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Global Gender Gap Report 2023

The Global Gender Gap Index annually benchmarks the current state and evolution of gender parity across four key dimensions (Economic Participation and Opportunity, Educational Attainment, Health and Survival, and Political Empowerment). It is the longest-standing index tracking the progress of numerous countries’ efforts towards closing these gaps over time since its inception in 2006.

INSIGHT REPORT JUNE 2023

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June 2023 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 Terms of use and disclaimer The analysis presented in the Global Gender The World Economic Forum in no way represents Gap Report 2023 (herein: “Report”) is based on or warrants that it owns or controls all rights in all a methodology integrating the latest statistics Data, and the World Economic Forum will not be from international organizations and a survey of liable to users for any claims brought against users executives. by third parties in connection with their use of any Data. The World Economic Forum, its agents, The 昀椀ndings, interpretations and conclusions of昀椀cers and employees do not endorse or in any expressed in this work do not necessarily re昀氀ect the respect warrant any third-party products or services views of the World Economic Forum. The Report by virtue of any Data, material or content referred to presents information and data that were compiled or included in this Report. Users shall not infringe and/or collected by the World Economic Forum upon the integrity of the Data and in particular (all information and data referred herein as “Data”). shall refrain from any act of alteration of the Data Data in this Report is subject to change without that intentionally affects its nature or accuracy. If notice. The terms country and nation as used in the Data is materially transformed by the user, this this Report do not in all cases refer to a territorial must be stated explicitly along with the required entity that is a state as understood by international source citation. For Data compiled by parties other law and practice. The terms cover well-de昀椀ned, than the World Economic Forum, users must geographically self-contained economic areas that refer to these parties’ terms of use, in particular may not be states but for which statistical data are concerning the attribution, distribution, and maintained on a separate and independent basis. reproduction of the Data. When Data for which the World Economic Forum is the source (herein “World Although the World Economic Forum takes every Economic Forum”), is distributed or reproduced, reasonable step to ensure that the Data thus it must appear accurately and be attributed to the compiled and/or collected is accurately re昀氀ected World Economic Forum. This source attribution in this Report, the World Economic Forum, its requirement is attached to any use of Data, whether agents, of昀椀cers and employees: (i) provide the Data obtained directly from the World Economic Forum “as is, as available” and without warranty of any or from a user. Users who make World Economic kind, either express or implied, including, without Forum Data available to other users through any limitation, warranties of merchantability, 昀椀tness for a type of distribution or download environment agree particular purpose and non-infringement; (ii) make to make reasonable efforts to communicate and no representations, express or implied, as to the promote compliance by their end users with these accuracy of the Data contained in this Report or terms. its suitability for any particular purpose; (iii) accept no liability for any use of the said Data or reliance Users who intend to sell World Economic Forum placed on it, in particular, for any interpretation, Data as part of a database or as a stand-alone decisions, or actions based on the Data in this product must 昀椀rst obtain the permission from the Report. Other parties may have ownership interests World Economic Forum ([email protected]). in some of the Data contained in this Report. World Economic Forum All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, 91-93 route de la Capite or transmitted, in any form or by any means, CH-1223 Cologny/Geneva electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise Switzerland without the prior permission of the World Economic Tel.: +41 (0)22 869 1212 Forum. Fax: +41 (0)22 786 2744 E-mail: [email protected] ISBN-13: 978-2-940631-97-1 www.weforum.org The report and an interactive data platform are Copyright © 2022 available at http://reports.weforum.org/global- by the World Economic Forum gender-gap-report-2023. First part of the title: Second part of the title 2

Contents Preface 4 Key Findings 5 1 Benchmarking gender gaps, 2023 9 1.1 Country coverage 9 1.2 Global results 10 1.3 Performance by subindex 12 1.4 Progress over time 15 1.5 Performance by region 19 1.6 In-focus country performances: Top 10 and 15 most 27 populous Endnotes 32 2 Gender gaps in the workforce 33 2.1 Evolving gender gaps in the global labour market 33 2.2 Workforce representation across industries 37 2.3 Representation of women in senior leadership 38 2.4 Gender gaps in the labour markets of the future 44 2.5 Gender gaps in the skills of the future 47 2.6 Gender gaps in political leadership 53 2.7 DEI programmes to close gender gaps 55 2.8 Putting gender parity at the heart of economic recovery and 57 transformation Endnotes 59 References 60 Appendix A 61 Appendix B 62 Endnotes 75 References 76 User’s Guide 77 Contributors and Acknowledgements 373 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 3

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June 2023 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 Preface Saadia Zahidi Managing Director Recent years have been marked by major between participating countries and a wider setbacks for gender parity globally, with previous network of leaders. Focusing on corporate action, progress disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic’s the Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DEI) Lighthouse impact on women and girls in education and the Programme brings together a cross-industry group workforce, followed by economic and geopolitical of organizations taking action to drive better and crises. Today, some parts of the world are seeing faster DEI outcomes through CEO leadership, and partial recoveries while others are experiencing knowledge-sharing on initiatives that have achieved deteriorations as new crises unfold. Global gender signi昀椀cant, quanti昀椀able and sustained impact for gaps in health and education have narrowed underrepresented groups. over the past year, yet progress on political empowerment is effectively at a standstill, and This year’s edition of the Global Gender Gap women’s economic participation has regressed Report also analyses new data on labour market rather than recovered. outcomes for women, at both the macro-economic and industry level. We are grateful to LinkedIn The tepid progress on persistently large gaps and Coursera for their continued collaboration in documented in this seventeenth edition of the providing unique data and new measures to track Global Gender Gap Report creates an urgent case gender gaps in workforce participation, senior for renewed and concerted action. Accelerating leadership and online skilling. We also thank the progress towards gender parity will not only members of the Centre for the New Economy and improve outcomes for women and girls but bene昀椀t Society Advisory Board for their leadership, the over economies and societies more widely, reviving 150 partners of the Centre, and the Global Future growth, boosting innovation and increasing Council on the Future of the Care Economy and resilience. The report provides a tool for consistent Community of Chief Diversity and Inclusion Of昀椀cers tracking of gender gaps across the economic, for expert guidance, as well as a network of national political, health and education spheres, and is ministries of economy, education and labour for designed for leaders to identify areas for individual their commitment to advancing gender parity. and collective action. We would like to express our gratitude to Silja At the World Economic Forum, the Centre for Baller, Kusum Kali Pal, Kim Piaget and Ricky Li the New Economy and Society complements for their leadership of this project. We would also measurement of gender gaps with a set of initiatives like to thank our colleagues Attilio Di Battista, Eoin and coalitions dedicated to advancing progress. O’Cathasaigh, Gulipairi Maimaiti and Mark Rayner The Gender Parity Accelerators are working for their support. towards gender parity in economic participation – scaling policies and strategies to improve women’s We hope the data and analysis provided in this representation in the workforce and in leadership report can further accelerate the speed of travel – as well as pay equity. Accelerators are currently towards parity by catalysing and informing action present in 14 countries in Latin America and the by public- and private-sector leaders in their Caribbean, the Middle East and North Africa, efforts to close the global gender gap. With the Central Asia, East Asia and the Paci昀椀c, and Sub- myriad challenges the world faces, we need the full Saharan Africa. The Global Learning Network linked power of human creativity and collaboration to 昀椀nd to the Accelerators surfaces successful policies pathways to shared prosperity. and practices and promotes knowledge exchange Global Gender Gap Report 2023 4

June 2023 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 Key Findings The Global Gender Gap Index annually benchmarks levels, the overall rate of change has slowed down the current state and evolution of gender parity signi昀椀cantly. Even reverting back to the time horizon across four key dimensions (Economic Participation of 100 years to parity projected in the 2020 edition and Opportunity, Educational Attainment, Health would require a signi昀椀cant acceleration of progress. and Survival, and Political Empowerment). It is the longest-standing index tracking the progress of – According to the 2023 Global Gender Gap numerous countries’ efforts towards closing these Index no country has yet achieved full gender gaps over time, since its inception in 2006. parity, although the top nine countries (Iceland, Norway, Finland, New Zealand, Sweden, This year, the 17th edition of the Global Gender Germany, Nicaragua, Namibia and Lithuania) Gap Index benchmarks gender parity across 146 have closed at least 80% of their gap. For the countries, providing a basis for robust cross- 14th year running, Iceland (91.2%) takes the top country analysis. Further, examining a subset of 102 position. It also continues to be the only country countries that have been included in every edition to have closed more than 90% of its gender of the index since 2006 provides a large constant gap. sample for time-series analysis. The Global Gender Gap Index measures scores on a 0 to 100 scale – The global top 昀椀ve is completed by three other and scores can be interpreted as the distance Nordic countries – Norway (87.9%, 2nd), covered towards parity (i.e. the percentage of the Finland (86.3%, 3rd) and Sweden (81.5%, gender gap that has been closed). Cross-country 5th) – with one country from East Asia and the comparisons support the identi昀椀cation of the most Paci昀椀c – New Zealand (85.6%, 4th) – ranked effective policies to close gender gaps. 4th. Additionally, from Europe, Germany (81.5%) moves up to 6th place (from 10th), Lithuania Key 昀椀ndings include the index results in 2023, trend (80.0.%) returns to the top 10 economies, analysis of the trajectory towards parity and data taking 9th place, and Belgium (79.6%) joins deep dives through new metrics partnerships and the top 10 for the 昀椀rst time in 10th place. One contextual data. country from Latin America (Nicaragua, 81.1%) and one from Sub-Saharan Africa (Namibia, 80.2%) – complete this year’s top 10, taking Global results and time to parity the 7th and 8th positions, respectively. The two countries that drop out of the top 10 in 2023 are Ireland (79.5%,11th, down from 9th in 2022) The global gender gap score in 2023 for all 146 and Rwanda (79.4%, 12th, down from 6th). countries included in this edition stands at 68.4% closed. Considering the constant sample of 145 – For the 146 countries covered in the 2023 countries covered in both the 2022 and 2023 index, the Health and Survival gender gap has editions, the overall score changed from 68.1% to closed by 96%, the Educational Attainment 68.4%, an improvement of 0.3 percentage points gap by 95.2%, Economic Participation and compared to last year’s edition. Opportunity gap by 60.1%, and Political Empowerment gap by 22.1%. When considering the 102 countries covered continuously from 2006 to 2023, the gap is 68.6% – Based on the constant sample of 102 countries closed in 2023, recovering to the level reported covered in all editions since 2006, there is in the 2020 edition and advancing by a modest an advancement from 95.3% to 96.1% on 4.1 percentage points since the 昀椀rst edition of the Educational Attainment between 2022 and report in 2006. At the current rate of progress, it 2023, moving beyond pre-pandemic levels, will take 131 years to reach full parity. While the and an improvement from 95.7% to 95.9% for global parity score has recovered to pre-pandemic the Health and Survival dimension. The Political Global Gender Gap Report 2023 5

