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Military English. Learning by Doing. Book

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Professional Military English. Learning by doing. Marina Hrabar books.Visual reading. Visual Reading Digital versions of printed

Copyright © 2020 Marina Hrabar All rights reserved. ISBN: 9798650022886

Military English. Learning by Doing. Book - Page 2
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      CONTENTS How to do a case study Pg.1 Part 1. Military Leadership Pg.5 Case 1. State Loses Control Pg.5 Key factors that you should consider Pg.22 Summary of Chemical Agents Pg.29 B-NICE Pg.30 Case 2. Crush the Fear of Public Speaking Pg.33 KeyTermsandVocabulary Pg.44 Goal setting Pg.52 Leadership Qualities That Make Good Leaders. Video Pack.Core Functions Pg.53 Part 2. WMD. Pg.54 Case 3. Nuclear Pg.54 Checklist Pg.60 Case 4. Biological Pg.66 Summary of Biological Agents Pg.75 KeyTermsandVocabulary Pg.79

      CONTENTS Part 3.TerrorismPg.86 Case 5.Terrorismvs Privacy Pg.86 Combatting Terrorism Pg.94 Case6.Profile of a terrorist Pg.95 Key Words andTerms Pg.104 Case 7.Lessons on Terrorism Pg.115 Case 8. Eradicate TerrorismPg.119 Terrorism. Structure Pg.122 Part 4. Weapons Pg.125 WeaponsPg.125 Case 9. Weapons and the law of armed conflict Pg.133 Weapons for terrorists Pg.137

      CONTENTS Part 5. Cyber Security on Military Pg 170 Case 10. The lens of Hacking Pg. 171 Case 11. The attack of Hacking Pg. 173 MalwareGlossary Pg. 188 Case 12. Cyber Attacks Pg. 190 Hacking Glossary Pg. 195 Case 13. Encrypt data Pg. 199 Case 14. The spies intended Pg. 202 Case 15. How scam works Pg. 211 Case 16. Cyber Terrorism in Action Pg. 218 Case 17. DETAILED SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT. +Video-Guide Pg. 225 Military Abbreviations Pg.231 " Military English". Visual reading Pg.236 Military English Video Pack Core Functions Pg.237 References Pg.238

      Military English Video Pack Core Functions 1. VERB TENSES REVIEW 15 min. 2. Writing Section. Sell your idea. 16 min 3. Speaking 16 min. 4. Body Language 18 min. 5. What`s your personality 15 min. 6. How to Connect With Different Personality Types 23 min. 7. A good leader should always … 15 min. 8. Successful person = ambitious goals + understanding of people 23 min. 9. WMD 28 min. 10. Terrorism in the 21st century 15 min. 11. Cybersecurity attacks. 15 min. 12. Cryptography 15 min 13. Password Cracking and Countermeasures 16 min 14. DETAILED SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT 16 min. 4

      Military English. Learning by Doing. Book - Page 6
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          PART1 MILITARY LEADERSHIP STYLE CASE NUMBER 1 State Loses Control Over Its Nuclear Weapons Illustrative Scenario: The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) DPRK Nuclear, Chemical, Biological, and Missile Sites The DPRK’s WMD and missile programs include approximately 141 sites(excluding tactical sites) identified as being of potential interest for WMD-Eoperations, 39 of which are associated with its nuclear program, 38 are related toits CW program, and 15 are additional 49 sites are associated with the related to its bio weapons (BW) program. An ballistic missiles that might launchWMD. For WMD-E operations, we assess that the order of priority of these sites wouldbe: 1.Nuclear fuel enriching and processing sites, and nuclear weaponmanufacturing,testing, and storagesites 2. Missile garrisons holding missiles capable of carrying nuclear weapons 3. Research and development sites and nuclear-related universities 4. Other nuclear sites—including mines, low-grade or processing 5.Biological weapons research and development, manufacturing, testing,andstorage sites 6.CW research and development, manufacturing, testing, and storage sites.Unclassified sources identify nine sites in the DPRK that fall into the first category: by on Nuclear Research Center, one nuclear test site, four additional undeclared enrichmentsites, one suspected undergroundnuclear storage site, one undeclared underground enrichment and reprocessingsite, and one site associated with nuclear weaponization.These nine nuclear sites are shown in Figure 1.1. The figure also depicts a notional buffer line that might be established byChinese forces—50 km in this example—in the event that China decides to establish a zone within North Korea to control the flow of refugees or other wisemanage further developments on the peninsula. An interesting feature of such a zone would be the number of priority WMD and missile sites remaining outsideit. In this notional case, five nuclear and seven missile sites would remain onthe U.S. side. 5

          Estimated forcesneeded for WMD-E operations could be..... 5. Observations on the DPRK Case Study As described in this case study,WMD-E operationsin the wake of a collapse of theDPRK. 1. What arethe assumptionsdriving results? 2. What doesYour resultssuggest? N UCP C s MRRs CDC D l JSCP i PlnnOrtl~ N p EXOROs ! GCPs J, - 1 RCP"';; ! FCPs ICPs CP CCMDc ,egy (CSCS:1) CCMD D Carnpaign CSPs Plans 11

          Key factors that you should consider Nuclear How will you conduct extended response operations? Are local personnel and equipment resources adequate for the extended operations required? · The EOP should account for round-the-clock operations. Many jurisdictions plan to send a portion of the EOC staff home after the initial incident assessment reveals the need for extended operations. Determine who will be responsible for each function on multiple shifts. Emphasize the need to distribute the primary functional leaders across shifts. What are the environmental concerns related to this incident? · There are numerous concerns related to plutonium, e.g., it is a heavy metal and is toxic in its own right beyond the long-term effects on animals. The local responders might also identify some issues particular to their area. · HAZMATs used during the response will continue to present hazards until neutralized. Key Issues • Radiological terrorism causes little physical damage to property, therefore recovery will focus on decontamination of the facility and monitoring to ensure the facility is safe for public use. Analysis of the attack for the purpose of improving response capability is essential. After-action reports are good sources of information. • You must become familiar with your State’s roles and responsibilities in a WMD incident. • WMD incidents can easily grow into long-duration events due to the complexities that are faced. The planning process is a critical element in preparing to deal with WMD incidents. • Traditional disaster assistance programs can supplement a long-term recovery program, but do not replace the local government’s responsibility. • Deploying resources will be just one of your problems; another problem will be dealing with the overabundance of people who offer their services. • You may encounter a situation of “no movement” because of too much help. Be aware that these issues exist, and plan accordingly. Key factors that you should consider • Nature of the Hazard Describe the radiological agents of primary concern, including information on chemical and physical properties of these agents that have a direct bearing on emergency planning and response – i.e., the agent’s volatility; behavior in fires, and persistence in the environment; makeup, symptoms and characteristics; and the short-term and long-term effects. • Risk Area Emergency response plans must reflect the fact that a radiological release will affect different areas in different ways and at different times. Areas near the point of release are likely to experience relatively high concentrations of agent very quickly, while areas farther away are likely to experience lower agent concentrations after a period of time. • The plans should provide for the most rapid and effective protective actions possible. For locations farther away, but still possible within the risk zone of contamination by the hazard, plan for public protective actions, including the possibility of having time to evacuate the public in an orderly fashion. Also, plan for the possibility of sheltering populations who can not be evacuated in time. • Consider consequence management plans for those not in the immediate area of the contaminant. 22

