Content thumbnail Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023
AI Content Chat (Beta) logo

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023

The Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 report, now in its 11th year, highlights the technologies set to positively impact society within the next three to five years. This comprehensive report goes beyond listing the top 10 technologies and their associated risks and opportunities. It provides a qualitative assessment of each technology's potential impact on people, the planet, prosperity, industry and equity.

In collaboration with Frontiers Media Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 FLAGSHIP REPORT JUNE 2023

Images: Midjourney, Studio Miko. All images in this report have been generated using arti昀椀cial intelligence. Contents Preface 3 Introduction 4 Methodology 5 1 Flexible batteries 8 2 Generative arti昀椀cial intelligence 10 3 Sustainable aviation fuel 12 4 Designer phages 14 5 Metaverse for mental health 16 6 Wearable plant sensors 18 7 Spatial omics 20 8 Flexible neural electronics 22 9 Sustainable computing 24 10 AI-facilitated healthcare 26 Contributors 28 Endnotes 31 Disclaimer This document is published by the World Economic Forum as a contribution to a project, insight area or interaction. The 昀椀ndings, interpretations and conclusions expressed herein are a result of a collaborative process facilitated and endorsed by the World Economic Forum but whose results do not necessarily represent the views of the World Economic Forum, nor the entirety of its Members, Partners or other stakeholders. © 2023 World Economic Forum. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system. Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 2

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 2

June 2023 Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 Preface Jeremy Jurgens Managing Director, World Economic Forum For more than a decade, the Forum has been technologies – some of which you might never surveying academics, industry leaders and futurists have heard of – can and will shape our collective on the emerging technologies set to transform future in the years ahead. Also new for the 2023 economies and societies. In doing so, the edition is a collection of transformation maps from Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 report seeks the Forum’s Strategic Intelligence Platform, which to help professionals across sectors and industries provide deeper insights and context on each anticipate exponential technologies, interpret their technology by showcasing how they connect to implications and champion industry-shaping and other topics on the global agenda and surfacing society-serving applications. the latest trusted publications for further reading. Since the 昀椀rst edition in 2011, the annual report has This year’s report brings together the perspectives identi昀椀ed little-known technologies that have gone of over 90 experts in 20 countries from all world on to have global impact. For example, the precise regions. This report would not be possible without genetic-engineering tool, CRISPR-Cas9, featured their openness to contributing their insights, and we in 2015, went on to become Nobel Prize-winning sincerely thank them all. We greatly appreciate, too, science 昀椀ve years later and is now being used to the leadership of our Top 10 Emerging Technologies create insect and drought-resistant crops in harsh Steering Group Co-Chairs, Mariette DiChristina growing conditions around the world. Messenger and Bernard Meyerson, who, along with many ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines, which earned members, have been loyal collaborators since the their place in the 2017 report, became the inception of the Top 10 Emerging Technologies technology underpinning the majority of COVID-19 report series. We would additionally like to thank vaccines protecting lives worldwide. In the few our knowledge partner for this year’s edition, years since AI-led molecular design made it onto Frontiers, for the deep expertise and scienti昀椀c rigour the 2018 list, Deepmind’s AlphaFold has predicted of their journal editors – across the articles, impact the structure of 200 million proteins, and the 昀椀rst 昀椀ngerprints and transformation maps. Our thanks AI-discovered drugs have entered clinical trials. also to the project team: Greta Keenan, Saemoon Yoon, Minji Sung and Sebastian Buckup, as well Now in its 11th year, the Top 10 Emerging as the wider team at the Centre for the Fourth Technologies of 2023 report outlines the Industrial Revolution for their input. technologies poised to positively impact society in the next three to 昀椀ve years. The report broadens its New technologies have the power to disrupt scope beyond describing the top 10 technologies industries, grow economies, improve lives and and associated risks and opportunities to include safeguard the planet – if designed, scaled and a qualitative assessment of how each technology deployed responsibly. We hope that this year’s is set to impact people, the planet, prosperity, report serves as a powerful tool for business leaders industry and equity. Unique for each technology, and policy-makers to unlock the transformative these “impact 昀椀ngerprints” are meant to stimulate potential of emerging technologies and shape further analysis and debate about how emerging their inclusive adoption. Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 3

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 3

Introduction A message from the Co-Chairs of the Top 10 Emerging Technologies report steering committee. Mariette DiChristina Dean and Professor of Bernard Meyerson the Practice in Journalism, Chief Innovation Of昀椀cer Boston University College Emeritus, IBM of Communication In the introduction of his 2016 book, The Fourth In this report, you’ll learn about how spatial omics Industrial Revolution, Klaus Schwab advised that is creating a new generation of molecular-level “cell humanity should “take dramatic technological atlases” to help unlock life’s mysteries. In a new change as an invitation to re昀氀ect about who we are approach to treatment, researchers are engineering and how we see the world”. The Top 10 Emerging viruses, called phages, to augment human, animal Technologies of 2023 report is an ongoing response and plant health. to that invitation to improve the state of the world and the humans inhabiting it. The driving forces Beyond the understanding and treatment of disease, behind the innovations featured in this special report the rapid public emergence of arti昀椀cial intelligence (AI) are the acceleration of global connectivity, the rise shows a potential to vastly enhance access to and of AI, along with the convergence of the physical, implementation of human knowledge. Generative AI, digital and biological worlds. embodied in ChatGPT and Bard, has demonstrated the creation of original social and technical content in Consistent with the Fourth Industrial Revolution, seconds. Those abilities developed from models trained several of the technologies cited use data and on vast information content ingested from the web. computing to enhance public health. The list It is, however, important to be cognizant of the societal explores how AI is enabling improvements in issues created by these “super-human” capabilities. healthcare delivery, especially to those who live in less well-resourced areas; how 昀氀exible batteries Human well-being also ultimately requires a healthy are powering wearable technologies and bendable planet. Addressing this need, the “top 10” includes displays that enable wearable medical devices and wearable plant sensors, which enable increased food biomedical sensors; and next-generation neural production by improving plant health. With the impact electronics that can interact with millions of cells at of climate change ever-more dire, two cited innovations once more safely. With mental health issues more offer progress: sustainable aviation fuel, made from pressing in the post-pandemic world, virtual shared biological or non-biological sources, and sustainable spaces in the metaverse are facilitating global computing, which is paving the way towards net-zero outreach to serve those in need. carbon data centres. However, far more innovation is required to mitigate this existential threat to humanity. Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 4

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 4

Methodology Choosing the top 10 list for 2023 To achieve this, expert groups of academics and industry leaders were curated for each of the 10 technologies listed in the 2023 report. They were Technologies for consideration for the 2023 then asked to predict the future impact of their list were collected via a survey distributed to the respective technology, rating the projected in昀氀uence steering group and wider expert network, as on a scale from 1 to 10, should these technologies well as the World Economic Forum’s Innovator achieve widespread adoption in the next 3-5 years. Communities from December 2022 to January The survey aimed to assess the potential effect of 2023. Survey respondents were asked to complete these technologies across 昀椀ve distinct metrics: the following 昀椀elds: A. People – Technology name Participants rated their expectations regarding – Description of the technology each technology’s potential to enhance security and dignity—spanning areas such – Fields impacted by the technology as food security, access to clean water, and – Description of the impact of the technology on improvements in healthcare outcomes—over these 昀椀elds, including bene昀椀ts and risks to society the next decade. – Justi昀椀cation for why the technology should B. Planet be on the 2023 list. Participants gauged the extent to which they envisage the technologies could help protect and The 95 valid technology nominations were reviewed, restore our planet. This included considerations debated and ranked by the steering group over such as restoring biodiversity, minimizing waste, the course of three meetings between January and and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. February 2023, eventually whittling the list down to the 昀椀nal 10 based on the judging criteria: C. Prosperity Survey respondents were asked to evaluate – Novelty: the technology is emerging and at an the potential of each technology to improve the early stage of incipient development, not already quality of life for individuals worldwide. Factors widely used. considered included job creation, enhanced connectivity, and increased leisure time. – Applicability: has the potential to be of signi昀椀cant use and bene昀椀t to societies D. Industry and economies in the future; is not of only Participants assessed the potential of these marginal concern. technologies to disrupt existing industries and generate new markets over the next decade. – Depth: is being developed by more than one company and is the focus of increasing E. Equity investment interest and excitement within the Finally, the survey asked participants to rate expert community; likely to have a signi昀椀cant the potential for these technologies to promote impact in the next 3-5 years. global societal equity. This involved estimating their capacity to democratize access to – Power: is potentially powerful and disruptive essential resources and services like healthcare, in altering established ways and industries. energy, materials, and the internet. Members of the steering group volunteered Academics were mainly selected from Frontiers’ to author the articles in the report, consulting network of scienti昀椀c journal editors, while industry specialists in their networks for added input. All leaders were selected from the Forum’s Innovator articles were fact-checked and edited by Frontiers. Communities. Of the 100+ experts invited to contribute to one “Impact 昀椀ngerprint” of the 10 technology surveys, 69 respondents from 18 countries contributed their assessment. Scores were averaged for each dimension of The content of the Top 10 Emerging Technologies the impact 昀椀ngerprint for each technology, of 2023 report is built upon the contributions with optional comments collated for additional of experts from academia and industry. The context to scores. methodology of this edition is based on the previous 10 editions but incorporates “impact 昀椀ngerprint” The results have been visualized using radar charts survey data for the 昀椀rst time. (see Figure 1) and are present in each section. Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 5