Empowerment score edges up from 22.4% progress, Latin America and the Caribbean will to 22.5% and Economic Participation and take 53 years to attain full gender parity. Opportunity regresses from 60.0% in 2022 to 59.8% in 2023. – At 69% parity, Eurasia and Central Asia ranks 4th out of the eight regions on the overall – At the current rate of progress over the 2006- Gender Gap Index. Based on the aggregated 2023 span, it will take 162 years to close the scores of the constant sample of countries Political Empowerment gender gap, 169 years included since 2006, the parity score since the for the Economic Participation and Opportunity 2020 edition has stagnated, although there has gender gap, and 16 years for the Educational been an improvement of 3.2 percentage points Attainment gender gap. The time to close since 2006. Moldova, Belarus and Armenia the Health and Survival gender gap remains are the highest-ranking countries in the region, unde昀椀ned. while Azerbaijan, Tajikistan and Türkiye rank the lowest. The difference in parity between Regional results and time to the highest and the lowest ranked country is parity 14.9 percentage points. At the current rate of progress, it will take 167 years for the Eurasia and Central Asia region to reach gender parity. Gender parity in Europe (76.3%) surpasses the parity level in North America (75%) this year to rank – East Asia and the Paci昀椀c is at 68.8% parity, 昀椀rst of eight geographic regions. Closely behind marking the 昀椀fth-highest score out of the eight Europe and North America is Latin America and the regions. Progress towards parity has been Caribbean, with 74.3% parity. Trailing more than stagnating for over a decade and the region 5 percentage points behind Latin America and the registers a 0.2 percentage-point decline since Caribbean are Eurasia and Central Asia (69%) as the last edition. New Zealand, the Philippines well as East Asia and the Paci昀椀c (68.8%). Sub- and Australia have the highest parity at the Saharan Africa ranks 6th (68.2%), slightly below the regional level, with Australia and New Zealand global weighted average score (68.3%). Southern also being the two most-improved economies Asia (63.4%) overtakes the Middle East and North in the region. On the other hand, Fiji, Myanmar Africa (62.6%), which is, in 2023, the region furthest and Japan are at the bottom of the list, with away from parity. Fiji, Myanmar and Timor-Leste registering the largest declines. At the current rate of progress, – Across all subindexes, Europe has the highest it will take 189 years for the region to reach gender parity of all regions at 76.3%, with gender parity. one-third of countries in the region ranking in the top 20 and 20 out of 36 countries with at – Sub-Saharan Africa’s parity score is the sixth- least 75% parity. Iceland, Norway and Finland highest among the eight regions at 68.2%, are the best-performing countries, both in the ranking above Southern Asia and the Middle region and in the world, while Hungary, Czech East and North Africa. Progress in the region Republic and Cyprus rank at the bottom of has been uneven. Namibia, Rwanda and South the region. Overall, there is a decline of 0.2 Africa, along with 13 other countries, have percentage points in the regional score based closed more than 70% of the overall gender on the constant sample of countries. At the gap. The Democratic Republic of the Congo, current rate of progress, Europe is projected to Mali and Chad are the lowest-performing attain gender parity in 67 years. countries, with scores below 62%. Based on the constant sample, this marks a marginal – Just behind Europe, North America ranks improvement of 0.1 percentage points. At the second, having closed 75% of the gap, which is current rate of progress, it will take 102 years to 1.9 percentage points lower than the previous close the gender gap in Sub-Saharan Africa. edition. While Canada has registered a 0.2 percentage-point decline in the overall parity – Southern Asia has achieved 63.4% gender score since the last edition, the United States parity, the second-lowest score of the eight has seen a reduction of 2.1 percentage points. regions. The score has risen by 1.1 percentage At the current rate of progress, 95 years will be points since the last edition on the basis of the needed to close the gender gap for the region. constant sample of countries covered since 2006, which can be partially attributed to the – With incremental progress towards gender rise in scores of populous countries such as parity since 2017, Latin America and the India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Along with Caribbean has bridged 74.3% of its overall Bhutan, these are the countries in Southern gender gap, a 1.7 percentage-point increase Asia that have seen an improvement of 0.5 in overall gender parity since last year. After percentage points or more in their scores since Europe and North America, the region has the the last edition. Bangladesh, Bhutan and Sri third-highest level of parity. Nicaragua, Costa Lanka are the best-performing countries in the Rica and Jamaica register the highest parity region, while Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan are scores in this region and Belize, Paraguay and at the bottom of both the regional and global Guatemala the lowest. At the current rate of ranking tables. At the current rate of progress, Global Gender Gap Report 2023 6

full parity in the region will be achieved in 149 nearly 10 percentage points lower. Women’s years. representation drops to 25% in C-suite positions on average, which is just more than half of the – In comparison to other regions, the Middle representation in entry-level positions, at 46%. East and North Africa remains the furthest Different industries display different intensities away from parity, with a 62.6% parity score. and patterns when it comes to this “drop This is a 0.9 percentage-point decline in parity to the top”. Women fare relatively better in since the last edition for this region, based on industries such as Consumer Services, Retail, the constant sample of countries covered since and Education, which register ratios of C-suite 2006. The United Arab Emirates, Israel and vs entry level representation between 64% and Bahrain have achieved the highest parity in the 68%. Construction, Financial Services, and region, while Morocco, Oman and Algeria rank Real Estate present the toughest conditions for the lowest. The region’s three most populous aspiring female leaders, with a ratio of C-suite to countries – Egypt, Algeria and Morocco – entry-level representation of less than 50%. For register declines in their parity scores since the the past eight years, the proportion of women last edition. At the current rate of progress, full hired into leadership positions has been steadily regional parity will be attained in 152 years. increasing by about 1% per year globally. However, this trend shows a clear reversal Evolving gender gaps in the starting in 2022, which brings the 2023 rate global labour market back to 2021 levels. – Gender gaps in the labour markets of the The state of gender parity in the labour market future: Science, technology, engineering remains a major challenge. Not only has women’s and mathematics (STEM) occupations are an participation in the labour market globally slipped important set of jobs that are well remunerated in recent years, but other markers of economic and expected to grow in signi昀椀cance and scope opportunity have been showing substantive in the future. Linkedin data on members’ job disparities between women and men. While women pro昀椀les show that women remain signi昀椀cantly have (re-)entered the labour force at higher rates underrepresented in the STEM workforce. than men globally, leading to a small recovery in Women make up almost half (49.3%) of total gender parity in the labour-force participation rate employment across non-STEM occupations, since the 2022 edition, gaps remain wide overall but just 29.2% of all STEM workers. While the and are apparent in several speci昀椀c dimensions. percentage of female STEM graduates entering into STEM employment is increasing with every – Evolving gender gaps in the global labour cohort, the numbers on the integration of STEM market: Women have been (re-)entering the university graduates into the labour market workforce at a slightly higher rate than men, show that the retention of women in STEM even resulting in a modest recovery from last year’s one year after graduating sees a signi昀椀cant low. Between the 2022 and 2023 edition, parity drop. Women currently account for 29.4% of in the labour-force participation rate increased entry-level workers; yet for high-level leadership from 63% to 64%. However, the recovery in roles such as VP and C-suite, representation women’s labour-force participation remains drops to 17.8% and 12.4%, respectively. When un昀椀nished, as parity is still at the second-lowest it comes to arti昀椀cial intelligence (AI) speci昀椀cally, point since the 昀椀rst edition of the index in 2006 talent availability overall has surged, increasing and signi昀椀cantly below its 2009 peak of 69%. six times between 2016 and 2022, yet female Compounding these patterns, women continue representation in AI is progressing very slowly. to face higher unemployment rates than men, The percentage of women working in AI today with a global unemployment rate at around is approximately 30%, roughly 4 percentage 4.5% for women and 4.3% for men. Even when points higher than it was in 2016. women secure employment, they often face substandard working conditions: a signi昀椀cant – Gender gaps in the skills of the future: portion of the recovery in employment since Online learning offers 昀氀exibility, accessibility 2020 can be attributed to informal employment, and customization, enabling learners to whereby out of every 昀椀ve jobs created for acquire knowledge in a manner that suits women, four are within the informal economy; their speci昀椀c needs and circumstances. for men, the ratio is two out of every three jobs. However, women and men currently do not have equal opportunties and access to – Workforce representation across industries: these online platforms, given the persistent Global data provided by LinkedIn shows digital divide. Even when they do use these persistent skewing in women’s representation platforms, there are gender gaps in skilling, in the workforce and leadership across especially those skills that are projected to industries. In LinkedIn’s sample, which covers grow in importance and demand. Data from 163 countries, women account for 41.9% of Coursera suggests that as of 2022, except the workforce in 2023, yet the share of women for teaching and mentoring courses, there is in senior leadership positions (Director, Vice- disparity in enrolment in every skill category. President (VP) or C-suite) is at 32.2% in 2023, For enrolment in technology skills such as Global Gender Gap Report 2023 7

technological literacy (43.7% parity) and AI and – DEI programmes to close gender gaps: In the big data (33.7%), which are among the top 10 private sector, the scope of gender parity action skills projected to grow, there is less than 50% by pioneering 昀椀rms has begun to broaden from parity and progress has been sluggish. Across a focus on the workforce to whole-of-business all skill categories, the gender gaps tend to approaches encompassing inclusive design, widen as pro昀椀ciency levels increase. However, inclusive supply chains and community impact. when women do enrol, they tend to attain The World Economic Forum’s 2023 Future of most pro昀椀ciency levels across skill categories Jobs Survey suggests that more than two-thirds studied in less time compared to men. of the organizations surveyed have implemented a Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DEI) – Gender gaps in political leadership: Much programme. The majority (79%) of companies like in the case of representation of women in surveyed are implementing DEI programmes business leadership, gender gaps in political with a focus on women. leadership continue to persist. Although there has been an increase in the number Increasing women’s economic participation and of women holding political decision-making achieving gender parity in leadership, in both posts worldwide, achieving gender parity business and government, are two key levers for remains a distant goal and regional disparities addressing broader gender gaps in households, are signi昀椀cant. As of 31 December 2022, societies and economies. Collective, coordinated approximately 27.9% of the global population, and bold action by private- and public-sector equivalent to 2.12 billion people, live in countries leaders will be instrumental in accelerating progress with a female head of state. While this indicator towards gender parity and igniting renewed growth experienced stagnation between 2013 and and greater resilience. Recent years have seen 2021, 2022 witnessed a signi昀椀cant increase. major setbacks and the state of gender parity still Another recent positive trend is observed for the varies widely by company, industry and economy. share of women in parliaments. In 2013, only Yet, a growing number of actors have recognized 18.7% of parliament members globally were the importance and urgency of taking action, and women among the 76 countries with consistent evidence on effective gender parity initiatives is data. By 2022, this number had risen steadily to solidifying. We hope the data and analysis provided 22.9%. Signi昀椀cant strides have also been made in this report can further accelerate the speed of in terms of women’s representation in local travel towards parity by catalysing and informing government globally. Out of the 117 countries action by public- and private-sector leaders in their with available data since 2017, 18 countries, efforts to close the global gender gap. including Bolivia (50.4%), India (44.4%) and France (42.3%), have achieved representation of women of over 40% in local governance. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 8

