ் ம� அம ்சமா கத ் திக�மா� , அ கஸ் த் ய ரிஷி அ�ளினார ் . �லா க் காே வரியின ் நீர் த் திவைல கள் ஒவ் ெவா ன் �ம ் பˢண் ணிய தீர் த் தமா �ம ் . அதி�ள ் ள மண ல் கள் எல் லாம ் ேதவைதக ள் . அதனா ல் தா ன் உலகி�ள ் ள பˢனித நதிக ள் அைன த் �ம ் �லா மா தத ் தில ் காே வரியில ் நீரா� , மக ் க ள் தங் களிடம ் கைர த் த பா வக ் கைறக ைள க் க�வி பˢனிதமைடகின ் றன . �லா காே வரி மஹா த் மியம ் ஆன் ம ீ கம ் :

தமிழினியன ் �லா மா தத ் தில ் காே வரியில ் நீரா�பவர ் கள் , தங் கள் ��ம ்பத ் தின ைரய�ம ் ேசர ் த் � , �ன ் � ேகா� உறவினர ் கைளய�ம ் கைடத ் ேதற ் �கிறார ் கள் . த◌ுலா மா தத ் தில ் காே வரியில ் நீரா� , �ன ் ேனார ் க�க ் � பி�ர ் �ைஜ ெசய ் � அன ் னதா னம ் , ஆைட தா னம ் அளித ் தா ல் பித ் �க ் கள் மகிழ ்ந் � வாழ ்த் �வார ் கள் . அழ� , ஆய�ள ் , ஆேரா க் கியம ் , ெசா ல் வளம ் , கல் வி , வாழ ்வில ் �கம ் என எல் லாம ் கிட ் �ெமன ் � �லா க் காே வரி மகா த் மியம ் ��கிற� . ஆதி , இைட , கைட என் �ம ் �ன ் � அரங ் கங ் கைளய�ம ் தன் னகத ் ேத ெகா ண் � , சதா சர ் வ கா ல�ம ் இைறவன ் நாராயண னின ் தி�வ�ையத ் த�வி வணங ் �ம ் காே வரியின ் ேப�ம ் ெப�ைமய�ம ் தன் னிகர ற் ற� . தட ் சிண கங ் ைக என் � ேபா ற் றப ் ப�ம ் காே வரிக ் � ெபா ன் னி , விதிசம ்�ைத , கல் யா ணி , சாமதாயினி , கலியா ண தீர் த் த�பி , உே லாப�த ் ரா , �வா சா ஸ் யாமா , �ம ்பசம ்பவ வல ் லைவ , விண ் �மா ைய , ேகா னிமா தா , தக ் கணபதசா வணி எ ன பல ெபயர ் கள் உள் ளன . காே வரியில ் �லா ஸ் நா னம ் ெசய ் � ஸ் ரீ ரங் கநா தைர வழிபட ் டதன ் பலனா க சந ் த� மகாராஜா பீ ஷ் மைர ப�த ் திர னா க அைடந ் த ார ் ; அர ் ச்�ன ன் , �லா ஸ் நா னம ் ெசய ் � ஸ் ரீ ரங் கநா தப ் ெப�மா ைள �தித ் � �பத ் ரா ைவ மணம ் ப�ரிந ் தா ன் என் � ப�ரா ணம ் ��கிற� . A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 17 �லா காே வரி மஹா த் மியம ் ஆன் ம ீ கம ் :