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 5

FIGURE 1 “Impact 昀椀ngerprint” radar chart A. People – Security and dignity such as food security – Access to clean water – Improved healthcare outcomes 10 9 E. 8 B. Equity 7 Planet 6 5 – Democratize access 4 – Protect and restore the to healthcare, energy, 3 planet, such as restoring materials, internet etc. biodiversity 2 – Limiting waste 1 – Reducing greenhouse gases C. D. Prosperity Industry – Quality of people’s lives, – Disrupt existing industries such as creating new jobs – Create new markets – Providing greater connectivity between people – Increasing leisure time Second, response rates varied across the Methodological limitations technologies, with different ratios of respondents from This methodology was designed to be rigorous within industry and academia. a range of constraints. Third, qualitative scores varied within technologies, First, given that some of the technologies on the partly due to different interpretations of the impact list are truly emerging, there were limitations to dimensions and partly due to different vantage points. how many academics and industry leaders in the Forum and Frontiers extended networks could be On balance, the impact 昀椀ngerprint data visualizations considered experts on these topics for participation in provide a complementary qualitative dimension to the impact 昀椀ngerprint survey. the articles for each technology in this year’s report and prompt further analysis and debate about how emerging technologies are likely to shape the collective future in the years ahead. Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 6

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 6

readers can learn more about the key issues of each Strategic Intelligence transformation maps technology and how it connects to other topics on the global agenda as well as 昀椀nd the latest articles on the topic from trusted sources. Another ambition for the 11th edition of the report was to facilitate deeper reader engagement with The descriptions were predominantly based on the each of the technologies beyond the short articles articles in this report. Key issues were determined included. To achieve this, Frontiers co-curated based on guidance from the steering group authors and transformation maps for each technology, housed the input of Frontiers’ editors. Key issue descriptions on the Forum’s Strategic Intelligence Platform, where were researched and written by Frontiers’ editors. FIGURE 2 Example Strategic Intelligence transformation map Licensed for professional use. © 2023 World Economic Forum. Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 7

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 7

01 Flexible batteries Powering wearable technologies for healthcare and e-textiles.

Javier García Martínez Professor of Chemistry and Director, Molecular Nanotechnology Lab, University of Alicante Joseph Costantine Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, American University of Beirut From rollable computer screens to “smart” clothing, The ability of 昀氀exible batteries to be bent, twisted the future of electronics looks to be increasingly and stretched makes them ideal for use in wearable 昀氀exible. The rapidly escalating development of devices. As the market demand for wearable wearable devices, 昀氀exible electronics and bendable technologies continues to grow, the future of displays demands power sources that match the 昀氀exible batteries is promising, and further advances agility of these systems. Standard, rigid batteries are likely. As with all batteries, one hurdle to may soon be a thing of the past as thin, 昀氀exible overcome is their safe disposal and recycling, which batteries – made of lightweight materials that can be should come as the technology and associated easily twisted, bent or stretched – reach the market. applications become circular. Revolutionary advances in 昀氀exible-battery technologies and their Several types of 昀氀exible batteries are currently available. accompanying industries are expected to continue These batteries are rechargeable and include lithium- for many years to come. ion or zinc-carbon systems placed on conductive polymer current collectors. In some cases, additives 1 enhance conductivity and 昀氀exibility. The electrodes of Impact 昀氀exible batteries can be coated with – or even printed 昀椀ngerprint onto – 昀氀exible substrates, including carbon-based People materials like graphene, carbon 昀椀bres or cloth. Flexible batteries have applications in a growing number of 昀椀elds, including wearable medical Equity Planet devices and biomedical sensors, 昀氀exible displays and smartwatches. Health-related applications powered by these batteries could transmit data wirelessly to healthcare providers, facilitating remote patient monitoring. Further, 昀氀exible batteries that can be integrated into the fabric of jackets, shirts or other apparel will be required to power emerging textile-based electronics with capabilities ranging Industry from built-in heating systems to health monitoring. Prosperity The 昀氀exible battery market is expected to expand Image: rapidly in the coming years. One study forecasts A new generation of 昀氀exible that the global 昀氀exible battery market will grow by batteries may allow for the $240.47 million from 2022-2027, accelerating at a seamless integration of compound annual growth rate of 22.79% during this 22.79% 2 technology into fabrics period. The primary drivers of growth are expected Compound annual growth and clothes. to be the increasing demand for wearable devices Credit: Midjourney and and the growing trend towards miniaturization and rate between 2022-2027 Studio Miko. 昀氀exibility of electronics. Prompt (abbreviated): Several companies are actively developing and “Technology fabric commercializing 昀氀exible battery technology, with interwoven digital $240 million elements”. including LG Chem, Samsung SDI, Apple, Nokia, Read more: Front Edge Technology, STMicroelectronics, Forecasted growth of the global Discover expert analysis Blue Spark Technologies and Fullriver Battery 昀氀exible battery market between 3 related to 昀氀exible New Technology. However, there is still room for 2022-2027 batteries on the Strategic innovation in this space, and new players are likely Intelligence Platform. to enter the market as the technology evolves. Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 9