June 2023 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 1 Benchmarking gender gaps, 2023 The Global Gender Gap Index was 昀椀rst introduced The goal of the report is to offer a consistent annual by the World Economic Forum in 2006 to metric for the assessment of progress over time. benchmark progress towards gender parity and Using the methodology introduced in 2006, the compare countries’ gender gaps across four index and the analysis focus on benchmarking dimensions: economic opportunities, education, parity between women and men across countries health and political leadership. and regions. FIGURE 1.1 The Global Gender Gap Index Framework The level of progress toward gender parity (the parity score) for each indicator is calculated as Subindex 1 the ratio of the value of each indicator for women Economic Participation and Opportunity to the value for men. A parity score of 1 indicates full parity. The gender gap is the distance from full Subindex 2 parity. Educational Attainment The analysis in this report is focused on assessing Subindex 3 gender gaps between women and men across Health and Survival economic, educational, health and political outcomes based on the data available (Figure 1.1). Subindex 4 Political Empowerment For further information on the index methodology, please refer to Appendix B. Source World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Index, 2023. 1.1 Country coverage To ensure a global representation of the gender It should be noted that there may be time lags in gap, the report aims to cover as many economies the data collection and validation processes across as possible. For a country to be included, it must the organizations from which the data is sourced, report data for a minimum 12 of the 14 indicators and that all results should be interpreted within a that comprise the index. We also aim to include range of global, regional and national contextual the latest data available, reported within the last 10 factors. The Economy Pro昀椀les at the end of the years. report provide a large range of additional data. The report this year covers 146 countries. In this edition, Croatia rejoins the index, whereas Guyana drops out. Among the 146 countries included this year are a set of 102 countries that have been covered in all editions since the inaugural one in 2006. Scores based on this constant set of countries are used to compare regional and global aggregates across time. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 9

1.2 Global results The Global Gender Gap score in 2023 for all 146 Table 1.1 shows the 2023 Global Gender Gap countries included in this edition stands at 68.4% rankings and the scores for all 146 countries closed. Considering the constant sample of 145 included in this year’s report. Although no country countries covered in the 2022 and 2023 editions, has yet achieved full gender parity, the top nine the overall score changed from 68.1% to 68.4%, an countries (Iceland, Norway, Finland, New Zealand, improvement of 0.3 percentage points compared Sweden, Germany, Nicaragua, Namibia and to last year’s edition. When considering the 102 Lithuania) have closed at least 80% of their gap. For countries covered continuously from 2006 to 2023, the 14th year running, Iceland (91.2%) takes the top the gap is 68.6% closed. position. It also continues to be the only country to have closed more than 90% of its gender gap. The Compared to last year, progress towards narrowing global top 昀椀ve is completed by three other Nordic the gender gap has been more widespread: 42 of countries – Norway (87.9%, 2nd), Finland (86.3%, the 145 economies covered in both the 2022 and 3rd) and Sweden (81.5%, 5th) – and one country 2023 editions improved their gender parity score from East Asia and the Paci昀椀c – New Zealand by at least 1 percentage point since the previous (85.6%, 4th). Additionally, from Europe, Germany edition and 40 other countries registered gains (81.5%) moves up to 6th place (from 10th), of less than 1 percentage point. The economies Lithuania (80.0.%) returns to the top 10 economies, with the greatest increase in score (gains of 4 taking 9th place, and Belgium (79.6%) joins the top percentage points or more) are Liberia (score: 10 for the 昀椀rst time in 10th place. One country from 76%, +5.1 percentage points since the previous Latin America (Nicaragua, 81.1%) and one from edition), Estonia (78.2%, +4.8 percentage points), Sub-Saharan Africa (Namibia, 80.2%) – complete Bhutan (68.2%, +4.5 percentage points), Malawi this year’s top 10, taking the 7th and 8th positions, (67.6%, +4.4 percentage points), Colombia (75.1%, respectively. The two countries that drop out of the +4.1 percentage points) and Chile (77.7%, +4.1 top 10 in 2023 are Ireland (79.5%,11th, down from percentage points). 9th place) and Rwanda (79.4%, 12th, down from 6th place in 2022). While there is an increase in the number of countries registering at least a marginal improvement, such progress is mitigated by an increase in the number of countries with declining scores steeper than 1 percentage point (from 12 in 2022 to 35 in 2023). Global Gender Gap Report 2023 10

TABLE 1.1 The Global Gender Gap Index 2023 rankings Rank Country Score Rank Rank Country Score Rank Score change change Score change change 0–1 2022 2022 0–1 2022 2022 1 Iceland 0.912 +0.004 - 74 Thailand 0.711 +0.002 +5 █ █ 2 Norway 0.879 +0.034 +1 75 Ethiopia 0.711 +0.001 -1 █ █ 3 Finland 0.863 +0.003 -1 76 Georgia 0.708 -0.022 -21 █ █ 4 New Zealand 0.856 +0.014 - 77 Kenya 0.708 -0.021 -20 █ █ 5 Sweden 0.815 -0.007 - 78 Uganda 0.706 -0.017 -17 █ █ 6 Germany 0.815 +0.014 +4 79 Italy 0.705 -0.015 -16 █ █ 7 Nicaragua 0.811 +0.001 - 80 Mongolia 0.704 -0.010 -10 █ █ 8 Namibia 0.802 -0.005 - 81 Dominican Republic 0.704 +0.001 +3 █ █ 9 Lithuania 0.800 +0.001 +2 82 Lesotho 0.702 +0.002 +5 █ █ 10 Belgium 0.796 +0.003 +4 83 Israel 0.701 -0.026 -23 █ █ 11 Ireland 0.795 -0.010 -2 84 Kyrgyzstan 0.700 - +2 █ █ 12 Rwanda 0.794 -0.017 -6 85 Zambia 0.699 -0.025 -23 █ █ 13 Latvia 0.794 +0.023 +13 86 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.698 -0.012 -13 █ █ 14 Costa Rica 0.793 -0.003 -2 87 Indonesia 0.697 +0.001 +5 █ █ 15 United Kingdom 0.792 +0.012 +7 88 Romania 0.697 -0.001 +2 █ █ 16 Philippines 0.791 +0.009 +3 89 Belize 0.696 +0.002 +6 █ █ 17 Albania 0.791 +0.004 +1 90 Togo 0.696 -0.001 +1 █ █ 18 Spain 0.791 +0.002 -1 91 Paraguay 0.695 -0.012 -11 █ █ 19 Moldova, Republic of 0.788 -0.001 -3 92 Cambodia 0.695 +0.005 +6 █ █ 20 South Africa 0.787 +0.005 - 93 Greece 0.693 +0.005 +7 █ █ 21 Switzerland 0.783 -0.012 -8 94 Cameroon 0.693 +0.002 +3 █ █ 22 Estonia 0.782 +0.048 +30 95 Timor-Leste 0.693 -0.037 -39 █ █ 23 Denmark 0.780 +0.017 +9 96 Brunei Darussalam 0.693 +0.013 +8 █ █ 24 Jamaica 0.779 +0.031 +14 97 Azerbaijan 0.692 +0.005 +4 █ █ 25 Mozambique 0.778 +0.025 +9 98 Mauritius 0.689 +0.011 +7 █ █ 26 Australia 0.778 +0.040 +17 99 Hungary 0.689 -0.010 -11 █ █ 27 Chile 0.777 +0.041 +20 100 Ghana 0.688 +0.016 +8 █ █ 28 Netherlands 0.777 +0.009 - 101 Czech Republic 0.685 -0.024 -25 █ █ 29 Slovenia 0.773 +0.029 +10 102 Malaysia 0.682 +0.001 +1 █ █ 30 Canada 0.770 -0.002 -5 103 Bhutan 0.682 +0.045 +23 █ █ 31 Barbados 0.769 +0.005 -1 104 Senegal 0.680 +0.012 +8 █ █ 32 Portugal 0.765 -0.001 -3 105 Korea, Republic of 0.680 -0.010 -6 █ █ 33 Mexico 0.765 +0.001 -2 106 Cyprus 0.678 -0.018 -13 █ █ 34 Peru 0.764 +0.015 +3 107 China 0.678 -0.004 -5 █ █ 35 Burundi 0.763 -0.013 -11 108 Vanuatu 0.678 +0.008 +3 █ █ 36 Argentina 0.762 +0.006 -3 109 Burkina Faso 0.676 +0.017 +6 █ █ 37 Cabo Verde 0.761 +0.024 +8 110 Malawi 0.676 +0.044 +22 █ █ 38 Serbia 0.760 -0.019 -15 111 Tajikistan 0.672 +0.009 +3 █ █ 39 Liberia 0.760 +0.051 +39 112 Sierra Leone 0.667 -0.005 -3 █ █ 40 France 0.756 -0.035 -25 113 Bahrain 0.666 +0.034 +18 █ █ 41 Belarus 0.752 +0.002 -5 114 Comoros 0.664 +0.033 +20 █ █ 42 Colombia 0.751 +0.041 +33 115 Sri Lanka 0.663 -0.007 -5 █ █ 43 United States of America 0.748 -0.021 -16 116 Nepal 0.659 -0.033 -20 █ █ 44 Luxembourg 0.747 +0.011 +2 117 Guatemala 0.659 -0.006 -4 █ █ 45 Zimbabwe 0.746 +0.012 +5 118 Angola 0.656 +0.018 +7 █ █ 46 Eswatini 0.745 +0.017 +12 119 Gambia 0.651 +0.010 +2 █ █ 47 Austria 0.740 -0.041 -26 120 Kuwait 0.651 +0.018 +10 █ █ 48 Tanzania, United Republic of 0.740 +0.020 +16 121 Fiji 0.650 -0.026 -14 █ █ 49 Singapore 0.739 +0.005 - 122 Côte d'Ivoire 0.650 +0.018 +11 █ █ 50 Ecuador 0.737 -0.005 -9 123 Myanmar 0.650 -0.027 -17 █ █ 51 Madagascar 0.737 +0.002 -3 124 Maldives 0.649 +0.001 -7 █ █ 52 Suriname 0.736 -0.002 -8 125 Japan 0.647 -0.002 -9 █ █ 53 Honduras 0.735 +0.030 +29 126 Jordan 0.646 +0.007 -4 █ █ 54 Lao People's Democratic Republic 0.733 - -1 127 India 0.643 +0.014 +8 █ █ 55 Croatia* 0.730 n/a n/a 128 Tunisia 0.642 -0.001 -8 █ █ 56 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.730 -0.004 -5 129 Türkiye 0.638 -0.001 -5 █ █ 57 Brazil 0.726 +0.030 +37 130 Nigeria 0.637 -0.002 -7 █ █ 58 Panama 0.724 -0.019 -18 131 Saudi Arabia 0.637 +0.001 -4 █ █ 59 Bangladesh 0.722 +0.008 +12 132 Lebanon 0.628 -0.015 -13 █ █ 60 Poland 0.722 +0.012 +17 133 Qatar 0.627 +0.011 +4 █ █ 61 Armenia 0.721 +0.023 +28 134 Egypt 0.626 -0.008 -5 █ █ 62 Kazakhstan 0.721 +0.003 +3 135 Niger 0.622 -0.013 -7 █ █ 63 Slovakia 0.720 +0.003 +4 136 Morocco 0.621 -0.003 - █ █ 64 Botswana 0.719 - +2 137 Guinea 0.617 -0.030 -19 █ █ 65 Bulgaria 0.715 -0.025 -23 138 Benin 0.616 +0.004 - █ █ 66 Ukraine 0.714 +0.007 +15 139 Oman 0.614 +0.006 - █ █ 67 Uruguay 0.714 +0.004 +5 140 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 0.612 +0.036 +4 █ █ 68 El Salvador 0.714 -0.013 -9 141 Mali 0.605 +0.003 - █ █ 69 Montenegro 0.714 -0.018 -15 142 Pakistan 0.575 +0.011 +3 █ █ 70 Malta 0.713 +0.010 +15 143 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.575 -0.002 - █ █ 71 United Arab Emirates 0.712 -0.004 -3 144 Algeria 0.573 -0.030 -4 █ █ 72 Viet Nam 0.711 +0.006 +11 145 Chad 0.570 -0.008 -3 █ █ 73 North Macedonia 0.711 -0.005 -4 146 Afghanistan 0.405 -0.030 - █ █ Eurasia and East Asia Europe Latin America Middle East North America Southern Sub-Saharan Central Asia and the Pacific and the Caribbean and North Africa Asia Africa Source Note World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Index, 2023. “–” indicates score or rank is unchanged from the previous year. “n/a” indicates that the country was not covered in previous editions. * New to index in 2023 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 11