          Biological Nature of the Hazard Describe the WMD agents of primary concern, including information on chemical and physical properties of these agents that have a direct bearing on emergency planning and response – i.e., the agent’s volatility; behavior in fires, and persistence in the environment; makeup, symptoms and characteristics; and the short-term and long-term effects. Risk Area Emergency response plans must reflect the fact that a WMD incident will affect different areas in different ways and at different times. Areas near the point of release are likely to experience relatively high concentrations of agent very quickly, while areas farther away are likely to experience lower agent concentrations after a period of time. The plans should provide for the most rapid and effective protective actions possible. For locations farther away, but still possible within the risk zone of contamination by the hazard, plan for public protective actions, including the possibility of having time to evacuate the public in an orderly fashion. Also, plan for the possibility of sheltering populations who can not be evacuated in time. Consider consequence management plans for those not in the immediate area of the contaminant. Resource Requirements (Equipment, Supplies) · Respirators · Biological protective clothing and suits · Gloves · Boots · Goggles Face shields · Hard hats · Hoods · Safety glasses · Must be trained to use equipment and must be maintained · All personal protective equipment (PPE) must be approved Will you have adequate supplies for decontamination efforts? What resource shortfalls do you anticipate? What specific assistance will you need from the State government? Access – Close physical proximity to a biological agent, container or munitions, under circumstances that could provide an opportunity to acquire, release, tamper with, damage, or come in direct contact with the chemical agent. Biological Event Site – The geographical location of the biological event. Consequence Management (COM) – Involves measures to alleviate the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused by emergencies. It includes measures to restore essential government services, protect public health and safety, and provide emergency relief to affected governments, businesses, and individuals. Contamination – The deposit and/or absorption of biological agents on and by structures, personnel, or objects. Crisis Management (CRM) – Involves measures to resolve the hostile situation, investigate, and prepare a criminal case for prosecution under federal law. Decontamination – The process of decreasing the amount of biological agent on any person, object, or area by absorbing, destroying, ventilating, or removing biological agents. Marshaling Area – An area used to store resources when the capability to provide transportation directly from the point of origin to the Mobilization Center into the affected area is restricted. Staging Area – The facility at the local jurisdictional level near the disaster site where personnel and equipment are assembled for immediate deployment to an operational site within the disaster area (local or State control AKA final staging area). 28

          Weapons of Mass Destruction B-NICEis the acronym used for identifying five categories of terrorist weapons of mass destruction: Biological Nuclear Incendiary Chemical Explosives A. Biological Agents (B-NICE) Biological agents are living organisms, that when in the form of liquid droplets, aerosols or dry powders cause harm or disease. The use of biological agents is attractive to terrorists because most of them are relatively inexpensive and do not require sophisticated technology to produce or deliver. Fortunately, however, most biological agents are difficult to effectively disperse via aerosol devices. Many agents are extremely sensitive to things like temperature, humidity and ultra-violet light; wind speed and direction may determine the extent of biological agent release. Types of Biological Agents: 1. Bacteria – Self-sustaining organisms that do not require a host to reproduce. Some types may transform into a spore (anthrax). Anthrax Plague Cholera Tularemia 2. Viruses – Much smaller than bacteria and lack a system for their own metabolism, needing a host to survive. The host can be plant, animal, insect, bacteria, or human. Smallpox Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) Ebola Marburg (Hemorrhagic Fevers) Lassa 3. Toxins – Biological toxins are non-living, poisonous chemical compounds that are produced by living organisms (animals, plants, & microorganisms). These agents are up to 1,000 times more lethal than standard chemical agents, but unlike chemicals, are not typically volatile or able to cause illness through skin absorption. As a result, toxins are not prone to person-to-person transmission and are not very persistent when released. Botulism Ricin Staphyloccoccal enterotoxin B Myotoxins Nuclear Devices (B-NICE) A nuclear incident is an event in which a nuclear agent is used as a weapon of terrorism. It can involve the detonation (or threatened detonation) of a nuclear bomb or the detonation (or threatened detonation) of an explosive device that includes nuclear materials. Nuclear agents are the least likely weapon of mass destruction to be used by terrorists because of the difficulty of acquiring, building and using nuclear weapons. Simple radiological device – spreading radioactive material without the use of an explosive device, such as placement of a high activity radioactive isotope in a public place exposing numerous individuals to various levels of radiation. 2. Radiological dispersal device – combination of an explosive agent with radioactive materials. The initial explosion kills or injures those closest to the bomb, while the radioactive substances remain to expose and contaminate survivors and emergency responders. 3. Reactor – sabotage of a nuclear reactor plant. 4. Improvised nuclear device – designed to cause a nuclear detonation. Construction of such a device to produce a nuclear detonation would be difficult as it is not easy to get the weapon to detonate correctly. 5. Nuclear Weapon – such as an “Atomic bomb”. The consequences of a one-kiloton yield bomb within one minute would be 30