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 9

02 Generative arti昀椀cial intelligence Expanding the boundaries of human endeavour.

Olga Fink Professor of Intelligent Maintenance and Operations Systems, EPFL Julien Weissenberg Founder, Deep Tech Experts Generative arti昀椀cial intelligence (AI) is a powerful The newest developments involve autonomous AI type of AI that can create new and original content systems that can make important decisions or take by learning patterns in data, using complex signi昀椀cant actions. For instance, AutoGPT is an algorithms and methods of learning inspired by the autonomous AI application using the GPT-4 language human brain. While generative AI is still currently model. AutoGPT can automatically accomplish focused on producing text, computer programming, a user-identi昀椀ed goal by dividing the goal into 4 images and sound, this technology could be smaller tasks and employing tools like internet applied to a range of purposes, including drug searches or text-to-speech technology. The design, architecture and engineering. growing integration of generative AI technologies, particularly autonomous AI, into multiple aspects For example, at the time of this writing, initial work of people’s daily lives, is generating both public has been published on generating candidate drug excitement and concern. 5 and molecules targeting particular conditions on creating pictures of imaginary buildings or on To build public trust in generative AI, applications generating interior design. NASA engineers are should meet agreed-upon professional and ethical currently working towards AI systems that can standards. Generative AI systems represent the construct lightweight space昀氀ight instruments, data they were trained on and the conventions achieving a 10-fold reduction in development governing society at that time. Care should be time while simultaneously improving structural taken to mitigate AI bias based on training data, performance.6 Generative AI technologies may with a focus on including “outlier” data and novel even impact the food industry and the design of societal conventions. Further, the decision-making everyday objects, from furniture to appliances. In processes of an application should be easy to scienti昀椀c research, generative models could facilitate understand, an application’s goals should be breakthroughs by improving experimental design, clearly disclosed to operators and end users, and identifying relationships between data elements individual privacy should be respected. Ethical and creating new theories. For example, recently guidelines and governance structures must developed AI algorithms can translate a mathematical be developed to mitigate potential harm and formula into plain English or analyse brain activity ensure that technical progress is balanced with data to generate drawings of the objects that human responsible use. Finally, copyright attribution must participants are holding in mind.7,8 be addressed so that proper credit is given to AI designers, creators of training data and authors High school and university students are using of instructions for using the applications. generative AI more frequently, with some institutions forbidding their use while others are integrating With the correct controls in place, generative AI can 9 or generative models into teaching practices provide more time for creativity, demonstrate the even training students to master these tools. Used boundaries of knowledge, and act as a sparring properly, generative AI can create personalized partner to challenge conventional thinking. curricula that adjust to student skills and learning progress while encouraging critical thinking, igniting Image: creativity and harnessing novel ideas. Impact Generative AI can 昀椀ngerprint synthesize what it has learnt In the workplace, the use of AI-based language from gigantic data sets models like the recently popular ChatGPT or its People to create and intuit new successors can increase productivity and improve information in novel ways. Credit: Midjourney and output quality, restructuring human tasks towards Studio Miko. idea generation and editing as opposed to rough Equity Planet 10 drafting. Generative AI technologies speci昀椀cally Prompt (abbreviated): bene昀椀t low-ability workers and can increase job “Glitched image overlaying satisfaction and self-ef昀椀cacy. Given the potential various styles of painting, for productivity gains resulting from adopting these photography and 3D new technologies, it’s crucial to acknowledge the renderings”. likelihood of job displacement. As such, policies Read more: and programmes that support workers in their efforts Discover expert analysis to upskill and reskill are essential in ensuring that the related to generative bene昀椀ts of technological innovation are widely shared Prosperity arti昀椀cial intelligence on Industry the Strategic Intelligence and that workers are equipped with the skills needed Platform. to thrive in the changing job market. Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 11

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 11

03 Sustainable aviation fuel Moving the aviation industry towards net-zero carbon emissions.

Mariette DiChristina Dean and Professor of the Practice in Journalism, Boston University College of Communication Lee Sang-Yup Senior Vice-President for Research, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Lauren Uppink Calderwood Head, Climate Strategy, Centre for Nature and Climate, World Economic Forum Aviation accounts for 2-3% of global CO emissions reactions. Syngas can be prepared from biomass or 2 annually, with concerning “business-as-usual” wastes or, better yet, from captured CO and green 2 projected emissions of 39 gigatonnes between hydrogen using renewable energy. 11,12 2022-2050. While the use of electric vehicles for ground transport is rapidly increasing, the aviation The second SAF, approved in 2011, is produced sector has struggled with decarbonization because from plant oil and animal fat. The availability and energy-dense fuels are required for long-distance collection of raw materials, along with the need for 昀氀ights. Additionally, the high price of replacing aircraft sustainably produced green hydrogen, remain major means that the current 昀氀eet will remain in operation challenges for this option. Metabolically engineered for decades, and electric or hydrogen-fuelled planes microorganisms that can break down abundant, may not be viable for long-distance 昀氀ight in any case. non-edible biomass could potentially reduce dependence on plant oils and animal fats.17 Enter a solution that does not require large- scale changes to current aviation infrastructure Over the past several years, seven more SAFs have and equipment: sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), been approved, with other exciting candidates produced from biological (e.g. biomass) and non- still in active development. One example uses biological (e.g. CO ) resources. Combined with engineered bacteria to improve the SAF’s energy 2 other decarbonization strategies, including system- 18 In 2023, a consortium of actors in the pro昀椀le. wide operational ef昀椀ciencies, new technologies and United Kingdom is poised to deliver the 昀椀rst net- carbon offsets, SAF should move the airline industry zero transatlantic 昀氀ight using solely sustainable towards reaching net-zero carbon emissions in the aviation fuel, demonstrating the potential of this coming decades. rapidly evolving technology and moving the world closer to net-zero aviation. Today, SAF makes up less than 1% of global jet fuel demand, but this must increase to 13-15% by Impact 2040 to put the aviation industry on the path to net 13 Such an increase will require the 昀椀ngerprint zero by 2050. creation of 300-400 new SAF plants; and airlines, People manufacturers and fuel companies are working around the clock to enable this level of scale. Fortunately, the production of SAF from biogenic Equity Planet raw materials using renewable energy is steadily Image: increasing. According to the International Air Sustainable aviation fuel, Transport Association, SAF production reached created from biomass at least 300 million (optimistically 450 million) litres and combined with other 14 An decarbonization strategies, in 2022, nearly triple that produced in 2021. plot a reliable course to net- increasing number of airlines have committed to zero aviation. using SAF, a trend that will be accelerated through Credit: Midjourney and global efforts such as the World Economic Forum’s Industry Prosperity 15 Studio Miko. Clean Skies for Tomorrow initiative and First Prompt (abbreviated): Movers Coalition. “Drops of fuel splashing The American Society of Testing and Materials in the shape of leaves”. (ASTM) has approved nine SAFs for blending at a Read more: ratio of up to 50% with conventional petroleum- 2-3% Discover expert analysis 16 The 昀椀rst SAF, approved by ASTM related to sustainable based jet fuel. of annual global CO aviation fuel on the in 2009, is produced by converting syngas (a 2 Strategic Intelligence mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) emissions are from aviation Platform. into hydrocarbons through a series of chemical Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 13

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 13

04 Designer phages Engineering viruses to augment human, animal and plant health.

Mine Orlu Professor of Pharmaceutics, University College London (UCL) School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Sciences, UCL Wilfried Weber Scienti昀椀c Director, Leibniz Institute for New Materials The number of microbes living on and within the Promising early results of designer phage therapies human body matches, and may even exceed, are attracting signi昀椀cant venture capital that will help 19 the number of human cells. The community to facilitate clinical testing of engineered phages. of microbes an organism harbours is called its Potential applications of designer phages are microbiome, and the microbiomes of humans, numerous and diverse. Locus Biosciences is using animals and plants play important roles in the engineered phages to combat antibiotic-resistant health of these organisms.20,21 bacteria, whereas Eligo Biosciences is pursuing similar approaches to make certain bacteria less pathogenic. Recent advances allow engineering of the Of the 44 phage-related clinical trials with therapeutic microbiome to bene昀椀t human well-being and intent, 29 have been posted since the beginning of 24 agricultural productivity. Key to this engineering 2020. Phage-based therapies involving both natural are phages – viruses that selectively infect speci昀椀c and designer phages will continue to emerge as a types of bacteria. Upon infection, a phage injects powerful method to engineer microbiomes, enhancing its genetic information into the bacterium. Using the health of humans, animals and plants. synthetic biology tools, the genetic information of phages can be reprogrammed so that infected bacteria execute a bioengineered set of genetic Impact instructions. With bioengineered phages, 昀椀ngerprint scientists can change a bacterium’s functions, causing it to produce a therapeutic molecule or to People become sensitive to a certain drug, for example. As phages generally only infect one type of bacteria, individual bacterial species within the Equity Planet complex microbiome can be targeted. Designer phages are showing potential for treating microbiome-associated diseases such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) – a rare but serious condition that affects the kidneys and blood-clotting functions, caused by a certain Prosperity species of E. coli. Scientists engineered the Industry Image: genetic material of an E. coli-infecting phage Engineered viruses to encode genetic “scissors” that can chop could allow for hyper- up the E. coli genes that lead to HUS. Animal targeted therapies that studies demonstrated that administration of can selectively affect these designer phages signi昀椀cantly reduced speci昀椀c bacteria. the presence of the HUS-causing strain of Credit: Midjourney and E. coli in the microbiome and alleviated HUS Phages are showing potential 22 Studio Miko. symptoms. This approach was recently granted for treating microbiome- Prompt (abbreviated): an orphan drug designation by the U.S. Food “A microscopic image of and Drug Administration, poising it for clinical associated diseases and 23 a virus attacking a cell”. trials. Phages are also being designed as feed revolutionizing the engineering Read more: supplements to enhance the growth of livestock, Discover expert analysis treat certain plant diseases and eliminate of microbiomes for human, related to designer dangerous bacteria in food supply chains, in animal and plant health. phages on the Strategic alignment with the World Health Organization’s Intelligence Platform. “One Health” approach. Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 15