1.3 Performance by subindex This section discusses the global gender gap When looking at the sample of 145 countries scores across the four main components included in both the 2022 and 2023 editions, results (subindexes) of the index: Economic Participation show that this year’s progress is mainly caused and Opportunity, Educational Attainment, Health by a signi昀椀cant improvement on the Educational and Survival, and Political Empowerment. In doing Attainment gap and more modest increases for the so, it aims to illuminate and explore the factors that Health and Survival and Political Empowerment are driving the overall average global gender gap subindexes. The Economic Participation and score. Opportunity gender parity score has, however, receded since last year. Summarized in Figure 1.2, this year’s results show that across the 146 countries covered by the 2023 The score distributions across each subindex index, the Health and Survival gender gap has offer a more detailed picture of the disparities closed by 96%, Educational Attainment by 95.2%, in country-speci昀椀c gender gaps across the four Economic Participation and Opportunity by 60.1% dimensions. Figure 1.3 marks the distribution of and Political Empowerment by 22.1%. individual country scores attained both overall and by subindex. FIGURE 1.2 The state of gender gaps, by subindex Percentage of the gender gap closed to date, 2023 The Global Gender Gap Index 68.4% Economic Participation and 60.1% Opportunity subindex Educational Attainment subindex 95.2% Health and Survival subindex 96.0% Political Empowerment subindex 22.1% 0 25 50 75 100 Percentage points Source Note World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Index, 2023. Population-weighted averages, 146 countries. More than two-thirds (69.2%) of countries score and Opportunity has not changed since last year: above the 2023 population-weighted average the difference between the highest scores (89.5%) Gender Gap Index score (68.4%). Similar to 2022, and the country with the lowest scores (18.8%) Afghanistan (40.5%) ranks last, at the lower end of remains extensive (70.8%). the distribution, with a difference of 27.8 percentage points compared to the mean. In fact, Afghanistan Countries that report relatively even access for registers the lowest performance across all men and women when it comes to Economic subindexes, with the exception of the Health and Participation and Opportunity include economies Survival subindex, where it takes the 141st position, as varied as Liberia (89.5%), Jamaica (89.4%), ranking below the bottom 5th percentile. The Moldova (86.3%), Lao PDR (85.1%), Belarus country scoring penultimate in the global ranking (81.9%), Burundi (81.0%) and Norway (80%). At the is Chad (57.0%), which deviates from the average bottom of the distribution, apart from Afghanistan, score by 11.3 percentage points. the countries that attained less than 40% parity include Algeria (31.7%), Iran (34.4%), Pakistan Health and Survival, followed by Educational (36.2%) and India (36.7%). Attainment, continue to display the least amount of variation of scores, whereas the Economic A closer look at performance across the 昀椀ve Participation and Opportunity and Political indicators composing this subindex reveals that Empowerment subindexes continue to show the an important source of gender inequality stems widest dispersion of scores. The range of scores from the overall underrepresentation of women in in this year’s gender gap in Economic Participation the labour market. The global population-weighted Global Gender Gap Report 2023 12

score indicates that, on average, only 64.9% of at the subset of 145 countries included in both the gender gap in labour-force participation has 2022 and 2023, the number of economies with been closed. Comparing the 102-country constant full gender parity in Educational Attainment has sample scores of 63.8% for 2023 and 62.9% increased from 21 to 25. Cross-country scores for 2022, this marks a partial recovery. Chapter on this dimension are less dispersed than for the 2 examines recent dynamics in labour-force Economic Participation or Political Empowerment participation and related labour-market outcomes in subindices, with the majority (80.1%, or 117 out of more detail. 146) of participating countries having closed at least 95% of their educational gender gap. Similar to Though stark income gaps continue to hinder last year, Afghanistan is the only country where the economic gender parity, with almost half (48.1%) educational gender parity score is below the 50% of the overall earned income gap yet to close, mark, at 48.2%. At the bottom of the distribution, results indicate that many countries experienced we also encounter the Sub-Saharan countries improvements since last year. Ninety-six countries of Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, (out of the 145 included in 2022 and 2023) Guinea, Angola, Niger and Mali – all with scores progressed in bridging income gaps. The highest- above 60%, but below 80% in educational parity scoring countries on this dimension include Liberia, (between 63.7%-77.9%). followed by Zimbabwe (97.6%), Tanzania (90.3%), Burundi (88.3%), Barbados (88.1%) and Norway Across indicators of the subindex, gender parity is (85.1%), which all stand at above 85% parity. At lowest for literacy rate: globally, 94% of the gender the bottom of the distribution, Iran (17.1%), Algeria gap in the proportion of those over 15 years of (19.2%) and Egypt (19.7%) display some of the age who are literate has closed. Fifty-six countries largest inequalities between the incomes of men have achieved full parity in literacy rate, whereas and women, scoring less than 20% parity. Afghanistan and Sub-Saharan countries such as Mali, Liberia, Chad and Guinea all register parity When it comes to wages for similar work, the only scores below 55%. When it comes to enrolment countries in which the gender gap is perceived in primary education, full parity scores are more as more than 80% closed are Albania (85.8%) widespread: 65 countries register equivalent rates and Burundi (84.1%). Merely a quarter of the 146 of enrolment in primary education for boys and for economies included in this year’s edition score girls. The rest of the countries included this year between 70%-80% on this indicator. These include display at least 90% parity, apart from the Sub- some of the most advanced economies, such as Saharan countries of Mali, Guinea and Chad, which Iceland (78.4% of gap closed), Singapore (78.3%), score within the 80.4%-89.9% range. United Arab Emirates (77.6%), United States (77.3%), Finland (76.3%), Qatar (74.5%), Saudi Cross-national variation is wider for both secondary Arabia (74.1%), Lithuania (74.1%), Slovenia (73.5%), and tertiary enrolment. Whereas most countries Bahrain (72.8%), Estonia (71.4%), Barbados (135) included in this edition closed at least 80% (71.2%), Luxembourg (70.4%), New Zealand of their gender gap in secondary enrolment, a (70.4%), Switzerland (70.3%), and Latvia (70.1%). handful of countries remain below this threshold, The lowest-ranking countries on this dimension with Congo (64% of the gap closed), Chad (58.3%) are Croatia (49.7% of the gap closed) and Lesotho and Afghanistan (57.1) ranking last. Geographical (49.4%). Compared to last year’s performance, disparities are even starker for tertiary education. Bolivia, El Salvador and South Africa registered the While 101 countries display full parity on this largest improvements in score, of 5 percentage indicator, including Cambodia as the most recent to points or more. reach the 1 parity mark this year, 18 more countries stand within the 80.2%-99.5% range, while Cross-country disparities are more pronounced in several countries from Sub-Saharan Africa (such terms of the gender gap in senior, managerial and as Burkina Faso, Mali and Côte d’Ivoire), Southern legislative roles, which globally stands at 42.9%. Asia (Afghanistan), and Eurasia and Central Asia Ten countries assessed this year – six of which (Tajikistan) still have between 21.7% (Côte d’Ivoire) located in Sub-Saharan Africa – report parity on this and 71% (Afghanistan) of their gaps left to close. indicator. Afghanistan, Pakistan and Algeria rank at the bottom, with less than 5% of professionals The Health and Survival subindex displays the in senior positions being women. When it comes highest level of gender parity globally (at 96%) as to professional and technical positions, 71% well as the most clustered distribution of scores. of the gender gap has been closed globally. The majority of countries (91.1%) register at most Whereas women’s representation in managerial 2 percentage points above the average, and only roles relative to men’s has improved by at least 1 a handful of others (13 out of 146) register at most percentage points for 38 countries, gender parity 2.4 percentage points below the average. Twenty- in professional and technical roles has improved for six countries – most from Europe, Latin America only 20 countries by the same measure (at least 1 and the Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa 1 percentage points). – display the top score of 98% parity, whereas Qatar, Viet Nam and populous countries such as Educational Attainment is the subindex with Azerbaijan, India and China all score below the 95% the second-highest global parity score, with only mark. 4.8% of the gender gap left to close. When looking Global Gender Gap Report 2023 13