தமிழினியன ் �ர ன் �தலா ன அ�ரர ் கைள அழித ் ததா ல் மகா விஷ ் �விற ் � பற ் றிய " வ ீ ரஹத ் தி ' ேதா ஷம ் ேபா க் க , காே வரியில ் ஐப ் பசி மா தம ் நா க ச�ர ் த் தியன ் � �லா ஸ் நா னம ் ெசய ் � , ேதா ஷம ் நீங் கப ் ெபற ் றார ் என் � �லா க் காே வரி மகா த் மியம ் ��கிற� . ஒவ் ெவா � ஆண் �ம ் ஐப ் பசி மா த அமா வா ைசயன ் � கங ் காேதவி காே வரியில ் நீரா� மக ் கள் தன ் னிடம ் கைர த் த பா வங ் கைளப ் ேபா க் கிக ் ெகா ள் கிறா ள் என் ப� ப�ரா ணம ் . ஐப ் பசி �தல ் ேததி தி�ச ்சிக ் � அ�கி�ள ் ள தி�ப ் பராய ் த் �ைறயி�ம ் , இர ண் டா வ� நீர ாட ைல ஸ் ரீ ரங் கம ் அம ்மா மண் டபம ் ப�த ் �ைறயி�ம ் , கைடசி ேததியன ் � மயிலா��ைற நந ் திக ் கட ் டத ் தி�ம ் ��க ் �ப ் ேபாட ேவண ் �ம ் என் ப� ஐத ீகம ் . தைல க் காே வரி , ராமப�ரம ் , ஸ் ரீ ரங் கம ் , தி�ப ் பராய ் த் �ைற , தி�வா ைன க் கா வல ் , சப ் தஸ் தா னம ் , தி�ைவயா� , ப�ஷ் பார ண் யம ் , தி�ச ்சாய ் க் கா� , தி�ெவண ் கா� , மயிலா��ைற , �ம ்பேகா ணம ் , தி�விைடம���ர ் �தலிய காே வரி நீர் த் �ைறக ள் �லா மா தத ் தில ் நீராட சிறந ் தைவயா கக ் க�தப ் ப�கின ் றன . �லா க் காே வரி ஸ் நா னம ் ெசய ் பவர ் கள் , காே வரி நதிக ் �ப ் �ைஜ ெசய ் � வழிப�வ�ட ன் , அ�கில ் அர சமரம ் இ�ந ் தா ல் அதற ் � நீர் வார ் த் � , அைத வலம ்வந ் � வணங ் �வ� ப�ண் ணிய பலன ் த�ம ் . காே வரிக ் கைரயில ் ேகாமா தா �ைஜ ெசய ் தா ல் ேமன ் ேம�ம ் ப�னிதம ் கிட ் �ம ் . �லா காே வரி ஸ் நா னம ் ெசய ் ய�ம ்�ன ் த�ந ் த ப�ேரா ஹிதர ் கைள ெகா ண் � ஸ் நா ன ஸங ் கல் பம ் ெசய ் �க ் ெகா ள் வ� சிறந ் த� . ��யா தவர ் கள் கீழ்கண் ட ஸ ் ேலா கத ் ைத �றி �லா ஸ ் நா னம ் ெசய ் வ� உசிதம ் . "கங ் ேகச ய�ே ன ைசவ ேகா தா வரி சர ஸ் வத ீ நர ்மேத சிந ்� காே வர ீ ஜே லஸ ் மின ் சன் னிதிம ் ʹ�" ஐப ் பசி மா தத ் தில ் �லா ஸ் நா னம ் ேபா ற் றப ் ப�வ�ேபா ல் , ஐப ் பசி ெபௗர ் ணமி அன ் னாபிே ஷக �ம ் சிவா லயங ் களில ் சிறப ் பிக ் கப ் ப�கின ் றன . A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 18 �லா காே வரி மஹா த் மியம ் ஆன் ம ீ கம ் :

A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 19 Facts about Shape of the Deities at Puri Temple Jay Jagannath, Jagannath Puri Temple, Odisha Content provided by T.K.V. Karuna e.mail id: [email protected] Lekhani Sebaka of trinity through the services of the Biswakarma (the Devine carpenter). Biswakarma agreed to the service in the condition that he would be allowed to work in a closed room for 21 days and the door should not be opened before the stipulated time. One day the King, provoked by the queen became curious to verify the fact as there was no sound after some days. Surprisingly the King discovered the carpenter absent in the locked room leaving the idols half When Lord Shri Krishna died of penetration of an arrow thrown by Jara Shabara (the tribal chief) His body was cremated near the sea (now known as Swarga Dwara) but the Naval portion (Nabhi Manadala) did not burn. Hence, that was floated in the sea. After that Kali Yuga started and the thrown away portion reached Puri in shape of Daru or Wood log according to Rig Veda. Then king Indradyumna was directed through a dream (Swapnadesha) to fetch the Daru for worship in a temple. The king wanted to prepare the images