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 15

05 Metaverse for mental health Shared virtual spaces to improve mental health.

Corinna Lathan Co-Founder and former Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, AnthroTronix Geoffrey Ling Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Hospital The Surgeon General of the United States recently and TRIPP has created Mindful Metaverse, which declared war on what he calls “one of the country’s enhances well-being through VR-enabled guided most pressing public health issues of our time”. mindfulness and meditation.30 Excess screen time and social media can decrease 25 psychological well-being, but they can also Maturing interface technologies could further 26 enhance well-being when used responsibly. augment social and emotional connections between Screen time spent building connections in shared distant participants. For example, Emerge Wave 1 virtual spaces might help combat the growing is a tabletop device that uses ultrasonic waves to mental health crisis as opposed to contributing to it. simulate touch, enhancing users’ social experience. Noninvasive neurotechnologies can even provide Virtual shared spaces are digital environments feedback attuned to a user’s emotional state. For where people can interact professionally and example, Neurable headsets use electrodes to socially. The future of these spaces is commonly measure emotion and can adjust music accordingly. referred to as the metaverse, which may include Eventually, the metaverse will also connect to virtual shared spaces enhanced with augmented therapeutic neurotechnologies, such as direct brain or virtual reality (AR/VR). Just as multiple shared 31 stimulation to treat intractable depression. virtual platforms currently exist, there will likely be multiple metaverses, differing in purpose and level Leveraging the metaverse for the continuum of of immersiveness. mental healthcare needs could be a win-win. Not only would patients bene昀椀t, but grounding the The mental health crisis that existed prior to the metaverse in a practical, necessary application could COVID-19 pandemic has since increased to drive the emergence of this advancing virtual space. 27 making conditions ripe for unprecedented levels, metaverse-enabled mental health treatment. The number of mental health providers is insuf昀椀cient Impact 28 Image: to meet the escalating crisis, and, in the United 昀椀ngerprint The metaverse may States, a federal reimbursement opportunity for be used to provide a tele-mental health services is in the works to People 29 Ideally, a mental health- shared virtual space for combat this shortage. people to connect and centred technology-based infrastructure will access therapy. support all aspects of mental health: prevention, Credit: Midjourney and diagnostics, therapy, education and research. Equity Planet Studio Miko. Prompt (abbreviated): Gaming platforms are already being leveraged “People boating on lake for mental health treatment. Such platforms not in a glass cube”. only increase patient engagement but also help destigmatize mental health issues. For example, Read more: DeepWell Therapeutics has created video games Discover expert analysis to treat depression and anxiety; UK-based Xbox Prosperity related to metaverse studio Ninja Theory has incorporated mental health Industry for mental health on the Strategic Intelligence awareness into mass-market games and plans to Platform. expand into treatment with their Insight Project; Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 17

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 17

06 Wearable plant sensors Revolutionizing agricultural data collection to feed the world.

Rona Chandrawati Associate Professor, University of New South Wales Carlo Ratti Director, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Senseable City Lab The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization of sensor data may require specialized expertise. states that world food production will need to Improved data analytics tools are needed to help increase by 70% to feed the world’s population in farmers make informed decisions about crop 32 2050. Technological innovations in agriculture will be management from sensor data. The long-term a key step towards meeting this dramatic escalation effects of wearable sensors on plant growth and and improving the world’s food security. development also warrant investigation. Traditionally, crops have been monitored via soil Despite these challenges, wearable plant sensors testing and visual inspections, both of which are are poised to revolutionize crop production and expensive and time-consuming. Recent management. By providing real-time data about technological advances have improved the ease of plant health and environmental conditions, these crop monitoring, enabling farmers to monitor crop devices can help farmers optimize agricultural conditions at a larger scale. For several years, the productivity, reduce waste and minimize health of farmland has been monitored using low- agriculture’s environmental impact – all while resolution satellite data.33 Now, sensor-equipped helping to feed the world’s growing population. drones and tractors are providing higher-resolution 34,35 Resultant information about crop conditions. information from all forms of monitoring can be Impact processed using AI. The next frontier in crop 昀椀ngerprint monitoring is even higher resolution: the monitoring People of individual plants. Wearable plant sensors promise to improve plant health and increase agricultural productivity. These Equity Planet sensors are small, non-invasive devices that can be attached to crop plants for continuous monitoring of temperature, humidity, moisture and nutrient levels. Data from plant sensors can optimize yields, reduce water, fertilizer and pesticide use, and detect early Image: signs of disease. Individual plant monitoring Two companies, Growvera and Phytech, have Prosperity would allow for the Industry harvesting of extremely independently developed micro-sized needle high-resolution data on sensors that insert into a plant’s leaves or stems a farmer’s crop. to measure changes in electrical resistance. Data Credit: Midjourney and are transmitted wirelessly to a computer or mobile Studio Miko. device, where they are analysed to generate insights Prompt (abbreviated): about plant health. Farmers can thus monitor 70% “Microchip attached to crops in real time and perform precise interventions increase in world food a leaf”. based on the speci昀椀c demands of plants, such Read more: as adjusting irrigation or fertilizer application in production will be required Discover expert analysis response to moisture levels or nutrient data. to feed the global related to wearable plant population by 2050. sensors on the Strategic Much work remains. Wearable sensors can be Intelligence Platform. expensive to install and maintain, and interpretation Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 19

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 19

07 Spatial omics Molecular-level mapping of biological processes to unlock life’s mysteries.

Elizabeth O’Day Chief Executive Of昀椀cer and Founder, Olaris Angela Ruohao Wu Associate Professor, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Xu Xun Director, BGI Research The human body is composed of approximately 49 the market is up 89% of the market in 2020, 37.2 trillion cells. How do they all work together dramatically expanding to include pharmaceutical to keep us alive and healthy? Spatial omics may and biotech industries. provide researchers with an answer. By combining advanced imaging techniques with the speci昀椀city To realize the full promise of spatial omics, and resolution of DNA sequencing, this emerging technical challenges around data acquisition, method enables the mapping of the what, where processing, storage and standardized reporting and when of biological processes at the molecular must be addressed. Further, applications should level. Starting with an organ of interest (such as a be expanded to map other biomolecules, such as mouse brain), scientists slice tissue into sections only metabolites, and other organisms, including plants one cell thick. Innovative techniques are then used and invertebrates, to further illuminate the underlying to visualize the locations of speci昀椀c biomolecules biology. In the brief time since Nature Methods 36,37,38 Spatial omics allows previously selected spatial omics as the method of the year in in each slice . 50 unobservable cell architecture and biological events 2021 , it has evolved from a niche technique to one to be viewed in unprecedented detail. that is poised to become standardized and widely employed, revolutionizing the understanding of life. A new generation of molecular-level “cell atlases” are under development thanks to spatial omics, detailing the myriad biological processes occurring Impact 39,40 in humans and other species . For example, 昀椀ngerprint using spatial omics, scientists constructed a People three-dimensional cell atlas of fruit 昀氀y larvae and unlocked the black box of organ development in 41,42,43 Another study revealed that mouse embryos. the injured amphibian axolotl brain heals itself using Equity Planet mechanisms mirroring those activated during brain 44 Spatial omics also shows promise development . in therapeutic discovery. Using this technique, scientists identi昀椀ed a population of neurons in the spinal cord that appears to be responsible for recovery after spinal cord injury. Stimulating these neurons in paralysed mice sped up their recovery 45 Additional health-related applications Prosperity to walking . Image: include characterizing the various cell types in Industry New imaging a tumour to customize treatment and unravelling techniques may allow the mechanisms of complex diseases like for unprecedented 46 access to the previously Alzheimer’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis . unobservable. Infectious diseases can also be investigated using Credit: Midjourney and spatial omics. For example, a spatial omics study $232 million Studio Miko. of samples from people who died from COVID-19 revealed that SARS-CoV-2 causes widespread Spatial omics technologies Prompt (abbreviated): 47 “Organic cell structure at disruption of cellular pathways across all tissues . total market value in 2021 the molecular level taken The need to democratize and scale up spatial through microscopic imaging in a heatmap style”. omics technologies is pressing. With a total Read more: market value of $232.6 million in 2021 and an Discover expert analysis estimated revenue of $587.2 million in 2030, a $587 million related to spatial omics on growing list of public and private companies are 48 While Estimated revenue in 2030 the Strategic Intelligence seeking to provide spatial omics solutions . Platform. academic and translational research centres made Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 21