Qatar’s lower overall ranking is driven by relatively Rica (52.4%), Sweden (51.2%) and Chile (50.2%). lower parity in terms of healthy life expectancy. The lowest parity scores are found for: Myanmar Though in most countries women tend to outlive (4.7%), Nigeria (4.1%), Iran (3.1%), Lebanon men, in 昀椀ve Middle Eastern and North African (2.1%), Vanuatu (0.6%) and Afghanistan (0%). countries (Morocco, 99.9%; Bahrain, 99.3%; Algeria, 99%; Jordan, 98.7%; Qatar, 95.5%), Iceland and Bangladesh are the only countries one from Sub-Saharan Africa (Mali, 99.3%) and where women have held the highest political two from Southern Asia (Pakistan, 99.9%, and position in a country for a higher number of years Afghanistan, 97.1%), the reverse is true. than men. In 67 other countries, women have never served as head of state in the past 50 years. For Viet Nam, Azerbaijan, India and China, the relatively low overall rankings on the Health and In terms of the share of women in ministerial Survival subindex is explained by skewed sex ratios positions, 11 out of 146 countries, led by Albania, at birth. Compared to top scoring countries that Finland and Spain, have 50% or more ministers register a 94.4% gender parity at birth, the indicator who are women. However, 75 countries have 20% stands at 92.7% for India (albeit an improvement or less female ministers. Further, populous countries over last edition) and below 90% for Viet Nam, such as India, Türkiye and China have less than China and Azerbaijan. 7% ministers who are women and countries like Azerbaijan, Saudi Arabia and Lebanon have none. Finally, the Political Empowerment subindex registers once again the largest gender gap, at As regards to parity in the number of seats in only 22.1% of the gap closed and the greatest national parliaments, 昀椀ve countries stand at full spread of scores across countries. Iceland parity: Mexico, Nicaragua, Rwanda, the United stands out as best performer, with a 90.1% parity Arab Emirates and (as of this year’s edition) New score, which is 13.6 percentage points greater Zealand. The countries with the least representation than the country ranking second (Norway) and of women in parliament (less than 5%) are Maldives 69 percentage points above the median global (4.8% of the gender gap closed), Qatar (4.6%), score (21.1%). In addition to the 昀椀rst two ranked, Nigeria (3.7%), Oman (2.4%) and Vanuatu (1.9%). only 10 other countries out of the 146 included Though still below the 40% parity threshold, Benin this year score above the 50% parity score: and Malta saw the largest improvements for this New Zealand (72.5%), Finland (70%), Germany indicator, experiencing a rise of 26.6 and 23.2 (63.4%), Nicaragua (62.6%), Bangladesh (55.2%), percentage points, respectively. Mozambique (54.2%), Rwanda (54.1%), Costa Global Gender Gap Report 2023 14

FIGURE 1.3 Range of scores, Global Gender Gap Index and subindexes, 2023 India Rwanda Global Gender Gap index 0.684 Saudi Arabia United States Iceland India Italy Germany Norway Lao, PDR Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex 0.601 Pakistan Mexico Indonesia United States Netherlands Educational Attainment subindex 0.952 Chad Nigeria Peru India Health and Survival subindex 0.960 China Viet Nam Japan United States Costa Rica Kenya Political Empowerment subindex 0.221 United Arab Emirates France Sweden Iceland 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Score (0-1 scale) Population-weighted average Source Note World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Index, 2023. Blue diamonds correspond to population-weighted averages. 1.4 Progress over time By calculating how much the gap has, on average, The Economic Participation and Opportunity reduced each year since the report’s 昀椀rst edition in subindex now stands at 59.8% based on the 102 2006, using a constant sample of 102 countries, countries in the constant sample (non-constant it is possible to project how many years it will take score 60.1%). This subindex is the only one that to close each of the gender gaps for each of the receded compared to 2022. There is a drop of 0.2 dimensions tracked. The 17-year trajectory of global percentage points since 2022, but an improvement gender gaps is charted accordingly in Figure 1.4. of 4.1 percentage points since 2006. The ebbing of the upward trend seen in last year’s edition can This year’s results leave the total progress made be partially attributed to the drop in the subindex towards gender parity at an overall 4.1 percentage- scores for 66 economies including highly populated point gain since 2006. Hence, on average, over economies such as China, Indonesia, Nigeria, etc. the past 17 years, the gap has been reduced by As a result, it will take another 169 years to close only 0.24 percentage points per year. If progress the economic gender gap. towards gender parity proceeds at the same average speed observed between the 2006 and The Educational Attainment subindex displays the 2023 editions, the overall global gender gap is highest gender parity score (96.1%) on the basis of projected to close in 131 years, compared to a 102 countries in the constant sample (non-constant projection of 132 years in 2022. This suggests that score 95.2%). The 0.8 percentage-point increase the year in which the gender gap is expected to since last year places it from second to top-ranked close remains 2154, as progress is moving at the across all subindices. While the development has same rate as last year. not been unfaltering over time – accelerating then plateauing at various points in time and dropping Global Gender Gap Report 2023 15

FIGURE 1.4 Evolution of the Global Gender Gap Index and subindexes over time Evolution in scores, 2006-2023 1 Years to close the gap 16 Educational Attainment n.a. Health and Survival 0.9 0.8 0.7 131 Global Genger Gap Index 0.6 169 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.5 e (0-1, parity) Scor 0.4 0.3 162 Political Empowerment 0.2 0.1 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019* 2020 2021 2022 2023 Edition Source Note World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Index, 2023. Population-weighted averages for the the 102 economies featured in all editions of the index, from 2006–2023. The fourteenth edition of the Global Gender Gap Index, titled The Global Gender Gap Report 2020, was released in December 2019. There is no corresponding edition for 2019. in 2017-2018 and 2022 – the time-series analysis Based on the constant sample of 102 countries shows a de昀椀nitive upward trend overall. Its included in each edition from 2006 to 2023, the improved performance as well as a steady pace of global Political Empowerment gender gap this progress on average over the 2006-2023 period year is 22.5% (non-constant score 22.1%), which is leads to an estimation of 16 years to close the gap. a slight improvement of 0.1 percentage points over 2022. A slower pace of improvement, however, The Health and Survival gender parity score means that it will now take another 162 years stands at 95.9% based on the constant sample to completely close this gap, a signi昀椀cant step of 102 countries (non-constant score 96%). It is backwards compared to the 2022 edition. Yet, the a modest improvement compared to last year 2023 score is the highest absolute increase of all (+0.2 percentage points) and an actual drop of 0.3 four subindexes since 2006: 8.2 percentage points percentage points compared to 2006. Despite this compared to 4.4 percentage points for Educational slight long-term drop, the index has consistently Attainment, which is the subindex with the second- stayed above the 95% mark since the inception of greatest improvement. the index in 2006. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 16