built, half made. King Indradyumna cursed himself and the queen for this act and became disheartened. Then suddenly he heard the voice of the Almighty (Sunya Bani) that I myself wished to be in this shape in Kaliyuga. After many years according to Madala Panji (record of Rights), Rakta Bahu attacked Puri Jagannath temple. So during that time, the Sebayats had carried away the images of the deities to a ci ty called Sonepur and hide it there by burying it underground. (Pattali Leela) King Jajati Keshari of Somavansh Dynasty had brought the deities back from Sonepur after 144 years and built the new Idols according to classical principles and the Brahma Transformation was also done. A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 20 Facts about Shape of the Deities at Puri Temple Jay Jagannath, Jagannath Puri Temple, Odisha Content provided by T.K.V. Karuna e.mail id: [email protected] Lekhani Sebaka It may be concluded that the first Nabakalebara (Replacement of old idols with new ones) had been performed in the tenth century. Though it's a very old and ancient tradition, unfortunately records have been lost or not kept about Nabakalebara over many centuries. As per the verifiable records to be found in the Jagannath Temple, the first Nabakalebara had been performed in 1574. History has remained silent regarding the maiden commencement of Nabakalebara and as such there is no consensus among historians and scholars.

Sridhar Tunganathji Temple, Rudraprayag district, India Ancient Cultural Temple in India: A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 21 One of the highest among five Panch Kedar temples located in Rudraprayag district, at an altitude of 11,385 feet. The temple lies about 2 km below the Chandrashila Peak (12,106 ft)). From the top of this peak, picturesque views of the Himalayan range comprising snow peaks of Nanda Devi, Panch Chulli, Banderpoonch, Kedarnath, Chaukha mba, Neelkanth on one side, and the Garhwal valley on the opposite side could be witnessed. The valley between Chopta and Tunganath temple has wooded hills with rich alpine meadows with rhododendron and agricultural fields. The rhododendrons, in full bloom during March, display dazzling colours.

Incredible India: Images of India through Paintwork Chandra A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 22

Incredible India: Images of India through Paintwork A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 23 Chandra

In July 1497 when Vasco da Gama set sail for India, King Manuel of Portugal assorted a distinctly expendable crew of convicts and criminals to go with him. After all, the prospects of this voyage succeeding were rather slender considering that no European had ever advanced beyond Africa’s Cape of Good Hope before, let alone reached the fabled spice gardens of India. Da Gama’s mirthless quest was essentially to navigate uncharted, perilous waters, and so it seemed wiser to invest in men whose chances in life were not especially more inspiring than in death. Driven by formidable ambition and undaunted spirit, it took Da Gama ten whole months, full of dangerous adventures and gripping episodes, to finally hit India’s shores. It was the dawn of a great new epoch in human history and this pio neer knew he was standing at the very brink of greatness. Prudence and experience, however, dictated that in an unknown land it was probably wiser not to enter all at once. So one of his motley crew was selected to swim ashore and sense the mood of the ‘natives’ there before the captain could make his triumphant, choreographed entrance. And thus, ironically, the first modern European to sail all the way from the West and to set foot on Indian soil was a petty criminal from the gutters of Lisbon. For centuries Europe had been barred direct access to the prosperous East, first politically when international trade fell into Arab hands in the third century after Christ, and then when the emergence of Islam erected a religious obstacle in the seventh. Fruitless wars and bloodshed followed, b ut not since the heyday of the Greeks and Romans had the West enjoyed steady contact with India. Spices and other oriental produce regularly reached the hungry capitals of Europe, but so much was the distance, cultural and geographic, that Asia became a sumptuous cocktail of myth and legend in Western imagination. But perhaps the most inviting of all these splendid tales was that lost somewhere i n India was an ancient nation of Christians ruled by a sovereign whose name, it was confidently proclaimed, was Prester John. It was long believed that there lived in Asia a prestre (priest) called John who, through an eternal fountain of youth, had become the immortal emperor of many mystical lands. Pope Alexander III was still convinced of the presence of lost Christians there, egged on by reli gious fervor and the commercial incentives of breaching the monopolized spice trade. If Da Gama and his men, weighed down by centuries of collective European curiosity and imagination, anticipated the legendary Prester as they stepped on to the shores of Kerala in India, they were somewhat disappointed. For when envoys of the local king arrived, they came bearing summons from Manavikrama, a Hindu R ajah famed across the trading world as the Zamorin of Calicut. This prince was the proud lord of one of the greatest ports in the world and a cornerstone of international trade; even goods from the Far East were shipped to Calicut first before the Arabs transported them out to Persia and Europe. A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 24 Adithyan The Story of The God's Own Country / Kerala The Cultural Conquest:

The Portuguese got off to a more promising start. But their enthusiasm waned when they realized that demand for European goods continued to be feeble at best. In the spice auctions too, wealthy Arabs consistently outbid them and Cabral’s ships were not filling up as expected. Cabral had realized by now that there was no way he could trade in this city so long as the Arabs held sway. He decided, in what was a calculated move, therefore, to sail south into an alternative harbor and try his luck there. And this was the port of Cochin in the south, held by a Rajah called Unni Goda Varma. This prince was a dynastic descendant of the Chera kings of yore and possessed a pedigree and caste superior to that of the haughty Zamorin. When Cabral’s ships appeared by his shores, the Rajah received them wi th open arms, magnanimously granting several trade privileges and much pepper. For quite some time the Portuguese repeated the exercise of harassing Calicut from a distance, sailing out to Cochin to load their ships, and then fleeing the moment the Zamorin’s forces arrived to face them. In 1502, for instance, da Gama himself returned and irrevocably upped the ante by not only looting Arab ships in the vicinity of Calicut, but also sinking a vessel full of pilgrims returning from Mecca, including women and children. It was only after the arrival of other Europeans in India that the Zamorin was finally able to expel the Portuguese from Kerala. In 1663, in alliance with the Dutch, he mounted his strongest campaign ever and together they conquered Cochin. By the end of the seventeenth century, C alicut’s pre-eminence in Kerala lay in complete shambles and the Zamorin’s influence was at its lowest ebb. As the traveler Jacobus Visscher noted, his splendor had been ‘considerably diminished’ by war and it was ‘quite a fiction’ to claim he was the leader of all Kerala now. The Kolathiri Rajah in Cannanore, who ruled over the northern extremity of the coast, was now completely independent; in c entral Kerala the Rajah of Cochin remained safe under Dutch assurances; and further south, whatever distant standing the Zamorin commanded came to naught. At the turn of the eighteenth century, Kerala’s last great age before the advent of the colonial era was inching towards a traumatic conclusion. Calicut’s glory, built through a dynamic partnership between its cultivated Hindu princes and spiri ted Muslim merchants, characterized by an equally sophisticated internationalism, was reduced to a wistful memory. There is no place in all India where contentment is more universal than at Calicut, both on account of the fertility and beauty of the country and of the inter-course with the men of all religions who live there in free exercise of their own religion. It is the busiest and most full of all traffic and commerce in the whole of A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 25 Adithyan The Story of The God's Own Country / Kerala The Cultural Conquest:

India; it has merchants from all parts of the world, and of all nations and religions, by reason of the liberty and security accorded to them there. The eighteenth century revealed a Kerala that was only a shadow of its former greatness, a civilization devastated by internal tumult and external assault. It would never regain its former stature in the world, and another brutal century would pass befo re even a semblance of peace was restored in the region. And this was achieved not through the wise endeavors of its quarrelling princes, but by the superior forces of powers foreign to the land. Marching in by land and from sea, they would brush aside the wreckage of the past and painfully initiate Kerala into the modern age, defining the land as we see it today. In these kingdoms ... there is anoth er sect of people called Nairs, who are the gentry, and have no other duty than to carry on war, and they continually carry their arms with them, which are swords, bows, arrows, bucklers, and lances. They all live with the kings, and some of them with other lords, relations of the king, and lords of the country, and with the salaried governors ... And no one can be a Nair if he is not of good lineag e. They are very smart men, and much taken up with their nobility. They do not associate with any peasant, and neither eat nor drink except in the houses of other Nairs. These people accompany their lords day and night ... These Nairs, besides being all of noble descent, have to be armed as knights by the hand of the King or lord with whom they live, and until they have been so equipped they cannot bear arms or call themselves Nairs. In 1766, Kerala was unexpectedly drenched in war and blood as the dreaded armies of Hyder Ali of Mysore rained death on the Zamorin and his hapless aristocracy. The Muslim king pillaged and plundered, unleashing such formidable chaos that the Zamorin was compelled to send even his own women and children south as broken refugees. As the marauders gained on his an cestral seat in Calicut, Manavikrama’s heir, by his own hand, set fire to the palace where his ancestors once sat in state and lorded over the riches of their trade. And while the last of the great Zamorins of Calicut perished, thus, in inglorious flames, his feudatories and generals fled en masse, abandoning Kerala to the fiery ambitions of its invaders. In 1752, shortly before the last Zamorin was toppled in Calicut, a hitherto forgotten dynasty made a thunderous reappearance upon the political landscape of Kerala. In the early eighteenth century, however, this house, known as Kupaka, was to experience such a wonderful resurgence that all Kerala sat up and took notice. They had carved up the south into small principalities among their various offshoots, with the extreme south in the hands of the Rajah of Travancore. A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 26 Adithyan The Story of The God's Own Country / Kerala The Cultural Conquest:

Adithyan It was a prince of Travancore by the now-hallowed name of Martanda Varma who achieved the dramatic revitalization of the Kupaka dynasty, resurrecting their former pride and standing. Born in 1706, he was, in the words of a contemporary, a ‘man of great pride, courage, and talents, capable of undertaking grand enterprises’. Even before he succeeded to the throne, he was thoroughly despised by the most powerful clique in Travancore. Known as the Ettuveetil Pillamar (Lords of the Eight Houses), these Nairs had for long harassed the royal family and tamed the king into spectacular impotence. They whimsically played one branch of the Kupaka clan against the other, keeping its princes forever at war while reaping all the rewards of the attendant lawlessness. The Rajahs were unable to retaliate, as custom precluded fealty to any one king alone, and the Nairs were free to make or break their promiscuous allegiances as they pleased. Upon his accession, Martanda Varma, as a confirmed enemy of the aristocracy, sent a chilling message across Kerala, showing himself capable of not only breaching age-old mandates of tradition, but also of exercising ruthless force to satisfy his ambitions. He s et an eerie example, for instance, by slaughtering his own cousins in cold blood when they refused to fall in line with him. Over the next two decades, Martanda Varma unleashed a formidable military campaign in south Kerala. He first went to war against his uncle who ruled Quilon. Having annexed his territories and acquired the old port, he moved to conquer other branches of the Kupaka dynasty. T he fortunes of Kerala’s last prominent princely line were inextricably intertwined in an umbilical bond with the fate of the imperial enterprise in India. So long as the sun did not set on the British Empire, Travancore would endure. During the 1920s the stormy fortunes of the five million subjects of the state were entrusted into the misleadingly gentle hands of a female monarch, destined to go down in history as the penultimate ruler of Travancore and the last queen of the Kupaka dynasty and its Throne. She presided over the state during a most critical period, serving her people with considerable ability even as she watched her dynasty suffer inevitable strategic attacks outside while crumbling with dissent within. And when the final moment of reckoning came in 1947 and Travancore fade d before a greater idea of India, she renounced her illustrious (and frequently violent) heritage and effaced herself from the land of her ancestors, as an ultimate romantic emblem of a Kerala that once was. Years later this last heiress of Martanda Varma’s line would die faraway from the kingdom she once ruled, concluding with a tragic dignity a story that had begun generations before. The Story of The God's Own Country / Kerala The Cultural Conquest: A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 27