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 21

08 Flexible neural electronics Better engineered circuits to interface with the nervous system.

Wendy Ju Associate Professor, Cornell Tech Geoffrey Ling Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Hospital Ruth Morgan Vice-Dean (Interdisciplinary Entrepreneurship), Faculty of Engineering Sciences, UCL Angela Ruohao Wu Associate Professor, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology 54 55,56 In recent years, brain-machine interfaces recalibration. Applications of 昀氀exible BMIs (BMIs) have gained visibility, igniting collective are already undergoing US Food and Drug imaginations regarding the power and potential Administration (FDA)-approved clinical trials, rapidly of one day controlling machines with thoughts. making this technology a reality. In the future, other BMIs allow electrical signals the brain produces to implantable devices, such as cardiac pacemakers, be captured by sensor hardware. Algorithms then could adopt similar types of materials. decode these electrical signals into instructions that a computer can understand and execute. Looking forward, advances in materials BMI-like systems are already used to treat manufacturing and soft-circuit printing could further patients with epilepsy, and in neuroprosthetics – improve 昀氀exible BMI technologies, eventually prosthetic limbs use electrodes to interface with leading to true human-AI interfacing. As with many the nervous system.51,52 emerging technologies, broad ethical issues must be considered prior to the wide implementation of Despite initial successes, there are challenges these interfaces. Potential health outcomes must to these technologies. Current implants used by be balanced with public acceptance and trust. doctors are made of hard materials, like the chips Further, given the sensitive nature of brain-derived inside a laptop or phone, and they can trigger long- data, privacy and ethical use guidelines must term scarring and cause substantial discomfort. establish how these data can be used in the short, They cannot bend or adapt to brain movements medium and long term. so, over time, they “drift” in position, decreasing the accuracy of the captured signals. Non-invasive methods, like electrodes placed on the outside of Impact the skull, do not require surgical implantation but 昀椀ngerprint Image: provide only muf昀氀ed, dif昀椀cult-to-decode signals – like People Breakthroughs in 昀氀exible listening to a person talk through a thick face mask. electronics may pave the way for neurological Researchers have recently developed brain treatments. interfacing circuits on biocompatible materials that Equity are soft and 昀氀exible. Flexible circuits can conform to Planet Credit: Midjourney and the brain, reducing scarring and sensor drift, and they Studio Miko. Prompt (abbreviated): can be packed with enough sensors to stimulate “bright-white, 昀氀exible millions of brain cells at once, vastly outperforming electronics”. the scale and timeframe of hard probes.53 Read more: When used in neuroscience research, 昀氀exible Discover expert analysis BMIs could deepen understanding of neurological Prosperity related to 昀氀exible neural conditions such as dementia and autism. In the Industry electronics on the Strategic Intelligence clinic, 昀氀exible BMIs could provide greater control Platform. of neuroprosthetics without requiring frequent Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 23

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 23

09 Sustainable computing Designing and implementing net-zero-energy data centres.

Olga Fink Professor of Intelligent Maintenance and Operations Systems, EPFL Andrew Maynard Professor of Advanced Technology Transitions, Arizona State University While the Earth is indisputably facing a worsening as energy-proportional computing, in which environmental crisis, increasing reliance on data computers use energy proportional to the amount may not seem to play much of a role. Yet data of work being performed.63 centres, which facilitate Google searches, email, the metaverse, AI and myriad other aspects of Achieving net-zero-energy data centres will involve an increasingly data-based society, consume an innovative approaches to integrating the above 57 estimated 1% of the electricity produced globally, mentioned approaches with new electricity and this amount will only increase with growing generation, storage and management technologies. demand for data services. While there is no single Given the wave of innovation and investment in “green data” magic bullet, it is expected that this area, there is reason to be optimistic about the the coming decade will boast substantial strides years ahead. toward net-zero-energy data centres as emerging technologies are combined and integrated in innovative ways – rapidly making the dream of Impact net-zero-energy data centres an achievable reality. 昀椀ngerprint People First, to address heat-management issues, liquid cooling systems are being developed that use water or dielectric coolant to dissipate heat, and excess Planet heat is being repurposed for applications including Equity space heating, water heating and industrial processes. For instance, the city of Stockholm is implementing projects to harness waste heat from data centres to heat homes.58 Second, AI is being used to analyse and optimize energy use in real-time, maximizing ef昀椀ciency without compromising performance. DeepMind Prosperity has successfully demonstrated the potential of Industry AI-powered energy management, achieving up to a 40% reduction in energy consumption at Google’s data centres.59 Third, the technological infrastructure supporting Image: net-zero-energy data centres is becoming more Data centres, which Innovations in heat modular and demand-based. For instance, facilitate Google searches, management and energy cloud and edge computing systems allow data optimization can help processing and storage to be spread across email, the metaverse, AI data centres switch to 60,61 a more environmentally multiple devices, systems and even locations. and myriad other aspects friendly future. As an example, Crusoe Energy installs its modular of an increasingly data- Credit: Midjourney and data centres at sites where methane 昀氀aring Studio Miko. occurs to enable cloud computing infrastructure based society, consume Prompt (abbreviated): to be powered by methane gas that would an estimated 1% of the “Futuristic data centre otherwise have been released directly into the with nature inside and atmosphere. These and other prefabricated units electricity produced globally, surrounding”. can be easily deployed, expanded or relocated, making the dream of Read more: allowing data centre operators to optimize energy Discover expert analysis use and adapt to their companies’ changing net-zero-energy data centres related to sustainable needs. Additional innovations in software and an achievable reality. computing on the Strategic hardware include novel computing architectures 62 Intelligence Platform. like systems on a chip; and optimizations such Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 25