          CASE 2 Practical Speaking Training. Сrush the fear of public speaking 1. DRAW A CARTOON. CBS Sunday Morning profiled Adm. William McRaven in a piece called "Measure of a Man."McRaven shared parts of his story — as a Navy SEAL, a high school athlete, an admiral commanding the raid that ended in the death of Osama bin Laden, a national security adviser to President Obama, and the 2014 commencement speaker at The University of Texas at Austin. https://youtu.be/pxBQLFLei70 Speaking with a unified voice and having everyone What1lesson from this speech can you apply express the same message to to your own life? the public is crucial Directions: during a criminal incident. Use the narrator's descriptions to help you draw three Scenes and the characters. 2. After you draw each scene, write what the characters talked or thought about. 3. If the characters talk to each other, write their conversation in a speech bubble. 4. Write a character’s thoughts about anything in a thought bubble. Example: “If you want to change the world get over being a sugar cookie and keep moving forward.” “There were many a student who just couldn’t accept the fact that all their effort was in vain. . . Those students didn’t understand the purpose of the drill. You were never going to succeed. You were never going to have a perfect uniform.” If you want to change the world, start off by making your bed.“If you can’t do the little things right, you will never do the big things right.” If you want to change the world, measure a person by the size of their heart,not the size of their flippers. “SEAL training was a great equalizer. Nothing mattered but your will to succeed. Not your color, not your ethnic background, not your education and not your social status.” 33

          Military English. Learning by Doing. Book - Page 12
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              Participating leadership The participating leadership is a democratic technique that focuses on both the leader and the subordinates The principles of leadership Know yourself and seek self-improvement I Be technically and tactically proficient 0 Take responsibility for your actions - Make sound and timely decisions Set the example Build the team Attain, sustain and enforce high standards of performance 12. Qualities Be physically and morally fit for the responsibility to command men in battle, courageous in carrying out the tasks assigned, reliable, loyal, devoted to one's country and knowledgeable in the use of weapons and equipment available 50

              Checklist Direction and Control Describes the command structure, specifying who will be in charge during emergency response operations. Specifies the authorities and limitations of key personnel. Identifies roles and responsibilities for key personnel during the initial stages of the WMD threat. Includes provisions for coordinating and communicating among all jurisdictions and agencies. Hazard Assessment Contains a hazard vulnerability assessment that looks into WMD incidents, including impact, risk areas, evacuation routes, response efforts, etc. Considers special needs for such an event, such as personal protective equipment and need for rapid response. References procedures for detection, monitoring, and sampling of WMD agents or materials. Notification and Activation Includes a formalized procedure for notifying key personnel through a current alert list, notification table, or cascade notification system. Specifies procedures for notification of key personnel of the threat. Includes current telephone numbers for key personnel. Description/Function Identifies special requirements or recommended notifications to State and or federal officials when dealing with a WMD incident. Specifies procedures for activation of the EOC. Communication Systems (External and Internal) Specifies requirements for a backup system and monitors its implementation. Clearly defined reporting procedures and mechanisms for communicating across all agencies and for inter/intra jurisdictional communication. Warning and Emergency Public Notification Describes sources for disseminating Includes written procedures for keeping key public information(Emergency Alert personnel’s family members apprised of the situation System (EAS), television stations,radio and the status of their immediate family. stations, cable outlets, newspapers, Policy that states how information will be etc.). Source listing includes telephone communicated to the public – when it has to be relayed numbers. immediately. Describes back-up sources for disseminating information (vehicle-mounted public address systems,door-to-door, etc.).Describes resources for disseminating information to those with language 60

              CASE NUMBER 4. BIOLOGICAL - Create a list of weapons with which they are familiar. -Discuss what makes a weapon conventional ornon-conventional -Categorize the listed weapons as conventional ornon-conventional. -Explain what you believe should be done to control the spread of WMD You are to assumethe role of advisors to the President of the United States, where you will be required to suggest a particular foreign policy response to an emerging crisis. Analyze the scenario, to debate the appropriate course of action based on the questions asked,to reach a consensus on a policy response, and to record your responses for presentation. Analysis of samples from multiple BioWatch sensors has identified a large-scale release of aerosolized anthrax 12 hours earlier during the Fourth of July Celebration on the National Mall. The U.S. Government has high confidence that a biological attack has occurred but has limitedinformation about the extent of the attack or the size of the area affected.Because of these uncertainties, initial estimates suggest that anywherefrom 100,000 to 1 million people might have been exposed to the deadlyspores, including those on the Mall during the release, those downwindof the release, and those in other areas where anthrax spores have beenunwittingly carried by parties who were exposedinitially. Because ofuncertainty as to exactly who was exposed, public health expertsindicate that it may be necessary to provide pre- symptomatic treatmentsto everyone in the Washington metropolitan area (up to 5 million people).The Nation has been at a heightened state of readiness for a bio terrorist attack since an anthrax attack in the London subway system 2 monthsearlier infected more than 2,000people and resulted in more than 500deaths. In recent weeks,intelligence sources have confirmed that apreviously unreported disease outbreak in Kashmir that killed dozens ofpeople was likely the work of an al Qaeda affiliate conducting a dry runof an anthrax attack.Senior decision makers are consumed with theenormous tasks of saving lives and preventing follow-onattacks. 66

              Summary of Biological Agents continued Disease TransIncubation mSigns aissable nd Symptoms Diagnostic Tests Key Differential Treatment Lethality to Man? Period Diagnosis Botulinum toxin No 1-5 days Ptosis, blurred vision, diplopia, Nasal swabs; blood/sputum for Guillan Barre, Early antitoxin High mortality generalized weakness, dizziness, PCR & toxin assays; serology myasthenia gravis, without vent. biological toxin dysarthria, dysphonia, dysphagia 24- with anaerobic cultures; stool organophosphate support 36 hours after exposure followed by cultures; electromyography poisoning, tick paralysis, symmetrical descending flaccid studies Mg++ intoxication, polio paralysis and respiratory failure. Ricin No 4-8 hours Weakness, fever, progressive cough, Nasal swabs; blood/sputum for Staphylococcal Symptomatic High pulmonary edema, chest tightness, PCR & toxin assays; tissues for enterotoxin B, Q fever, biological toxin dyspnea, cyanosis, nausea and immunohistological stain tularemia, plague, some arthralgias. Severe respiratory chemical warfare agents distress and death from hypoxemia in such as phosgene 36-72 hours. Staphylococcal No 3-12 hours Fever, chills, headache, myalgia, Nasal swabs; blood/sputum for Influenza, adenovirus, Symptomatic Low- Enterotoxin B nausea, diarrhea and non-productive PCR & toxin assays; urine for mycoplasma < 1% cough. immunoassays biological toxin What community medical operations might be necessary? · This issue should be addressed in the community health plan as is it exists. The priorities at the scene should be gross triage and screening at some type of collection or screening point. Transportation of potentially affected citizens is another operational issue that should be addressed. Will triage stations be established? Where will these be established? · The discussion of triage should focus on managing the flow of casualties through the community health system. The community health plan should address this issue. · Triage protocols at both collection and delivery points should also be part of the plan. Basic requirements dictate triage be performed at both locations. This may be a good point to address the differences between standard emergency room triage and mass casualty triage in most WMD incidents. Contrast the immediate life-saving needs associated with threats such as chemical agents and the more deliberate, supportive approach associated with biological agents. What specific assistance do you need from the State and federal government? How will these resources be integrated into the response operations? · State and federal plans provide for mobilizing these types of resources in disaster situations. It is important for the group to realize that there may be a significant time delay before those resources are available. 76