TABLE 1.2 The Global Gender Gap Index 2023, results by subindex Economic Participation and Opportunity Educational Attainment Rank Country Score (0–1) Rank Country Score (0–1) Rank Country Score (0–1) Rank Country Score (0–1) 1 Liberia 0.895 74 Austria 0.692 1 Argentina 1.000 74 Vanuatu 0.991 2 Jamaica 0.894 75 Israel 0.688 1 Belgium 1.000 75 Belarus 0.991 3 Moldova, Republic of 0.863 76 Paraguay 0.685 1 Botswana 1.000 76 Portugal 0.991 4 Barbados 0.860 77 Netherlands 0.684 1 Canada 1.000 77 Zimbabwe 0.991 5 Lao PDR 0.851 78 Sierra Leone 0.684 1 Colombia 1.000 78 Australia 0.991 6 Eswatini 0.838 79 Peru 0.683 1 Czech Republic 1.000 79 Iceland 0.991 7 Belarus 0.819 80 Ghana 0.682 1 Dominican Republic 1.000 80 Cyprus 0.990 8 Burundi 0.810 81 South Africa 0.676 1 Estonia 1.000 81 Greece 0.990 9 Botswana 0.807 82 Greece 0.676 1 Finland 1.000 82 Germany 0.989 10 Zimbabwe 0.801 83 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the 0.676 1 France 1.000 83 Lithuania 0.989 11 Norway 0.800 84 Costa Rica 0.676 1 Honduras 1.000 84 Norway 0.989 12 Madagascar 0.800 85 Panama 0.674 1 Ireland 1.000 85 Sri Lanka 0.988 13 Togo 0.796 86 Brazil 0.670 1 Israel 1.000 86 United Arab Emirates 0.988 14 Iceland 0.796 87 Indonesia 0.666 1 Latvia 1.000 87 Saudi Arabia 0.986 15 Sweden 0.795 88 Germany 0.665 1 Lesotho 1.000 88 Eswatini 0.985 16 Kenya 0.791 89 Malaysia 0.664 1 Malaysia 1.000 89 Viet Nam 0.985 17 Philippines 0.789 90 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.658 1 Malta 1.000 90 Lebanon 0.984 18 Albania 0.786 91 Comoros 0.657 1 Namibia 1.000 91 Maldives 0.984 19 Namibia 0.784 92 Colombia 0.657 1 Netherlands 1.000 92 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.984 20 Finland 0.783 93 Cyprus 0.652 1 New Zealand 1.000 93 Qatar 0.982 21 United States of America 0.780 94 Lesotho 0.648 1 Nicaragua 1.000 94 Guatemala 0.982 22 Latvia 0.775 95 Argentina 0.644 1 Slovakia 1.000 95 Cabo Verde 0.981 23 Singapore 0.774 96 Chile 0.642 1 Slovenia 1.000 96 Cambodia 0.981 24 Thailand 0.772 97 Malta 0.641 1 Sweden 1.000 97 Timor-Leste 0.980 25 Estonia 0.771 98 Nicaragua 0.640 1 Uruguay 1.000 98 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.980 26 Lithuania 0.767 99 Croatia* 0.639 26 India 1.000 99 Türkiye 0.980 27 Azerbaijan 0.766 100 Mauritius 0.637 27 Kazakhstan 1.000 100 Madagascar 0.979 28 Kazakhstan 0.765 101 Czech Republic 0.636 28 Georgia 1.000 101 Zambia 0.979 29 Brunei Darussalam 0.760 102 Uganda 0.623 29 Kyrgyzstan 1.000 102 Switzerland 0.978 30 Slovenia 0.760 103 El Salvador 0.619 30 Luxembourg 1.000 103 Myanmar 0.977 31 Viet Nam 0.749 104 Italy 0.618 31 Costa Rica 0.999 104 Korea, Republic of 0.977 32 Cabo Verde 0.747 105 Tajikistan 0.618 32 Philippines 0.999 105 Ghana 0.974 33 Mongolia 0.745 106 Gambia 0.609 33 Albania 0.999 106 Indonesia 0.972 34 Portugal 0.745 107 Angola 0.605 34 United Kingdom 0.999 107 Lao PDR 0.964 35 Vanuatu 0.742 108 North Macedonia 0.605 35 Armenia 0.999 108 Tanzania, United Republic of 0.964 36 Canada 0.740 109 Malawi 0.602 36 Romania 0.999 109 Bhutan 0.963 37 Suriname 0.740 110 Mexico 0.601 37 Serbia 0.999 110 Rwanda 0.963 38 Australia 0.740 111 Côte d'Ivoire 0.601 38 Croatia* 0.998 111 Peru 0.960 39 Bulgaria 0.738 112 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.601 39 Spain 0.998 112 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.960 40 Zambia 0.734 113 Myanmar 0.600 40 Denmark 0.998 113 Oman 0.957 41 Ireland 0.732 114 Korea, Republic of 0.597 41 Montenegro 0.998 114 Gambia 0.954 42 New Zealand 0.732 115 Fiji 0.588 42 Ecuador 0.998 115 Morocco 0.953 43 United Kingdom 0.731 116 Ethiopia 0.587 43 South Africa 0.998 116 Algeria 0.951 44 Belgium 0.728 117 Guatemala 0.580 44 Brunei Darussalam 0.997 117 Tunisia 0.950 45 China 0.727 118 Kuwait 0.579 45 Paraguay 0.997 118 Comoros 0.949 46 Denmark 0.727 119 Guinea 0.576 46 Fiji 0.997 119 Egypt 0.943 47 Uruguay 0.726 120 Timor-Leste 0.574 47 Japan 0.997 120 Burundi 0.942 48 Spain 0.722 121 Niger 0.570 48 North Macedonia 0.997 121 Tajikistan 0.942 49 Belize 0.720 122 Bahrain 0.564 49 Panama 0.997 122 Bangladesh 0.936 50 Slovakia 0.718 123 Japan 0.561 50 Poland 0.997 123 China 0.935 51 France 0.717 124 Sri Lanka 0.555 51 Kuwait 0.997 124 Sierra Leone 0.932 52 Armenia 0.716 125 Jordan 0.542 52 Belize 0.996 125 Senegal 0.926 53 Tanzania, United Republic of 0.715 126 Chad 0.538 53 Moldova, Republic of 0.996 126 Uganda 0.924 54 Nigeria 0.715 127 Lebanon 0.538 54 Azerbaijan 0.996 127 Nepal 0.918 55 Ukraine 0.714 128 United Arab Emirates 0.536 55 Austria 0.996 128 Côte d'Ivoire 0.902 56 Montenegro 0.710 129 Benin 0.530 56 Ukraine 0.996 129 Malawi 0.897 57 Luxembourg 0.710 130 Saudi Arabia 0.521 57 Bahrain 0.995 130 Mozambique 0.896 58 Cambodia 0.710 131 Maldives 0.512 58 Hungary 0.995 131 Liberia 0.896 59 Bhutan 0.708 132 Qatar 0.508 59 United States of America 0.995 132 Cameroon 0.895 60 Burkina Faso 0.708 133 Türkiye 0.500 60 Italy 0.995 133 Burkina Faso 0.893 61 Ecuador 0.705 134 Mali 0.489 61 Thailand 0.995 134 Kenya 0.858 62 Hungary 0.701 135 Oman 0.488 62 Mexico 0.994 135 Ethiopia 0.854 63 Switzerland 0.700 136 Nepal 0.476 63 Bulgaria 0.994 136 Togo 0.837 64 Poland 0.699 137 Senegal 0.475 64 Chile 0.994 137 Nigeria 0.826 65 Dominican Republic 0.699 138 Tunisia 0.451 65 Barbados 0.994 138 Pakistan 0.825 66 Honduras 0.699 139 Bangladesh 0.438 66 Jordan 0.994 139 Benin 0.802 67 Rwanda 0.699 140 Egypt 0.420 67 Mongolia 0.994 140 Mali 0.779 68 Georgia 0.697 141 Morocco 0.404 68 Jamaica 0.993 141 Niger 0.769 69 Serbia 0.697 142 India 0.367 69 El Salvador 0.993 142 Angola 0.738 70 Cameroon 0.694 143 Pakistan 0.362 70 Suriname 0.993 143 Guinea 0.710 71 Kyrgyzstan 0.694 144 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.344 71 Mauritius 0.993 144 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the 0.683 72 Romania 0.693 145 Algeria 0.317 72 Singapore 0.993 145 Chad 0.637 73 Mozambique 0.692 146 Afghanistan 0.188 73 Brazil 0.992 146 Afghanistan 0.482 Eurasia and East Asia Europe Latin America Middle East North America Southern Sub-Saharan Central Asia and the Pacific and the Caribbean and North Africa Asia Africa Source Note World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Index, 2023. * New to index in 2023 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 17