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 25

10 AI-facilitated healthcare New technologies to improve the ef昀椀ciency of healthcare systems.

Daniel E. Hurtado Mine Orlu Associate Professor, Ponti昀椀cal Catholic Professor of Pharmaceutics, UCL School University of Chile of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Sciences, UCL Andrew Maynard Landry Signe Professor of Advanced Technology Transitions, Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution Arizona State University Bernard S. Meyerson Chief Innovation Of昀椀cer Emeritus, IBM The shortcomings of healthcare systems all over has embraced an AI-based approach to enhance the world became abundantly and horrifyingly medical outreach. The Indian government has clear during the early days of the COVID-19 enabled physicians to engage remote communities pandemic when the sustainable workloads of many through assistive technologies, with requisite hospitals were rapidly exceeded. In response, privacy safeguards in place. government-based and academic teams have been created to integrate AI and machine learning In addition to protecting data privacy and gathering (ML) into healthcare – both to anticipate impending quality data needed to generate these insights, pandemics and to aid in effectively addressing them other challenges to implementing AI-facilitated 64,65 (AI4PEP). These emergent efforts to enhance healthcare approaches include bolstering public the ef昀椀cacy of national and global healthcare acceptance and universal adoption of such systems in the face of major health crises, and technologies, assuring patient compliance and to democratize access to care, are in their initial addressing possible national security concerns. stages but will rapidly scale up by integrating quality While these remaining hurdles may be challenging data into the AI and ML models.66 to overcome, the risks of inaction are clear. AI-based technologies could also help to tackle a Moreover, any system that curates personal data related challenge – the long delays many patients on the health and welfare of a vast population must experience when attempting to obtain medical function within the bounds of a carefully crafted care through the healthcare system.67 Surprisingly, legal and ethical framework. Such considerations delays often arise not from a lack of capacity 70 are already the topic of extensive discussion, but due to uneven access to – and resultant and legal frameworks are beginning to emerge in underutilization of – existing facilities. When applied anticipation of the global application of AI and ML to a curated data set of existing medical facilities, to healthcare. AI-based healthcare solutions will AI, ML and data analytics, techniques dramatically become ever-more pervasive in the next three to improved patient access to treatments. Medical 昀椀ve years, to the great bene昀椀t of human health – Con昀椀dence, a subsidiary of CloudMD, used such particularly for those in underserved populations. technology to optimally align patient treatment needs with facility availability, enabling dramatic reductions in treatment wait times – in some cases, Impact 68 An AI- from many months down to only weeks. 昀椀ngerprint based approach to optimizing access to care is People Image: becoming broadly adopted in Canada and will likely One of the most effective be replicated elsewhere. ways emerging AI systems may impact healthcare is The impact of AI-based healthcare could be even Equity Planet through the treatment of more profound in developing nations, which often data and analytics. lack the infrastructure and personnel to deliver Credit: Midjourney and health services to much of their populations. Studio Miko. Intelligent tools to assist in the identi昀椀cation, Prompt (abbreviated): monitoring and treatment of new or ongoing “Abstract population data”. medical conditions – such as an AI-based system 69 Read more: to facilitate the reading of radiological data – are Discover expert analysis a 昀椀rst step in leveraging AI and ML to enhance related to AI-facilitated healthcare capabilities in locations where care is Prosperity healthcare on the Strategic currently inadequate. India, for example, has a Industry Intelligence Platform. widely dispersed population of over 1.4 billion and Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 27

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 27

Contributors World Economic Forum Frontiers Centre for the Fourth Susan Debad Industrial Revolution Consultant Frederick Fenter Sebastian Buckup Chief Executive Editor Head, Network and Partnerships George Thomas Greta Keenan Public Affairs Manager Strategic Impact and Communications Lead Participating journals: Saemoon Yoon Frontiers in Arti昀椀cial Intelligence Lead, Innovator Communities Frontiers in Batteries and Electrochemistry Frontiers in Cell Signaling Frontiers in Chemical Biology Strategic Intelligence Platform Frontiers in Computer Science Frontiers in Energy Ef昀椀ciency James Landale Frontiers in Fuels Head, Content and Partnerships Frontiers in Lab on a Chip Technologies Frontiers in Medical Technology John Letzing Frontiers in Medical Engineering Digital Editor Frontiers in Membrane Science and Technology Frontiers in Microbiology Stephan Mergenthaler Frontiers in Plant Science Head Frontiers in Systems Biology Frontiers in Virtual Reality Minji Sung Specialist, Content and Partnerships Production Centre for Nature and Climate Laurence Denmark Lauren Uppink Calderwood Creative Director, Studio Miko Head, Climate Strategy Sophie Ebbage Designer, Studio Miko Martha Howlett Editor, Studio Miko George Messer Designer, Studio Miko Acknowledgements The Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution – many from Frontiers’ network of scienti昀椀c would like to thank the members of the steering editors – and business leaders, from the group who adjudicated the top 10 technologies Forum’s Innovator Communities, for their impact and authored the articles in the report. Additional assessment of the top 10 technologies via the thanks to the other contributing academics “impact 昀椀ngerprint” surveys. Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 28

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 28

Steering group Andrew Maynard Professor of Advanced Technology Transitions, Co-Chairs Arizona State University Mariette DiChristina Ruth Morgan Dean and Professor of the Practice in Journalism, Vice-Dean (Interdisciplinary Entrepreneurship), Boston University College of Communication Faculty of Engineering Sciences, University College London (UCL) Bernard S. Meyerson Chief Innovation Of昀椀cer Emeritus, IBM Elizabeth O’Day Chief Executive Of昀椀cer and Founder, Olaris Members Mine Orlu Enass Abo-Hamed Professor of Pharmaceutics, UCL School of Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, H2GO Power Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Sciences, UCL Jeff Carbeck Carlo Ratti Vice-President, Corporate Innovation, Eastman Director, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Senseable City Lab Rona Chandrawati Associate Professor, University of New South Wales Barry Shoop Dean of Engineering, Albert Nerken School Liming Chen of Engineering, The Cooper Union for the Chair of Greater China, World Economic Forum Advancement of Science and Engineering Joseph Costantine Landry Signe Associate Professor of Electrical and Computer Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution Engineering, American University of Beirut Wilfried Weber P. Murali Doraiswamy Scienti昀椀c Director, Leibniz Institute for New Materials Professor of Psychiatry and Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine Angela Ruohao Wu Associate Professor, Hong Kong University Sarah E. Fawcett of Science and Technology Senior Lecturer, University of Cape Town Xu Xun Olga Fink Director, BGI Research Professor of Intelligent Maintenance and Operations Systems, EPFL Academics Javier García Martínez Professor of Chemistry and Director, Molecular Nanotechnology Lab, University of Alicante Mark Billinghurst Professor, University of South Australia Daniel E. Hurtado Associate Professor, Ponti昀椀cal Catholic University Cristina Botella of Chile Full Professor, Universitat Jaume I Wendy Ju Yohann Boutté Associate Professor, Cornell Tech Research Director, Centre National de la Recherche Scienti昀椀que (CNRS) Jeremy Jurgens Managing Director, World Economic Forum Kim Bullock Clinical Professor, Stanford Corinna Lathan Co-Founder and former Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, Mouloud Denai AnthroTronix Senior Lecturer, University of Hertfordshire Lee Sang-Yup Anirban Dutta Senior Vice-President for Research, Korea Associate Professor in Biomedical Engineering, Advanced Institute of Science and Technology University of Lincoln Geoffrey Ling Issam El Naqa Professor of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Hospital Chair and Senior Member, Mof昀椀tt Cancer Center Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 29

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 29

Sanket Goel Daobilige Su Professor, BITS Pilani, Hyderabad Campus Associate Professor, China Agricultural University Chenghong Gu Vincent Quoc-Huy Trinh Reader, University of Bath Clinical Assistant Professor, Université de Montréal Thomas Hartung Julien Weissenberg Professor, Johns Hopkins University Founder, Deep Tech Experts Paul Hyman Alicja Wegrzyn Professor of Biology, Ashland University Professor, University of Gdansk Xiuliang Jin Yaolin Xu Professor, Institute of Crop Sciences, Researcher, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Materialien und Energie (HZB) Kumaran Kannaiyan Guo Zhao Associate Professor, Guangdong Technion Israel Associate Professor, Nanjing Agricultural University Institute of Technology Farah Kidwai-Khan Innovator Community members Senior Data Scientist, Yale George Kouvas Marissa Ruby Brock Chief Technology Of昀椀cer, Wyss Center for Bio and Senior Director, Policy and Government Affairs, Neuroengineering Sourcemap Oliver Kröcher Jamie Burrows Head of the Bioenergy and Catalysis Laboratory, Founder and Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, Vertical Future Paul Scherrer Institut Isaac Castro Eungje Lee Co-Founder and Co-Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, Emerge Staff Scientist, Argonne National Laboratory Jim Flatt Yongliang Qiao Co-Founder and Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, Research Fellow, The University of Adelaide Brightseed Bio Deborah Richards Adam Hildreth Professor, Macquarie University Founder, Crisp Stefano Rinaldi Igor Jablokov Associate Professor, Università degli Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, Pryon Studi di Brescia Bu Gi Kim Dwayne Roach Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, Standard Energy Assistant Professor, San Diego State University Sky Kurtz Philippe Roux Founder and Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, Professor, Université de Montréal Pure Harvest Smart Farms Yasir Saleem Ben Lamm Lecturer in Computer Science, Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, Colossal Biosciences Aberystwyth University Kevin Lang Michael Short Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, Agerpoint Professor, Teesside University Maarten Michielssens Lei Shu Founder and Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, EnergyVision Professor, Nanjing Agricultural University Tsuyoshi Stuart Oda Mel Slater Founder and Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, Distinguished Investigator, University of Barcelona Alesca Life Technologies Lena Smirnova Joe Paluska Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins University Chief Marketing Of昀椀cer, One Concern Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 30