              33. Vesicant: Blister agent. Primary route of exposure is the skin (contact) but do put of vapors. Burn like blisters. There are two types of nuclear Primary complication with vesicant blisters is secondary infection. weapons: fission and fusion. DECONTAMINATIONis critical before ABCs are started Fission 34. What are biological WMD?: All existing nuclear weapons derive - 'most likely method of attack' some of their explosive energy from - Potential to be as destructive as nuclearweapons a nuclear fission reaction. Weapons - Methods: whose explosive output is *Put substances in food exclusively from fission reactions *Release virus via aersol are referred to as atomic bombs or - Difficult to detect/diagnose atom bombs. 35. What are chemical agents? Fusion - Non-explosive chemical agents that cause injury or death Fusion weapons produce a large - Typically disperse in a gaseous form through an aerosol delivery system proportion of energy in nuclear fusion reactions. Such fusion 36. What are explosives WMD? weapons are referred to as thermonuclear weapons or - High-yield conventional explosives have been the most common for large-scale hydrogen bombs. All such weapons terrorist attacks derive a significant portion of their - Not originally included in WMD, but have potential for widespread destruction energy from fission reactions which 37. What are nuclear WMD? are used to "trigger" fusion reactions. The primary pathologic - Most destructive but hardest to obtain effect of ionizing radiation causes - Potentially most lethal form damage to DNA. The common - Nuclear weapons and nuclear materialplentiful pathway of injury is radiation deposits energy into the electron 38. What are Radiological WMD?: Dirty bombs viewed as likely choice for orbitals of atoms in the biologic terrorist medium. - Dirty bombs are radioactive materials by way of a conventional explosivedevice - Could cause widespread contamination and spreadpanic - Effectiveness depends on magnitude of explosion and size/ type and half-life of radioactive material used - May be next most popular WMD of choice 84

              PART 3 TERRORISM CASE NUMBER 5 Terrorism vs Privacy Terrorism vs Privacy. DELIBERATION VS. DEBATE Terrorism VS Privacy Reasons to Support the Deliberation Question (Team A) Reasons to Oppose the Deliberation Question (Team B) Deliberation Deliberation is collaborative: the sides work together to formally discuss. Debate* Debate is a type of fight: two sides oppos e each other to prove each other wrong. What Speech and Debate Event Are You? Quiz introduction Who are you?...... Personality Quiz https://uquiz.com/quiz/mItTOt/what-speech- and-debate-event-are-you?embed=False 86

              Case 6. International Terrorism. Profile of Instructions a Terrorist The topic of terrorism is both complex and emotive. It is complex because it combines so many different aspects of human experience, including subjects such as politics, psychology, philosophy, military strategy, and history, to name a few. Terrorism is also emotive both because experiences of terrorist acts arouse tremendous feelings, and because those who see terrorists as justified often have strong feelings concerning the rightness of the use of violence. A key challenge of understanding terrorism is both acknowledging the moral outrage at terrorist acts, while at the same time trying to understand the rationale behind terrorism. The profile of a terrorist. 1. examinethe profile from the psychological perspective, and then answer the question “what insight or understanding does the psychological perspective give us about this terrorist?” 2. examine the ideological perspective, and answer the question “what insight or understanding does the ideological perspective give us about this terrorist?” 3. examine the strategic perspective, and answer the question “what insight or understanding does the strategic perspective give us about this terrorist?” Secret documents provide portrait of (CNN) Osama bin Laden Video https://edition.cnn.com/videos/ world/2015/05/20/nr-peter-bergen-new- osama-bin-laden-documents- released.cnn/video/playlists/osama-bin- laden/ 95

              • Mosque: A Muslim place of worship • Muammar Gaddafi: Dictator of Libya • Muhammad: Arab prophet; founder of religion of Islam. • Mujahideen: guerrilla fighters in Islamic countries, especially those who are fighting against non-Muslim forces. • Mullah: a Muslim learned in Islamic theology and sacred law. • Muslim Brotherhood: wolrds largest Islamist movement with hundreds of millions of followers. founded in 1928 • neo-Nazism: A post world war II movement related to the white nationalist and white power skinhead movements, which see ks to revive elements of Naziideology such as racism, xenophobia, homophobia, holocaust denial and anti - Semitism • Osama Bin Laden: Arab terrorist who established al-Quada • Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): a group formed in the 1960s to regain the Arab land in Israel for Palestinian Arabs • Patriot Act (2001): Law responding to 9/11. Expands anti -terrorist powers (wiretapping, surveillance); 4th Amendment concern for civil liberties. • Saddam Hussein: Iraqi leader who waged war against Iran • Sharia Law: Islamic legal system, based upon the Qur'an and subsequently modified and interpreted by Islamic judges • Shia Islam: 10% of Arabs follow this sect of Islam. Shiites believe that only Allah. the god of Islam faith, can select religious leaders, and that therefore, all successors must be direct descendants of Muhammad's family. • Sunni Islam: 90% of Arabs follow this sect of islam the Sunnis believe that Muhammad had no rightful heir and that a religious leader should be elected through a vote among the Islamic community's people • Taliban: a fundamentalist Islamic militia in Afghanistan. • Terrorism: deliberate use of random violence, especially against civilians, to achieve political goals • Theocracy: A government controlled by religious leaders • white supremacy: the belief that whites are biologically different and superior to people of other races • WMD: weapons of mass destruction • Yasser Arafat: Arab leader of the PLO 105