The beautiful coastal village of Kulasekarapattinam is just situated 15 kilometers from Thiruchendur in Tuticorin district in Tamil Nadu. This place owes its popularity to the Dusshera festival conducted in the Mutharamman Temple in the same village. Various people from the nearby villages and from rest of the state pour into this seaside village just to see the devotees of this temple dress up in differ ent costumes during the pooja and auspicious offerings to the goddess. The Dusshera festival usually spans for 10 days during the month of "Purattasi". However it begins 40 days earlier in Mutharamman Temple with the hoisting of the temple flag. The devotees immediately start observing fasts and they also tie holy threads in the arms. The decision on the choice of costume (different Kalis) and their col our entirely depends on the priests advice or through astragalomancy or cowries. They believe in dressing up as Kalis for three consecutive years for the fulfilment of their wishes. Three days prior to the festival, they dress up as the Goddess; go around village to beg and also to offer their astragalomancy to others. It is a custom to believe that the goddess herself has come in the form of these de votees. The money collected through this process is directly offered to Goddess Durga. There goes a lot of procedure and rules to the people dressing up. People from different village are separated into groups or sets. Only the person dressed up as the 'Kali' in that group is considered to be important and as the leader. The others take up the roles of other deities like Lord Shiva, Vinayaga, Murugan, K rishna, Hanuman, Sudalai Madam and even the roles like policemen, women and kings. The Dusshera festival of Kulasekarapattinam People & Culture: A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 28 Purushoth Appu

After forty hard days of fasting and celibacy, these devotees enter the village with reverence. After worshipping the goddess and after completing their offerings, they are directed to the seashore where they put down their flaming pots and take a dip in the sea to end their fasting. On the midnight of Vijayadadami, the Mahishasurasamharam comes to an end with the Goddess slaying the demon named Majis hasuran, which is eagerly watched by thousands of people in the seashore. As a way celebrate this divine victory, the goddess is taken around the village in her temple car. The next day, she is given an Abhishekam with milk and the devotees end their fasts by removing the holy thread in their hands. The way in which the crowd silently watched the battle between the goddess and the demon is very surprisi ng. The entire festival revolves around interesting small incidents. The people dressed up as policemen behave very humbly without any form of authoritativeness. The way people talk and react to those dressed up as beggars, is also very astonishing. Children do not fear those who are dressed up as terrible creatures and demons. The main reason is that these children get accustomed to seeing these diffe rent costumes over the course of ten days as part of the festival. This festival that sees the onset of many people from across the country, got recognised for its religious value and unity by the official channels like The India Book of Records and The Asia Book of Records. By Purushoth Appu Writer & Travel Photographer The Dusshera festival of Kulasekarapattinam People & Culture : A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 29 Purushoth Appu Mobile: 9884162526 e.mail id: [email protected]

A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 30 ஆற ் றில ் வா�ம ் ஒ� �தைல , பˢதிய �ைவ நிைறந ் த பழங ் கைள சாப ் பிட ஆைசப ் பட ் ட� . ஒ� நா ள் , �ரங ் கிடம ் ெச ன் � , " எனக் � ெகா ஞ் சம ் மாம ்பழங ் கள் தர ��யˢமா ?" என் � ேகட ் ட� . " நிச ்சயமா க ," என �ரங ் � �றிய� . சில ப�த ் த மாம ்பழங ் கைள கீேழ வீ சி எறிந ் த� . அந ் த �தைல சில மாம ்பழங ் கைள த் தின ் �� . பிற� , ஒன் ைறத ் தன் மைன விக ் கா க எ�த ் �ச ் ெச ன் ற� . வீ ட் �ல ் , �தைலயின ் மைன வி மாம ்பழத ் ைத �ைவத ் � வி�ம ்பிய� . அன ் � �தல ் �தைல தன் மைன விக ் கா க தின �ம ் ஒ� மாம ்பழம ் ெகா ண் � வர ஆரம ்பித ் த� . ஆதித ் தியன ் �ரங ் � மற ் �ம ் �தைலயˢம ் ஜதகா க ைதக ள் : பல ஆண் �க�க ் � �ன ் பˢ , நதிக ் கைரயின ் ஓர த் தில ் , மாமர த் தில ் �ரங ் � ஒன் � வாழ ்ந் � வந ் த� . பசி எ�க ் �ம ் ேபா ெதல ் லாம ் �ைவயா ன ப�த ் த மாம ்பழத ் ைத அ � சாப ் பிட ் ட� .