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 30

Joris Poort Didier Toubia Founder and Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, Rescale Co-Founder and Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, Aleph Farms Felix Reinshagen Raj Verma Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, NavVis Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, SingleStore Umesh Sachdev Ellie Wood Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, Uniphore Chief of Staff to the Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, LanzaTech Jimmy Samartzis Chief Executive Of昀椀cer, LanzaJet Josef Zankowicz Vice-President Corporate Development, Canvass AI Ritwik Sinha Strategy Analyst, Our Next Energy (ONE) Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 31

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 31

Endnotes 1. Kong, Long, Cheng Tang, Hong-Jie Peng, Jia-Qu Huang and Qiang Zhang, “Advanced Energy Materials for Flexible Batteries in Energy Storage: A Review”, SmartMat, vol. 1, issue 1, 2020, 2. In昀椀niti Research, Global Flexible Battery Market 2023, 2023, Battery-Market.html. 3. Grand View Research, Flexible Battery Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Application, Regional Outlook, Competitive Strategies, And Segment Forecasts, 2019 To 2025, n.d., analysis/昀氀exible-battery-market. 4. Gozalo-Brizuela, Roberto and Eduardo Garrido-Merchan, “ChatGPT Is Not All You Need. A State Of The Art Review of Large Generative AI Models”, Cornell University arXiv, 2023, 5. Anstine, Dylan M. and Olexander Isayev, “Generative Models as an Emerging Paradigm in the Chemical Sciences”, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 145, issue 16, 2023, pp. 8736-8750, 6. McClelland, Ryan, Generative Design and Digital Manufacturing: Using AI and Robots to Build Lightweight Instruments, Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Engineering, 2022, downloads/McClelland-Generative%20Design%20SPIE%202022.pdf. 7. Taylor, Ross, Marcin Kardas, Guillem Cucurull, Thomas Scialom et al., Galactica: A Large Language Model for Science, arXiv (preprint), 2022, 8. Takagi, Yu and Shinji Nishimoto, High-Resolution Image Reconstruction with Latent Diffusion Models from Human Brain Activity, Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2023, 9. Baidoo-Anu, David and Leticia Owusu Ansah “Education in the Era of Generative Arti昀椀cial Intelligence (AI): Understanding the Potential Bene昀椀ts of ChatGPT in Promoting Teaching and Learning”, Social Science Research Network, 2023, 10. Noy, Shakked and Whitney Zhang, Experimental Evidence on the Productivity Effects of Generative Arti昀椀cial Intelligence, Social Science Research Network, 2023, 11. Lee, D.S.; D.W. Fahey, A. Skowron, M.R. Allen et al., “The Contribution of Global Aviation to Anthropogenic Climate Forcing for 2000 to 2018”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 244, no. 117834, 2021, 12. Mission Possible Partnership (MPP), Making Net-Zero Aviation Possible: An Industry-Backed, 1.5°C-Aligned Transition Strategy, 2022, 13. Ibid. 14. International Air Transport Association, 2022 SAF Production Increases 200% - More Incentives Needed to Reach Net Zero, [Press release], 7 December 2022, 15. World Economic Forum, Clean Skies for Tomorrow: Sustainable Aviation Fuels as a Pathway to Net-Zero Aviation, 2020, aviation?DAG=3&gclid=Cj0KCQjw2v-gBhC1ARIsAOQdKY1WXKkH-k6HwvUOJBSC2T-BAwxSFL8BKxzUYD- HyZBEOV9xcICFHowaArThEALw_wcB. 16. The American Society of Testing and Materials, Standard Speci昀椀cation for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons, 2022, 17. Kim, Hye Mi, Tong Un Chae, So Young Choi, Won Jun Kim and Sang Yup Lee, “Engineering of an Oleaginous Bacterium for the Production of Fatty Acids and Fuels”, Nature Chemical Biology, vol. 15, 2019, pp. 721-729, 18. Cruz-Morales, Pablo, Kevin Yin, Alexander Landera, John Cort and Robert Young et al., “Biosynthesis of Polycyclopropanated High Energy Biofuels”, Joule, vol. 6, 2022, pp. 1590-1605, 19. Looi, Mun-Keat, “The Human Microbiome: Everything You Need to Know About the 39 Trillion Microbes That Call Our Bodies Home”, BBC Science Focus, 14 July 2020, 20. Peixoto, Raquel, Derek Harkins and Karen Nelson, “Advances in Microbiome Research for Animal Health”, Annual Review of Animal Biosciences, vol. 9, 2021, pp. 289-311. 21. Trivedi, Pankaj, Jan Leach, Susannah Tringe, Tongmin Sa and Brajesh Singh, “Plant–Microbiome Interactions: From Community Assembly to Plant Health”, Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. 18, 2020, pp. 607–621. 22. Bloomberg, Eligo Presents Preclinical Data Demonstrating for the First Time that Gut Microbiome Modulation via Delivery of CRISPR Nuclease [Press release] , 15 June 2021, presents-preclinical-data-demonstrating-for-the-昀椀rst-time-that-gut-microbiome-modulation-via-delivery-of-crispr-nuclease. 23. Eligo Biosciences, Eligo Bioscience Receives FDA Orphan Drug Designation [Press release], 11 October 2022, 24. Strathdee, Steffanie, Graham Hatful, Vivek Mutalik and Robert Schooley, “Phage Therapy: From Biological Mechanisms to Future Directions”, Cell, vol. 186, no. 1, 2023, pp. 17-31. Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 32

Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 - Page 32

25. Twenge, Jean and W. Keith Campbell, “Associations Between Screen Time and Lower Psychological Well-Being Among Children and Adolescents: Evidence from a Population-Based Study”, Science Direct, vol. 12, 2018, 26. “Screen Time Can Be a Lifeline…” Family Zone, n.d., 27. Becerra, Xavier, Andrea Palm, Rebecca Haffajee, January Contreras et al., “Addressing the Nation’s Behavioral Health Crisis: An HHS Roadmap to Integrate Behavioral Health”, Health Affairs Forefront, 2 December 2022, https://www.healthaffairs. org/content/forefront/addressing-nations-behavioral-health-crisis-hhs-roadmap-integrate-behavioral-health. 28. Weiner, Stacy, “A Growing Psychiatrist Shortage and an Enormous Demand for Mental Health Services”, American Association of Medical Colleges, 9 August 2022, shortage-enormous-demand-mental-health-services. 29. Barsky, Troy, Jodi Daniel, Stacie Heller and Allison Kwon, “President Biden Signs End-of-Year Legislation Including Telehealth, Medicare & Medicaid, Mental Health, Pandemic Preparedness, and Other Health Care Provisions”, Health Law, 25 January 2023, including-telehealth-medicare-medicaid-mental-health-pandemic-preparedness-and-other-health-care-provisions/. 30. Schrempf, Matthias, Julian Petzold, Morten Petersen, Tim Arndt et al., “A Randomised Pilot Trial of Virtual Reality-Based Relaxation for Enhancement of Perioperative Well-Being, Mood and Quality of Life”, Scienti昀椀c Reports, vol. 12, no. 12067, 2022. 31. Rao, Vikram, Kristin Sellers, Deanna Wallace, Morgan Lee et al., “Direct Electrical Stimulation of Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex Acutely Improves Mood in Individuals with Symptoms of Depression” Current Biology, vol. 28, issue 4, 2018, pp. 3893-3902, 32. “World must sustainably produce 70 percent more food by mid-century – UN report”, United Nations News, 2013, 33. Zhang, Chongyuan, Afef Marzougui and Sindhuja Sankaran, “High-resolution satellite imagery applications in crop phenotyping: An overview”, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 175, no. 105584, 2020, 34. Olsen, Daniel; Anderson, James. “Review on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Remote Sensors, Imagery Processing, and Their Applications in Agriculture”, Agronomy Journal, vol. 113, issue 2, 2021, pp. 971-992, https://acsess.onlinelibrary. 35. “Precision Agriculture: Sensors Drive Agricultural Ef昀椀ciency”, Sensors & Systems, 21 January 2013,昀椀ciency/. 36. Marx, Vivien, “Method of the Year: Spatially Resolved Transcriptomics”, Nature Methods, vol. 18, no. 1, 2021, pp. 9-14. 37. Moses, Lambda and Lior Pachter, “Museum of Spatial Transcriptomics”, Nature, vol. 19, no. 5, 2022, pp. 534-546. 38. Williams, Cameron, Hyun Jae Lee, Takahiro Asatsuma, Roser Vento-Tormo and Ashraful Haque, “An Introduction to Spatial Transcriptomics for Biomedical Research”, Genome Medicine, vol. 14, 2022, pp. 1-18. 39. Poo, Mu-Ming, “Transcriptome, Connectome and Neuromodulation of the Primate Brain”, Cell, vol. 185, 2022, pp. 2636-2639. 40. Elmentaite, Rasa; Cecelia Domínguez Conde, Lu Yang and Sarah Teichmann, “Single-Cell Atlases: Shared and Tissue-Speci昀椀c Cell Types across Human Organs”, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol. 23, no. 7, 2022, pp. 395-410. 41. Yang, Pengyi and Patrick Tam, “Mouse Organogenesis Atlas at Single-Cell Resolution”, Cell, vol. 185, 2022, pp. 1625-1627. 42. Pour, Maayan and Itai Yanai, “New Adventures in Spatial Transcriptomics”, Developmental Cell, vol. 57, 2022, pp. 1209-1210. 43. Koch, Linda, “A Panoramic View of Mouse Organogenesis”, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol. 23, no. 7, 2022, pp. 393-393. 44. Lust, Katharina, Ashley Maynar, Tomás Gomes, Jonas Simon Fleck et al., “Single-Cell Analyses of Axolotl Telencephalon Organization, Neurogenesis, and Regeneration”, Science, vol. 377, issue 6610, 2022, p. 377, doi/10.1126/science.abp9262. 45. Kathe, Claudia, Michael Skinnider, Thomas Hutson, Nicola Regazzi et al., “The neurons that restore walking after paralysis”, Nature, vol. 611, no. 7963, 2022, pp. 540-547. 46. Zhang, Jiajun, Jianhua Yin, Yang Heng, Ken Xie et al., “Spatiotemporal Omics–Re昀椀ning the Landscape of Precision Medicine”, Life Medicine, vol. 1, issue 2, 2022, pp. 84-102, 47. Park, Jiwoon, Jonathan Foox, Tyler Hether, David Danko et al., “Systemic Tissue and Cellular Disruption from SARS-CoV-2 Infection Revealed in COVID-19 Autopsies and Spatial Omics Tissue Maps”, bioRxiv, 2021, 48. “Spatial Omics Solutions Market Worth $587.2 Million by 2030 - Exclusive Report by InsightAce Analytic”, InsightAce Analytic, 10 August 2022, million-by-2030---exclusive-report-by-insightace-analytic-301603401.html. 49. Grand View Research, Spatial OMICS Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report by Technology (Transcriptomics, Genomics, Proteomics), by Product, by Work昀氀ow, by Sample Type, by End Use, by Region, and Segment Forecasts, 2021–2028, n.d., 50. Marx, Vivien, “Method of the Year: Spatially Resolved Transcriptomics”, Nature Methods, vol. 18, no. 1, 2021, pp. 9-14. Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 33

51. Qin, Kefan, Wei Ma, Changzheng Hu, Guobin Shuai and Wiebo Hu, “A Wireless Universal Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) System for Epileptic Diseases”, 2022 5th International Conference on Circuits, Systems and Simulation, 2022, pp. 156-160, 52. Vattendahl Vidal, Gabriel, Matthew Rynes, Zachary Kelliher and Shikha Goodwin, “Review of Brain-Machine Interfaces Used in Neural Prosthetics with New Perspective on Somatosensory Feedback through Method of Signal Breakdown”, Scienti昀椀ca (Cairo), 2016, 53. Tang, Xin, Hao Shen, Siyan Zhao, Na Li, Jia Liu, “Flexible Brain–Computer Interfaces”, Nature Electronics, vol. 6, 2023, pp. 109-118. 54. Zhao, Siyuan, Xin Tang, Weiwen Tian, Sebastian Partarrieu et al., “Tracking neural activity from the same cells during the entire adult life of mice”, Nature Neuroscience, vol. 26, 2023, pp. 696-710, 55. BioSpace, WISE Completes Enrolment in Pivotal Clinical Study of Novel Neuro-Electrodes for Brain Monitoring [Press release], 23 January 2020, novel-neuro-electrodes-for-brain-monitoring/. 56. Holt, Kris, “FDA Clears Synchron’s Brain-Computer Interface Device for Human Trials”, Engadget, 28 July 2021, 57. Rooks, Timothy, “Data Centers Keep Energy Use Steady Despite Big Growth”, Deutsche Welle, 24 January 2022, ef昀椀ciency/a-60444548. 58. Biba, Erin, “The city where the internet warms people’s homes”, BBC, 13 October 2017, 59. Evans, Richard and Jim Gao, “DeepMind AI Reduces Google Data Centre Cooling Bill by 40%”, Deep Mind, 20 July 2016, 60. Katal, Avita, Susheela Dahiya and Tanupriya Choudhury, “Energy Ef昀椀ciency in Cloud Computing Data Centers: A Survey on Software Technologies”, Cluster Computing, 2022, 61. Flower, David, “How Machine Learning and Edge Computing Power Sustainability”, Forbes, 18 March 2022, ability/?sh=78055e4e5fab. 62. Simpson, Stephen, “Systems on a Chip Comes to the Data Center”, McKinsey Digital, 8 March 2022, 63. Barroso, Luiz and Urs Hölzle, “The Case for Energy-Proportional Computing”, Computer, vol. 40, no. 12, 2007, pp. 33-37, 64. Malik, Yashpal Singh, Shubhankar Sircar, Sudipta Bhat, Mohd Ikram Ansari et al., “How Arti昀椀cial Intelligence May Help the Covid-19 Pandemic: Pitfalls and Lessons for the Future”, Medical Virology, vol. 31, no. 5, 2021, pp. 1-11. 65. “Preparing for a Future Pandemic with Arti昀椀cial Intelligence”, Paci昀椀c Northwest National Laboratory, 21 September 2021,昀椀cial-intelligence. 66. Mahajan, Abhishek, Tanvi Vaidya, Anurag Gupta, Swapnil Rane and Sudeep Gupta, “Arti昀椀cial Intelligence in Healthcare i n Developing Nations”, Cancer Research, Statistics, and Treatment, vol. 2, no. 2, 2019, pp. 182-189. 67. “Comparing Nations on Timeliness and Coordination of Health Care”, The Commonwealth Fund, 4 October 2021, 68. Johnson, Angela, “Reducing the wait for care: Case study”, HRR Reporter, 9 December 2019, https://www.hrreporter. com/focus-areas/compensation-and-bene昀椀ts/reducing-the-wait-for-care-case-study/323823. 69. Mahajan, Abhishek, Tanvi Vaidya, Anurag Gupta, Swapnil Rane and Sudeep Gupta, “Arti昀椀cial Intelligence in Healthcare in Developing Nations”, Cancer Research, Statistics, and Treatment, vol. 2, no. 2, 2019, pp. 182-189. 70. Federation of European Academies of Medicine, International Sharing of Personal Health Data for Research, 2021, Top 10 Emerging Technologies of 2023 34

The World Economic Forum, committed to improving the state of the world, is the International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation. The Forum engages the foremost political, business and other leaders of society to shape global, regional and industry agendas. World Economic Forum 91–93 route de la Capite CH-1223 Cologny/Geneva Switzerland Tel.: +41 (0) 22 869 1212 Fax: +41 (0) 22 786 2744 [email protected]