              National Response Plan (NRP): The National Response Plan Homeland Security Advisory System(HSAS): The (December 2004) is an alldiscipline, all hazards plan that advisory system provides measures to remain establishes a single, comprehensive framework for the vigilant, management of domestic incidents. It provides the structure prepared, and ready to deter terroristattacks. The and mechanisms for the coordination of Federal support to following Threat Condition search represent an State, local, and tribal incident managers and for exercising increasing direct Federal authorities adresponsibilities. risk of terrorist attacks. Beneath each Threat NTA: Anti-Imperialist Territorial Nuclei based in Italy Condition are suggested protectivemeasures, nuclear weapon: — A complete assembly (i.e., recognizing that implosiontype, gun type, or thermonuclear type), in its the heads of Federal departments and agencies intended ultimate configuration which, upon completion of are responsible for developing and implementing the prescribed arming, fusing, and firingsequence, is capable appropriate agency-specific protective measures: of producing the intended nuclear reaction and release of energy. • Low Condition (Green). This condition is OPCON: Operational control, that is, transferable command declared when there is a low risk of terrorist authority. (OPSEC) A process of identifying critical attacks. information and subsequently analyzing friendly Federal departments and agencies should consider actions attendant to military operations and other the following general measures in addition to the activities to: a.Identify those actions that can be observed by agency-specific Protective Measures they develop adversary intelligence systems. b.Determine indicators and implement: refining and exercising as hostile intelligence systems might obtain that could be appropriate preplanned Protective Measures; interpreted or pieced together to derive critical information ensuring personnel receive proper training on the in time to be useful to adversaries. c.Select and execute Homel and Security Advisory System and specific measures that eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level preplanned department or agency Protective the Measures vulnerabilities of friendly actions to • Guarded Condition (Blue). This condition is adversaryexploitation.Also called OPSEC. declared when there is a general risk of terrorist TerrorismThe use of violence by non state groups or, in attacks. In addition to the Protective Measures taken in the previous Threat Condition, Federal some cases, toinspirefear by attacking civilians orsymbolic departments and agencies should consider the targets transnational terrorist networks Terrorists use of following general measures in addition to the agency-specific Protective Measures that they will existing local or transnational economic,transportation, and develop and implement: checking communications systems tomanage and maintain terrorist communications with designated emergency organizations around the world.skyjackingThe takeover of a response or command locations commercial airplane for the purpose of taking hostages and • Elevated Condition (Yellow). An Elevated using them to bargain for aparticular political or economic Condition is declared when there is a significant goal risk 3reasons for Radical Islamic terrorism culture, economics, of terrorist attacks. In addition to the Protective Measures taken in the previous Threat Conditions, Federal departments and agencies should religion postmodern or new terrorists consider the following general measures in Groups and individuals subscribing to the millenial and addition to the Protective Measures that they will apocalyptic ideologies and system-level goals. Value destruction develop and implement: increasing surveillance of for its ownsake, usually tied to a territory. critical locations; coordinating emergency plans as appropriate with nearby jurisdictions clandestine or sleeper cell • High Condition (Orange). A High Condition is Group of people sent by an intelligence organization or terrorist declared when there is a high risk of terrorist network that remains dormant in a targetcountry until activated attacks. In addition to the Protective Measures by a message to carry out a mission. taken in the previous Threat Conditions, Federal departments and agencies should consider the 4types of terrorist groups following general measures in addition to the Right wing; Left wing, Religious; ethnonationalist agency-specific Protective Measures that they will develop and implement 5ways that Globalization/Technology improved terrorism. • Severe Condition (Red). A Severe Condition Proselytizing; Coordination; Security; Mobility; reflects a severe risk of terrorist attacks. Under most circumstances, the Protective Measures for a Severe Condition are not intended to be sustained for substantial periods of time. 107

              Case 7. Lessons on terrorism. The ISS is one of the only African organizations with a seat at global counter-terrorism forums. ISS experts directly advise the UN on counter-terrorism strategy and work with civil society to ensure the economic and social causes of extremism are included in the policy debate. https://issafrica.org/about-us/press-releases/lessons-from- africa-on-terrorism What are the root causes for global terrorism? How are we to deal appropriately of terrorism? Are there with the global phenomenon any solutions? You should fill in the checklist, and then attempt to answer the questions you have posed in each case to decide whether the incident would count as terrorism. Cases 1. A paramilitary group seeking independence blows up the military headquarters of the occupying force. The group's warning that there will be a bombi ng is ignored, and many people, civilian as well as military, are killed. 2. Rebels seeking to set up an independent state fi re at occupying troops from concealed positions. 3. Members of a particular ethnic or religious group are killed in order to frighten other members of their group into fleeing territory. 4. A radical group makes a list of opponents it believes should be killed and distributes it to sympathizers, telling them that they will be rewarded in heav en for defending the innocent if they carry out these assassinations. 5. More than a dozen undercover agents of the stat e are killed in one day by a radical rebel group. 6. A government routinely "disappears," tortures, an d murders civilians as well as political and military leaders whom it suspects of opposing the regime. 7. A militant religious group attacks, among others, women it feels are acting in an immodest fashion in public in order to pressure other women to behave in a certain way. 8. Religious militants attack members of the government, including an assassination attempt on the president. The government responds by sending in troops and destroying an urban area where the religious militants are based, killing more than 10,000 people in the process, including many civilians. 113

              Dry Runs Another sign to watch for is "dry runs." Before execution of the final operation or plan, a practice session will be run to work out the flaws and unanticipated problems. A dry run may very well be the heart of a planning stage of a terrorist act. If you find someone monitoring a police radio frequency and recording emergency response times, you may very well be observing a "dry run." Another element of this activity could include mapping out routes and determining the timing of traffic lights and flow. This stage is actually our best chance to intercept and stop an attack. Multiple dry runs are normally conducted at or near the target area. Deploying Assets/Getting Into Position The seventh and final sign or signal to look for is someone deploying assets or getting into position. This is a person's last chance to alert authorities before the terrorist act occurs. It is also important to remember that pre-incident indicators may come months or even years apart. It is therefore extremely important to document every fragment of information no matter how insignificant it may appear and forward this information. 124