TABLE 1.2 The Global Gender Gap Index 2023, results by subindex Health and Survival Political Empowerment Rank Country Score (0–1) Rank Country Score (0–1) Rank Country Score (0–1) Rank Country Score (0–1) 1 Belarus 0.980 74 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.970 1 Iceland 0.901 74 Cameroon 0.210 1 Belize 0.980 75 Tanzania, United Republic of 0.970 2 Norway 0.765 75 Kenya 0.209 1 Botswana 0.980 76 France 0.970 3 New Zealand 0.725 76 Madagascar 0.201 1 Brazil 0.980 77 Austria 0.970 4 Finland 0.700 77 Tunisia 0.197 1 Cabo Verde 0.980 78 United States of America 0.970 5 Germany 0.634 78 Mali 0.192 1 Dominican Republic 0.980 79 Serbia 0.969 6 Nicaragua 0.626 79 Niger 0.185 1 El Salvador 0.980 80 Malaysia 0.969 7 Bangladesh 0.552 80 Slovakia 0.183 1 Eswatini 0.980 81 Tunisia 0.969 8 Mozambique 0.542 81 Indonesia 0.181 1 Guatemala 0.980 82 Nepal 0.969 9 Rwanda 0.541 82 Montenegro 0.180 1 Hungary 0.980 83 Gambia 0.968 10 Costa Rica 0.524 83 Lesotho 0.179 1 Kyrgyzstan 0.980 84 Comoros 0.968 11 Sweden 0.503 84 Eswatini 0.178 1 Lesotho 0.980 85 Ecuador 0.968 12 Chile 0.502 85 Egypt 0.175 1 Lithuania 0.980 86 Philippines 0.968 13 South Africa 0.497 86 Togo 0.173 1 Malawi 0.980 87 Kuwait 0.968 14 Switzerland 0.491 87 Ukraine 0.172 1 Mauritius 0.980 88 Montenegro 0.968 15 Mexico 0.490 88 Korea, Republic of 0.169 1 Mongolia 0.980 89 Australia 0.968 16 Belgium 0.486 89 Viet Nam 0.166 1 Mozambique 0.980 90 Egypt 0.968 17 Ireland 0.482 90 Morocco 0.165 1 Namibia 0.980 91 Belgium 0.968 18 Spain 0.475 91 Georgia 0.163 1 Poland 0.980 92 Barbados 0.968 19 United Kingdom 0.472 92 Benin 0.159 1 Romania 0.980 93 Canada 0.968 20 Lithuania 0.466 93 Tajikistan 0.156 1 Slovakia 0.980 94 Jamaica 0.967 21 Netherlands 0.460 94 Uruguay 0.152 1 Sri Lanka 0.980 95 Italy 0.967 22 Peru 0.450 95 Pakistan 0.152 1 Uganda 0.980 96 Greece 0.967 23 Namibia 0.443 96 Israel 0.150 1 Uruguay 0.980 97 Senegal 0.967 24 Denmark 0.432 97 Mauritius 0.148 1 Zambia 0.980 98 Spain 0.967 25 Ethiopia 0.431 98 Bulgaria 0.148 1 Zimbabwe 0.980 99 Nigeria 0.967 26 Argentina 0.429 99 Bahrain 0.146 27 Burundi 0.979 100 Türkiye 0.966 27 Latvia 0.424 100 Kazakhstan 0.146 28 Bulgaria 0.979 101 New Zealand 0.966 28 Albania 0.419 101 Lao PDR 0.140 29 South Africa 0.979 102 Guinea 0.966 29 Australia 0.412 102 Greece 0.140 30 Togo 0.979 103 Madagascar 0.966 30 Philippines 0.409 103 Maldives 0.139 31 Suriname 0.979 104 Sierra Leone 0.966 31 Estonia 0.377 104 Dominican Republic 0.138 32 Estonia 0.979 105 United Kingdom 0.965 32 Serbia 0.376 105 Chad 0.137 33 Côte d'Ivoire 0.978 106 Timor-Leste 0.965 33 Canada 0.374 106 Sri Lanka 0.130 34 Nicaragua 0.978 107 Fiji 0.965 34 Colombia 0.373 107 Kyrgyzstan 0.128 35 Croatia* 0.978 108 Luxembourg 0.965 35 United Arab Emirates 0.363 108 Czech Republic 0.128 36 Ghana 0.978 109 Israel 0.964 36 Slovenia 0.358 109 Burkina Faso 0.125 37 Czech Republic 0.978 110 Honduras 0.964 37 Senegal 0.353 110 Paraguay 0.125 38 Cambodia 0.978 111 Ireland 0.964 38 Portugal 0.352 111 Ghana 0.119 39 Burkina Faso 0.978 112 Denmark 0.964 39 France 0.338 112 Côte d'Ivoire 0.118 40 Moldova, Republic of 0.977 113 Niger 0.964 40 Cabo Verde 0.334 113 Romania 0.117 41 Argentina 0.977 114 Saudi Arabia 0.964 41 Burundi 0.320 114 China 0.114 42 Thailand 0.977 115 Switzerland 0.964 42 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.317 115 Cambodia 0.112 43 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the 0.976 116 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.964 43 Luxembourg 0.315 116 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the 0.111 44 Angola 0.976 117 Peru 0.964 44 Moldova, Republic of 0.314 117 Cyprus 0.109 45 Ukraine 0.976 118 Sweden 0.963 45 Tanzania, United Republic of 0.309 118 Türkiye 0.106 46 Korea, Republic of 0.976 119 United Arab Emirates 0.963 46 Angola 0.305 119 Zambia 0.102 47 Kazakhstan 0.975 120 Cyprus 0.963 47 Croatia 0.305 120 Thailand 0.101 47 Myanmar 0.975 121 Maldives 0.962 48 Austria 0.303 121 Mongolia 0.099 49 Mexico 0.975 122 Bhutan 0.962 49 Uganda 0.297 122 Malaysia 0.098 50 Lao PDR 0.975 123 Liberia 0.962 50 Liberia 0.287 123 Guatemala 0.094 51 Colombia 0.975 124 Netherlands 0.962 51 North Macedonia 0.283 124 Jordan 0.093 52 Latvia 0.975 125 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.962 52 Honduras 0.278 125 Bhutan 0.093 53 Kenya 0.975 126 Bangladesh 0.962 53 Ecuador 0.278 126 Belize 0.090 54 Paraguay 0.975 127 Norway 0.961 54 Nepal 0.276 127 Botswana 0.088 55 Rwanda 0.974 128 Iceland 0.961 55 El Salvador 0.265 128 Sierra Leone 0.087 56 Georgia 0.974 129 Oman 0.961 56 Brazil 0.263 129 Comoros 0.083 57 Cameroon 0.973 130 Morocco 0.961 57 Jamaica 0.263 130 Hungary 0.079 58 Panama 0.973 131 Malta 0.961 58 Barbados 0.256 131 Saudi Arabia 0.077 59 Japan 0.973 132 Pakistan 0.961 59 India 0.253 132 Gambia 0.073 60 Costa Rica 0.973 133 Albania 0.960 60 Timor-Leste 0.253 133 Qatar 0.071 61 Benin 0.973 134 North Macedonia 0.960 61 Panama 0.252 134 Azerbaijan 0.071 62 Portugal 0.973 135 Mali 0.959 62 Malta 0.251 135 Algeria 0.065 63 Slovenia 0.972 136 Bahrain 0.959 63 United States of America 0.248 136 Brunei Darussalam 0.061 64 Germany 0.972 137 Algeria 0.958 64 Italy 0.241 137 Kuwait 0.059 65 Vanuatu 0.971 138 Jordan 0.957 65 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.240 138 Japan 0.057 66 Singapore 0.971 139 Armenia 0.955 66 Suriname 0.232 139 Fiji 0.052 67 Ethiopia 0.971 140 Brunei Darussalam 0.953 67 Malawi 0.224 140 Oman 0.051 68 Lebanon 0.971 141 Afghanistan 0.952 68 Singapore 0.220 141 Myanmar 0.047 69 Chile 0.970 142 India 0.950 69 Belarus 0.217 142 Nigeria 0.041 70 Tajikistan 0.970 143 Qatar 0.947 70 Guinea 0.217 143 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.031 71 Finland 0.970 144 Viet Nam 0.946 71 Armenia 0.215 144 Lebanon 0.021 72 Chad 0.970 145 China 0.937 72 Zimbabwe 0.214 145 Vanuatu 0.006 73 Indonesia 0.970 146 Azerbaijan 0.936 73 Poland 0.211 146 Afghanistan 0.000 Eurasia and East Asia Europe Latin America Middle East North America Southern Sub-Saharan Central Asia and the Pacific and the Caribbean and North Africa Asia Africa Source Note World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Index, 2023. * New to index in 2023 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 18

1.5 Performance by region The Global Gender Gap Report 2023 categorizes decline. North America (-1.9 percentage points) and countries into eight regions: Eurasia and Central the Middle East and North Africa (-0.09 percentage Asia, East Asia and the Paci昀椀c, Europe, Latin points) suffer more signi昀椀cant setbacks in overall America and the Caribbean, Middle East and North gender parity. Africa, North America, Southern Asia, and Sub- Saharan Africa. Countries in each regional group The longer-term trends offer further insights into are listed in Appendix A. progress in the regional gender parity pro昀椀les. In comparison to the inaugural edition in 2006, Gender parity in Europe (76.3%) surpasses the the Latin America and the Caribbean region parity level in North America (75%) this year to rank has improved the most, with an increase of 8.4 昀椀rst among regions. Closely behind Europe and percentage points over the past 17 years. Europe North America is Latin America and the Caribbean, (+6.1 percentage points) and Sub-Saharan Africa with 74.3% parity. Trailing more than 5 percentage (+5.2 percentage points) are the other two regions points behind Latin America and the Caribbean are that have improved by more than 5 percentage Eurasia and Central Asia (69%) as well as East Asia points. North America (+4.5 percentage points), and the Paci昀椀c (68.8%). Sub-Saharan Africa ranks the Middle East and North Africa (+4.2 percentage 6th (68.2%), slightly below the global weighted points) and Southern Asia (+4.1 percentage points) average score (68.3%). Southern Asia (63.4%) have improved by more than 4 percentage points, overtakes the Middle East and North Africa (62.6%), though parity scores in all three regions have which is, in 2023, the region furthest away from backslid in recent editions. Eurasia and Central parity. Asia (+ 3.2 percentage points) and East Asia and the Paci昀椀c (+ 2.8 percentage points) have seen the Using the 102-country constant sample to slowest to progress since 2006. assess trends over time suggests that Southern Asia as well as Latin America and the Caribbean A more nuanced picture emerges from the experienced an improvement of 1.1 percentage heat map in Figure 1.6, which disaggregates points and 1.7 percentage points, respectively, regional scores by subindex and represents since the last edition. Sub-Saharan Africa improves higher levels of parity using a darker colour. Most marginally (+0.1 percentage points) while Eurasia regions have achieved relatively higher parity in and Central Asia (-0.01 percentage points), East Educational Attainment and Health and Survival. Asia and the Paci昀椀c (-0.02 percentage points), and The advancement in Economic Participation Europe (-0.02 percentage points) show a slight and Opportunity is more uneven, with Southern FIGURE 1.5 Gender gap closed to date, by region Europe 76.3% North America 75.0% Latin America and 74.3% the Caribbean Eurasia and 69.0% Central Asia East Asia and 68.8% the Pacific Sub-Saharan Africa 68.2% Southern Asia 63.4% Middle East and 62.6% North Africa 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percentage points Source Note World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Index, 2023. Population-weighted averages for the 146 economies featured in the Global Gender Gap Index 2023. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 19

FIGURE 1.6 Regional performance 2023, by subindex Subindexes Overall Index Economic Participation Educational Health Political and Opportunity Attainment and Survival Empowerment Eurasia and Central Asia 69.0% 68.8% 98.9% 97.4% 10.9% East Asia and the Pacific 68.8% 71.0% 95.5% 94.9% 14.0% Europe 76.3% 69.7% 99.6% 97.0% 39.1% Latin America and the Caribbean 74.3% 65.2% 99.2% 97.6% 35.0% Middle East and North Africa 62.6% 44.0% 95.9% 96.4% 14.0% North America 75.0% 77.6% 99.5% 96.9% 26.1% Southern Asia 63.4% 37.2% 96.0% 95.3% 25.1% Sub-Saharan Africa 68.2% 67.2% 86.0% 97.2% 22.6% Global average 68.4% 60.1% 95.2% 96.0% 22.1% Parity 0% 50% 100% Source Note World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Index, 2023. Population-weighted averages for the 146 economies featured in the Global Gender Gap Index 2023. The percentages are indicative of the gender gap that has been closed. FIGURE 1.7 Regional gender gaps Evolution in scores, 2006–2023 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 e (0-1, parity)0.6 Scor 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019* 2020 2021 2022 2023 Edition Eurasia and Central Asia East Asia and the Pacific Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Middle East and North Africa North America Southern Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Source Note World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Index, 2023. Population-weighted averages for the 102 economies featured in all editions of the Global Gender Gap Index, from 2006–2023. The fourteenth edition of the Global Gender Gap Index, titled The Global Gender Gap Report 2020, was released in December 2019. There is no corresponding edition for 2019. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 20