A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 31 ஆதித ் தியன ் �ரங ் � மற ் �ம ் �தைலயˢம ் ஜதகா க ைதக ள் : அதனா ல் , அ� �ரங ் கிடம ் ெச ன் ற� , “ எ ன் மைன வி உனக் கா க ஒ� வி�ந ் � தயார ் ெசய ் �ள ் ள� . வா , ேபா கலாம ் !" எ ன அைழத ் த� . �ரங ் � ஒப ் பˢக ் ெகா ண் � , �தைலயின ் ம ீ � பாய ் ந் த� . பின ் , அவ ் விர ண் �ம ் ஆற ் றின ் ந�ப ் ப�திக ் � ந ீந் திய� . தி� ெர ன் � , �தைல �ழ ்கத ் ெதாடங ் கிய� . " நா ன் ... நா ன் �ழ ்கிவி�ே வன ் !" என �க ் �றல ் லிட ் ட� . �ரங ் � அ�த� . “ இ�ே வ நன் றா க இ�க ் �ம ் ” என் ற� �தைல . ஏென ன் ல் " என் மைன வி உன் இதயத ் ைத சாப ் பிட வி�ம ்பˢகிற� " எ ன் ற� . ஒ� நா ள் , �தைலயின ் மை னவி ெசா ன் ன� , " �ரங ் � தின �ம ் இவ ் வள வˢ இனிைமயா ன மாம ்பழங ் கைள த் தின ் கிற� . அத�ைடய இதயம ் எவ் வள வˢ �ைவயா க இ�க ் �ம ் என் � எனக் �ள ் ஆச ்சரியம ் ஏற் ப் ப�கிற� !" " சரி ", என் � �தைல �றிய� . " உ னக் கா க நா ன் அத�ைடய இதயத ் ைத எ�த ் � வ�கிேறன ் " எ ன் ற� .

A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 32 ஆதித ் தியன ் �ரங ் � மற ் �ம ் �தைலயˢம ் ஜதகா க ைதக ள் : கைர ைய அைடந ் த�ம ் �ரங ் � ேவகமா க ேமே ல ஏறிய� . பின ் னர ் , மர த் திலி�ந ் � வின விய� , " என் இதயம ் மிக வˢம ் மகிழ ்ச்சியா க இ�க ் கிற� ." ேம�ம ் , " அ � பா �காப ் பா க இ�ப ் பதில ் நா ன் மகிழ ்ச்சியைடகிேறன ் . இப ் ேபா � ெதா ைலந ் � ேபா , நீ ெபா ல் லா த உயிரினேம ", என �றிய� . �தைல மிர ண் ட� . �ரங ் � பˢத ் திசா லியாய ் , “ எ ன் னிடம ் ெசா ல் லியி�க ் கலாேம ! �ந ் ைதயில ் நா ன் இ� இதயத ் ைத ெகா ண் ��ந ் ேதன ் . என் �ைடய ஒ� இதயத ் ைத வீ ட் �ல ் விட ் �விட ் ேட ன் . இப ் ேபா � ம ீ ண் �ம ் எ�த ் � வர ெச ல் லலாம ் " என அைழத ் த� . �தைல ம ீ ண் �ம ் நீந் திய� .

Goa Temples Raghavan Goa is not just famous for their beaches but it's for their beautiful Hindu temples also. Hinduism is the majority religion in Goa. Around 70% of the population of Goa is Hindu. Most ancient temple of Goa is around 1200 years old. Goan Hinduism has unique properties. Although Indian Goans and Hindus share most rituals. Traditions of Goan Hindus include festivals with processions wherein the deities are taken from the newly built temples in the Nova Conquistas to their original sites in the Velha Conquistas. Goan Hindus celebrate the Yatra of Shree Lord Shiva and Shree Goddess Shantadurga (Durga) besides those of other deities. The festival of Holi is called Shigmo in Goa and celebrated with gaiety. Chavath or Ganesh Chaturthi as it is called by Goan Hindus is a major festival in Goa. Diwali is celeb rated with the lighting of the Deepams in the temples and with the burning of effigies of the evil demon Narakasur who was vanquished on the day before Diwali by Lord Krishna. A TO Z INDIA ● DECEMBER 2021 ● PAGE 33 Goan Hinduism and Culture:

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