              Part 4. Weapons. Weapons are the main tools of your profession. It is therefore important for combatants and their commanders to be thoroughly conversant with the provisions governing their use. When you plan an attack, you cannot assess the risk of incidental or collateral damage unless you are familiar with the weapons or weapons system which will be employed. EXPLOSIVE BULLETS Exploding bullets weighing less than 400 g are regularly used against material and other hard surface objects. The 1868 St Petersburg Declaration prohibits the use of any projectile weighing less than 400 g and which is either explosive or charged with fulminating or inflammable substances. The Declaration states that such projectiles “would uselessly aggravate the suffering of disabled men or render their death inevitable”. This ban does not prevent the use of tracer rounds for spotting or range finding, even when mixed with normal bullets EXPANDING BULLETS The Hague Declaration of 1899 banned the use of expanding bullets, which are also commonly known as “dumdum” bullets. These are bullets that expand or flatten easily in the human body, causing massive and often fatal wounds. 125

              Weapons for terrorists Whnitceewglesn eopaoolorretnm3ofk stsir sotcafo r ,a:sr rj • aytibava,lili • smipyticil, • eneiciffcy. Thuakieot ely mwa citeorfpaodm nnanatsi alknachtsd ec li ta haotsvep ping powT woshe laye.r nat twhtocot e n ebabo uniypaelaecl eobr lpsenniarretnalaice ,. snatPd eraiwdra sotsl epaoyhtosTnlisaebnacye msh orretofs e l eraye.stsir r la condec.lae Mogihtoshlme f tawt er egihnatmd anym odeppnr or sotsilvigdeo odperif owe.r Sihtncrie e imelygnarvitceffebaotdeti lne sig eo lare u5thtm0 midye edhtlo ,sret otnatsi e tic e engaage tgrae.t Submua otapacmlufhhthciytiba erifl ava ta sehsygne.li cita elfiro lbu n trlacisa eras Theuy es pmabii relac-otslmunioitnna mgrahyytd elva lpiga elacaTacnizenarh p ag rie.seitice, auccrnayca pd neehtboitartnodpna rette era nanlhtotu sotsi lgisd bg e eeh lerra rt rdaius. Submahcivafgnewo au n etir erasgorrethti gior tsirunahlpd t bs,mshtuace sl eraye e la yelisa condec.lae shotwnegu tlxenpaelec eraso ns, oynar-eslcofenissassag r lpseoita elaicns Tnoo sih kcattar ere.s rqeuimeremiapofnt esicer r sdhtnicngrapsi e eewocu elhtooisrn av wm e f tceffe di rel stebelilpoele f r T haeraye.aer aniyvitanrxe lelerd ebavaydaeip llia lensocviem paootder ht er wepaons. Monisnret tauagorretoitnot or tsir amlufkiulpwl els cita epaoAhtusn e sahc sK ,47 andht e M1H6 .ownnayewy lrae ve ,repaonofbnac yu e nlpsedlaice uni ,es gior remsn ulapls. Afva wor etiepaongb or msy ulaUhtnipls e nhtie siSdet setat 12-gaughseo tgun. 137

              142

              gnereseda dlrleporp-tekcow sahcusu nopae nonoc ,slainev esltwlsi steirorrWte hli atuassandl sohlat ye s,glaoh rtiea evehcoi te slfri yetviraw edai amenamesso yo d e tlplby tilhibah eta ev h elatl of midespivor (EIcD sed.)sivev eoiselpx whptwnopae raupoai l a erv seEisoxlp naiderevocns erad s teirorrt nmnr giiaQnat .u adeahlalat e Thme omissEIhto tpD e f elohtusnin e sides obdetaiti e bnislcy ucricyretta aog ,ti f sotmia ril turningbo yretta an opWgie hldetar .theutn nringo wshtn ucrichto ei,ti e seslchct eyticirtcel uomlflibnacgiwltoAni e tioshlhtoshtlc deta t e .pse in-girtgenirg degiEIhtniviwshlhtD si ecr t e secape nahctil yticirtcewd lehtvitcah e deta sie, tin ofwltos ththchedu gra eote s,nanitgxeht op elvise. Improvised explosive mixtures: Although there are recipes to make virtually any explosive, the following are some common improvised ones that are used. • Ammonium nitrate fertilizer • Black powder • Gasoline • Match heads • Smokeless powder 150

              PART5 CYBER SECURITY ON MILITARY The European Commission und erstands cyber crime as “criminal activity committed using elec tronic communications networks and information systems or against such networks and systems,” but its practical application of the term cyber crime goes into more detail. Its practical application states cyber crime as the following: 1) t rad itional forms of crime such as fraud or forgery, though in a cyber crime context relat es specifically to crimes committed over electronic communication networks and information systems (hereafter called electronic networks); 2) publication of illegal content over electronic media (e.g., child sexual abuse material or incitement to racial hatred); 3) crimes unique to electronic networks (e.g., attacks against information systems, denial of service and hacking). Whether speaking about cyber crime, cyber war, or cyber terrorism, answering U.S. NATIONAL CYBER STRATEGY: questions about Jus ad Bellum and Jus in Bello is difficult. In 2009, the Vice Chairman 4 PIL S of the Joint Chiefs of Staff asked, “What’s proportionality look like in cyber? What does I Protecting the American peo'Jle. the homeland attribution look like in cyber? How do you understand sovereignty in the cyber and the American way of life 'JY safeguarding domain?” networks, systems, functions and data forms of attack : 1) mechanical attacks; 2) electromagnetic attacks; 3) digital attacks. Each of these I Promoting American prosperity by forms of attack takes on specific strategic aspects and merits. nurturing a secure, thriving digital economy and fostering strong domestic innovation The objective in cyber confl ict has not substantially changed from the previous consideration of terrestrial confl ict. The idea of what attack means and the means of that attack has not Preserving peace and security by I' substantially changed. The use of generational constructs and information operations has not U.S., its strengthening the ability of the substantially changed the concept of defi ning a goal or end-state to an engagement. and allies to deter and punish partners In the idea of generational warfare constructs those who use cyber maliciously and low-intensity-confl ict, which is related to the tactical choice of insurgency, the of fensive 1 1 1Acl1cirKing American influence to extend the may not be similar to previous engagements. To be more specifi c the forms of confl ict ar e key tenets of ~n open, interoper~hle, likely to relate more to the fourth and fi fth generational models suggesting insurgency and reliable and secure internet less to high-intensity confl ict models where other principles relate closer. It appears taking the offensive may itself be in doubt as limiting war to cyber s pace may make the principle of offense less obvious. The roles of offense and defense seem to blur within an insurgency model as they do within cyber space The attack is always go ing to be at an asymmetric advantage that cannot be substantially changed. The level of effort to enter the fi eld of battle no longer requires the nation state. As such the fi rst responder is radically empower ed by the scope of their capability to attack but have no real capability at defense when integrated into a corporate or military information enterprise. This is the asymmetric advantage that currently does not erode or seem to erode under scalable systems. M1t,tary CO\#lter Terronsm 170

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                  CASE NUMBER 10 CYBERSECURITY THROUGH THE LENS OF HACKING. Research Cybersecurity through the lens of White Hat, Grey Hat and Black Hat hacking. What are grey hats and hacktivists? A hacker is a tech-savvy computer user who manipulates and bypasses computer systems to make them do the unintended. Sometimes this manipulation is noble with a goal to create something beneficial. Other times, hacking is done to hurt people through identity theft or other damage. Types of Hackers You are likely familiar with the stereotypical 1980s hacker, the evil criminal who is socially isolated. While this stereotype does indeed describe some modern hackers, other hackers exist who are not criminals. There are many hackers who use their knowledge for good. The main categories of hackers are: Black Hat Hackers: Criminals and wrongdoers. White Hat Hackers: Ethical hackers who work to protect systems and people. Grey Hat Hackers: Dabble in both black hat and white hat tinkering. Classic Black Hat Hackers A black hat hacker is a computer user who willfully vandalizes or commits theft on other people's networks. The term "black hat" is a way to describe their malicious motivations. Black hats are gifted but unethical computer users who are motivated by money, fame, or criminal purposes. They may steal data to sell it or attempt to extort money from system owners. They are the bad guys of the hacking world. 171

                  Question 8 Here’s an example that just happens to be somewhat specific to HVAC vendors: A simple Google search turns up Target’s Supplier Portal, which includes a wealth of information for new and existing vendors and suppliers about how to interact with the company, submitinvoices, etc. That page leads to a separatepage of information on Target FacilitiesManagement, which includes a slew of instructions on submitting work orders. That page also includes a link to another set of resources: A Supplier Downloads page that, oddly enough, is little more than a long list ofresources for HVAC&refrigeration companies. 00 • · • ••·· rnntrnl ri.1rh .,,..,....---- -----.. data flow / lnals 1. Phishin9 iltt-ack d~dill>l Fdl.KJ ! I • Mechanic.ii Service i ~ J.. Accesstng the ' / ,.,.,./ Target network 3. Gainine, access to vulnerable milchincs Compromised Ho _.- ----::i;;}--- · -·~ 4. lnsulling matw.are UII Pus L~rmilldl.) 5. Collecting card 1nformat1on from PoS G. Moving data out of the Target network 7. Aggregating stolen r.:m1 ;:mtt pPr<;nn rfat..1 What could an attacker learn from this information? 180

                  Ransomware. A ransomware threat encrypts your important documents, disables Windows login, or otherwise makes your computer unusable unti lyou pay the ransom demanded by its perpetrators. It's a bit dodgy for the perpetrators since they might be tracked through the ransom payment. RAT (Remote Access Trojan). Like all Trojans, a RAT masquerades as an innocent and useful program. Behind the scenes, though, it opens up a backdoor that gives its owner complete access to the selected computer. Rootkit. Antivirus software can only remove threats that it can detect. Rootkit technology hides a threat's and Registry traces so that most programs can't "see" them. Only specialized anti-malware technology can bring hidden trace sinto view. Scareware. A fake antivirus that pretends to nd problems on your system and displays a big, frightening warning –that's scareware. Naturally, you must pay the registration before it will " x" the made- up problems. In most cases, there's no actual malicious code just a huge scam to con you into paying money fo rnothing. Spyware. Spyware simply means malicious software that steals credit card numbers, passwords, and other sensitive personal information. Trojan. Named after the Trojan Horse of legend, a Trojan is a seemingly benign program that does something nasty in secr et. Trojans are the most common type of malware on the Android platform. While you play a Trojanised Android game, i tmay be sending your contacts to a server in Russia, or making £10 per minute phone calls. Virus. A computer virus spreads by injecting its code into other programs or, less commonly, into the boot sector of a disk. When you execute the infected program, the virus code runs too. It may simply infect more less, or it may perform a "payload" action like wiping out your hard drive. Worm. Like a virus, a worm replicates itself within the computer or across the network. Unlike a virus, it doesn't wait for you to launch an infected program. Network worms can spread around the world with alarming rapidity. Mix and match These categories aren't mutually exclusive. A Trojan could use keylogger technology to spy on you and steal passwords. A virus could hide from antivirus programs using rootkit technology. The most important point to remember is that your antivirus program should protect you against every type of malware, not just viruses. 189

                  HACKING GLOSSARY ALIAS You’ll need an alias—a false identity—to conceal a genuine one in the physical or digital worlds. BACKDOOR Secret entry points to a system or piece of software. Backdoors are either built into code, for governments and companies to access, or planted maliciously by hackers. BLACKHAT Blackhats are malicious hackers, out to infiltrate computer systems. They're in it for personal gain, looking for sensitive information, or to damage something. An intelligence service, perhaps. A bank. Or maybe you. BITCOIN For a totally discreet purchase, you might consider using Bitcoin: A digital currency BOTNET If someone wants to bring down something big or decrypt a particularly important file, they might need an army—an army of hacked and compromised computers. That’s a botnet. The hacker will point the botnet at the target and overload it until it crashes, or reveals its secret. CIPHER A cipher scrambles your message into nonsense by substituting (and adding to) the letters in it. For someone to read it, they’ll either need the key or to be skilled at cryptanalysis. CRYPTANALYSIS The art of deciphering coded messages without being told the key. CRYPTOLOGIST You are a mathematical master of making and breaking codes. DECRYPTION Break a code, with or without a key. DISTRIBUTED DENIAL OF SERVICE (DDOS) A favorite way for hacktivists to topple an online target. Feed it too much. Cram it with so muchtraffic—know n as junk packets—that the server gives in and the computer or website cra shes. That’s a DDoS attack. 195

                  Short for American Standard Code for Information Interexchange, ASCII is a standard that assigns letters, numbers, and other characters in the 256 slots available in the 8-bit code. The ASCII decimal (Dec) number is created from binary, which is the language of all computers. As shown in the table below, the lowercase "h" character (Char) has a decimal value of 104, which is "01101000" in binary. ASCII was first developed and published in 1963 by the X3 committee, a part of the ASA (American Standards Association). The ASCII standard was first published as ASA X3.4-1963, with ten revisions of the standard being published between 1967 and 1986. The idea of ASCII is a subset of Unicode, the relationship between uppercase and lower case letters and the need for a common data encoding system are also discussed. What might be the consequences if we didn’t have a common method of encoding? Everything we type, listen to, and watch on computers are ultimately represented as numbers. Other computing devices (such as gaming consoles) work on exactly the same principle -that means the controls on joysticks etc also represent data as numbers. However, in a typical computer system, the memory is made of unit cells and each individual cell contains 8 bits (byte). Hence, even though ASCII needs only 7 bits to encode a character, it is stored as 8 bit by keeping first bit 0 (MSB). Hence, the actual bit-width of ASCII is 8. The values of the characters in HELLO text in the hexadecimal representation are 48 45 4C 4C 4F. What do you think might happen if every computer had its own way of encoding? Say my computer thought “A” was 97, but another computer manufacturer decided that “A” was represented by 200. Or my game controller sent an “accelerate” command as a 300, and another game controller’s 300 was the equivalent of a stop. What could be the impacts or consequences of these inconsistencies? Colors RGB. Data in Colors. This page lets you play with the RGB scheme, combining red, green, and blue light to make any color. http://web.stanford.edu/class/cs101/image-rgb-explorer.html How can shades of grey be made with RGB? - Develop a color palette of 4/6 colors for a social media header/blog/Instagram page. Create a table with the colors in one column, and the corresponding RGB values in another column. 1. What might be some general observations about channel values and the color displayed? Answers might include: - The higher the number, the lighter the color displayed in the channel; - The lower the number, the darker the color displayed in the channel; - When the values for r,b,g are equal, the end color is a neutral color;Imagine you had 2 channels, each with only 3 possible values (instead of 255). The following table provides a way to imagine this hypothetical scenario: CHANNEL 1 A1 A2 A3 CHANNEL 2 B1 B2 A B3 2. RGB encoding allows us to use numbers to represent colors.This also allows us to communicate color values easily to each other. You might share examples of situations where color values need to be communicated. 200

                  CASE NUMBER 14THE SPIES INVENTED A LONG TIME AGO THE SPIES INVENTED A MUCH BETTER SYSTEM, THE KEYWORD CIPHER. A long time ago the spies invented a much better system, the keyword cipher. It was: •Strong – there were a lot of different keys. •Memorable and easy to use – spies work under pressure and they didn’t want to make mistakes. The keyword cipher •The key can be any word or name, or even phrase that you choose. •You write it down, missing out repeated letters. •Then complete the alphabet in order starting with the first missing letter. 202

                  Case 1 6 .Cyber Terrorism in Action Hybrid cyber terrorism is the use of the Internet for terrorist activities such as propaganda, recruitment, radicalization, fundraising, data mining, communication, training, and planning for actual terrorist attacks. The Internet is being used by terrorists and terrorist organizations to spread and manage their propaganda through information warfare, to impart their ideology, to conduct psychological warfare as well as to radicalize and recruit new members from all over the world, through terrorist websites, online magazines, and various social media platforms (such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Tumblr, VKontakte, JustPaste.it, Youtube, etc). For instance, DAESH (or the so called Islamic State) had seven media agencies under its central media command (with Amaq being the most prominent one) and 37 media offices operating in various countries. Similarly, al-Qaeda formed a media arm known as As-Sahab and The Global Islamic Media Front (GIMF), as well as online magazines such as “Inspire and Resurgence” to reinforce their propaganda. In addition, terrorist organizations have been using the Telegram application since the end of 2015 due to its encryption and secure use, and because of the increased closure of terrorist accounts on Facebook and Twitter Terrorists groups have used social media platforms (like Telegram) and encrypted messaging system applications (such as Kik, SuperSpot, Wickr, Whatsapp, Gajim), online gaming chat rooms, coded messages or steganography for covert discussions, direct and private communications purposes (that includes networking with other members of the group, interaction with recruits and supporters) and planning and coordination of physical attacks as well as planning hacking operations. For instance, VoIP phone services were used during the Mumbai attacks in 2008. 218

                  Users Description [Detail categories [Describe how users access the system and their of users] intended use of the system] 3.5 Flow Diagram [Provide connectivity diagram or system input and output flowchart to delineate the scope of this risk assessment effort]. 4. Vulnerability Statement [Compile and list potential vulnerabilities applicable to the system assessed]. Vulnerability Description [List vulnerabilities] [Describe vulnerability and its impact] 5. Threat Statement [Compile and list the potential threat-sources applicable to the system assessed]. Threat-Source Threat Actions [List and/or describe actions that can be taken by [List threat sources] threat source e.g., identity theft, spoofing, system intrusion] 228

                  ABOUT THE AUTHOR Marina Hrabar has her Master’s degree in ESL Education, as well as a TESOL certificate (Arizona State University, 2018). She possesses 17 years of corporate experience in Finance, Banking, Technology, Construction industries, and a bunch of cool things (M.A. in Building Engineering, B.A. in Accountancy, Professional certifications that can help prove her skills and value). Udemy Instructor. Courses: «Military English», «Cybersecurity» more than 7,000 learners. Certificates: NATO CIMIC AWARENESS COURSE Civil-Military Cooperation Centre of Excellence, NATO accredited (2019) The EU Non-proliferation and Disarmament by the EU Non-Proliferation Consortium. ( The non-proliferation of weapons. Biological, chemical and nuclear weapons) https://hrabar.wixsite.com/marina 240

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