Asia closing 37.2% of the gender gap and North and Tajikistan have made at least a 1 percentage- America closing more than double. Regions point improvement. While more than one-昀椀fth of continue to have the most signi昀椀cant gaps in the ministers in Moldova and Ukraine are women, Political Empowerment subindex, with only Latin Azerbaijan continues to be one of the handful America and the Caribbean as well as Europe countries with a male-only cabinet. Further, 昀椀ve of recording more than 35% parity. the 10 countries in the region have more than 25% women parliamentarians. With female presidents in Georgia and Moldova, there has been some Eurasia and Central Asia improvement in female head-of-state representation in the last 50 years. At 69% parity, Eurasia and Central Asia ranks 4th out of the eight regions on the overall Gender East Asia and the Paci昀椀c Gap Index. Based on the aggregated scores of the constant sample of countries included since 2006, the parity score since the 2020 edition East Asia and Paci昀椀c is at 68.8% parity, marking the has stagnated, although there has been an 昀椀fth-highest score out of the eight regions. Progress improvement of 3.2 percentage points since 2006. towards parity has been stagnating for over a Moldova, Belarus and Armenia are the highest- decade and the region registers a 0.2 percentage- ranking countries in the region, while Azerbaijan, point decline since the last edition. While 11 out of Tajikistan and Türkiye rank the lowest. The 19 countries improve, one stays the same and eight difference in parity between the highest- and the (including China, the world’s second-most populous lowest-ranked country is 14.9 percentage points. At country) recede on the overall index. New Zealand, the current rate of progress, it will take 167 years for the Philippines and Australia have the highest parity the Eurasia and Central Asia region to reach gender at the regional level, with Australia and New Zealand parity. also being the two most-improved economies in the region. On the other hand, Fiji, Myanmar and Japan Regional gender parity on Economic Participation are at the bottom of the list, with Fiji, Myanmar and and Opportunity has been steadily increasing. Timor-Leste registering the highest declines. At the Overall, 68.8% of the gender gap has closed, current rate of progress, it will take 189 years for the which is a 0.5 percentage-point improvement since region to reach gender parity. the last edition. Six out of 10 countries, led by Moldova, Belarus and Azerbaijan, have at least 70% Compared to the last edition, six out of 19 countries parity on this subindex. All countries in the region improved on the Economic Participation and except Kyrgyzstan have made varying degrees of Opportunity subindex, depleting the regional parity progress since the 2022 edition, with Moldova and score by 1.1% to 71.1%. Nine out of 17 countries Armenia making the most progress. Furthermore, that have the data have shown drops in the share of all countries in the region have advanced towards women in senior of昀椀cial positions. However, 13 out parity in estimated earned income. Türkiye and of 19 countries improved parity in estimated earned Tajikistan demonstrate the least parity on Economic income since the last edition. Overall, Lao PDR, the Participation and Opportunity, with Türkiye being Philippines and Singapore register the highest parity the only country that has closed less than 60% of for the subindex and Fiji, Timor-Leste and Japan the gap on this subindex. register the lowest. Eight out of 10 countries have more than 99% At 95.5%, East Asia and the Paci昀椀c has the parity on the Educational Attainment subindex, second-lowest score on the Educational Attainment resulting in 98.9% parity for the region. Türkiye and subindex compared to other regions. Malaysia and Ukraine, the region’s two most populous countries, New Zealand are at full parity, along with nine other have a persistent disparity in secondary enrolment. countries in the region, with more than 99% scores. Barring Türkiye and Tajikistan, all countries have China, Lao PDR and Indonesia, with more than 1.7 attained parity in enrolment in tertiary education. billion people, have the lowest parity. Cambodia and Thailand are the only countries in this region At 97.4% parity, Eurasia and Central Asia has with more than 1 percentage-point increase in parity only three out of 10 countries that have less than over 2022. Thailand improves parity in enrolment in 97% parity for the Health and Survival subindex. secondary education while Cambodia improves on Azerbaijan and Armenia, home to more than 13 literacy rate and enrolment in primary and tertiary million people combined, have some of the lowest education. sex ratios at birth in the world. Finally, seven out of the 10 countries have reached parity in healthy life On the Health and Survival subindex, Singapore expectancy. attains gender parity in sex ratio at birth, joining seven other countries across the world with the Compared to other regions, Eurasia and Central same achievement. However, 11 out of 19 countries Asia has the lowest gender parity in Political saw declining parity in sex ratio. This contributes Empowerment and suffers a 1 percentage-point to the region’s slight depletion of parity on this setback since 2022. Its score of 10.9% is barely half subindex, by 0.02% to 94.9%. the global score of 22.1%. Only Armenia, Ukraine Global Gender Gap Report 2023 21

Parity in Political Empowerment sees a partial driven by the reduction in gender parity in healthy recovery of 0.7 percentage points to 14.1% since life expectancy by at least 1 percentage point in 23 the last edition. However, this is still below the 2018 out of 36 countries. On sex ratio at birth, 20 out of edition score of 17.1%. Seven countries – including 36 countries are at full parity and the other countries the populous countries such as China, Japan are close to parity. and Indonesia – have regressed on this subindex since 2017. Compared to the previous edition, 13 Gender parity in Political Empowerment had been countries have improved, led by Australia, New consistently increasing in the last decade until Zealand and Philippines. Australia and New Zealand last year; currently, it stands at 39.1%. Based on had a considerable increase in the share of women the constant sample of countries, there has been ministers. Fiji, Myanmar and Korea have regressed a decline of 0.5 percentage points since the last the most among the six other countries where edition. Overall, Iceland, Norway and Finland have progress on Political Empowerment has reversed. the highest score on the Political Empowerment subindex, while Romania, Cyprus and Hungary are at the bottom of the table. Led by Estonia, Slovenia Europe and Latvia, 15 out of 35 countries have had at least a 1 percentage-point improvement while 13 countries have seen at least 1 percentage-point Across all subindexes, Europe has the highest decline. gender parity of all regions at 76.3%, with one-third of countries in the region ranking in the top 20 and 20 out of 36 countries with at least 75% parity. Latin America and the Caribbean Iceland, Norway and Finland are the best-performing countries, both in the region and in the world, while Hungary, Czech Republic and Cyprus rank at the With incremental progress towards gender parity bottom of the region. Overall, there is a decline of since 2017, Latin America and the Caribbean has 0.2 percentage points in the regional score based bridged 74.3% of its overall gender gap. After on the constant sample of countries. Out of the 35 Europe and North America, the region has the third- countries covered in the previous and the current highest level of parity. Since the last edition, seven edition, 10 countries, led by Estonia, Norway and out of 21 countries (including relatively populous Slovenia, have made at least a 1 percentage-point countries like Colombia, Chile, Honduras and Brazil) improvement since the last edition. Ten countries have improved their gender parity scores by at show a decline of at least 1 percentage point, with least 0.5 percentage points, while 昀椀ve countries Austria, France and Bulgaria receding the most. At have seen a decline in their parity scores by at the current rate of progress, Europe is projected to least 0.5 percentage points. This has led to a 1.7 attain gender parity in 67 years. percentage-point increase in overall gender parity since last year. Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Jamaica At 69.7% parity in Economic Participation and register the highest parity scores in this region and Opportunity, Europe stands third behind North Belize, Paraguay and Guatemala the lowest. At America and East Asia and Paci昀椀c on this the current rate of progress, Latin America and the dimension. Gender parity has receded by 0.5 Caribbean will take 53 years to attain full gender percentage points compared to last year based parity. on the constant sample of 102 countries. Norway, Iceland and Sweden have the highest parity on Parity in Economic Participation and Opportunity in Economic Participation and Opportunity, while Italy, Latin America and the Caribbean is at 65.2%, the North Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina third-lowest regional score, ahead of the Middle have the lowest. In comparison to the last edition, East and North Africa as well as Southern Asia. 13 countries (including populous France and Yet it marks an 0.7 percentage-point improvement Germany) have declined by at least 1% and eight since the last edition, with all countries except four countries have improved by at least 1 percentage improving their scores. Jamaica, Honduras and the point. The shares of senior of昀椀cer positions held Dominican Republic have seen the most progress by women have reduced in 17 out of 35 countries on this subindex since the last edition. These three that have data. Only 10 countries have at least countries, along with 14 others have improved their 60% parity in senior of昀椀cer positions, yet 28 out of parity scores in estimated earned income since 36 countries have full parity in women’s share of 2022. Further, eight countries have a 1 percentage- technical roles. point higher share of senior positions held by women compared with the last edition. On Educational Attainment, the region is almost at parity and all countries score more than 97%. There Latin America and the Caribbean has achieved is full parity in enrolment in tertiary education, while 99.2% parity on the Educational Attainment 20 out of 35 countries reach parity in secondary subindex: 14 out of 20 countries have more than education and 21 countries in primary education. 99% parity on their literacy rates. In addition, all of the 18 countries that have data on enrolment On Health and Survival, 97% parity is achieved. The in tertiary education have attained full parity on trend, however, is negative. There has been a 0.6 this indicator. Further, the number of countries percentage-point decline since the 2015 edition, with parity in enrolment in secondary education is Global Gender Gap Report 2023 22

16, while nine countries have attained full parity in they also have the lowest parity in literacy rate. Only enrolment in primary education. four countries (Israel, Bahrain, Qatar and Jordan) have more than 99% parity in literacy rate. Seven In comparison to other regions, Latin America and countries achieve parity in secondary education and the Caribbean has the highest parity on the Health 10 countries in tertiary education. and Survival subindex, at 97.6%. All countries have attained parity in sex ratio at birth and six out The region records 96.4% parity in Health and of 21 countries have perfect parity in healthy life Survival, and all countries except Qatar have expectancy. achieved more than 95% parity, while all countries have attained perfect parity in sex ratio at birth. At 35% parity, the region has the second-highest However, in 昀椀ve countries healthy life expectancy for score, after Europe, on the Political Empowerment women is lower than that of men. subindex. Based on the constant sample of countries there has been a 0.6 percentage-point The Middle East and North Africa also has improvement in parity since 2022. Overall, nine the second-lowest regional parity in political out of 21 countries have experienced at least a empowerment at 14%. Based on the sample 0.5 percentage-point improvement and nine have of countries covered continuously since 2006, seen a decline of more than 0.5%. Colombia, Chile parity on the Political Empowerment subindex has and Brazil are not only the region’s top-ranked regressed by 1 percentage point since last year. countries; they are also the most improved. Five Parity has declined in seven out of 13 countries, out of 21 countries in this region have seen at least including the region’s most populous countries – a 1 percentage-point improvement in the share of Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia – and increased in six parliamentary positions held by women. other countries, led by Bahrain, Qatar and Kuwait. Bahrain, Kuwait and Lebanon have also seen signi昀椀cant increases in the share of parliamentary Middle East and North Africa positions held by women, while Israel and Tunisia have seen a drop on this indicator since 2022. In terms of ministerial positions held by women, only In comparison to other regions, Middle East and Tunisia, Bahrain and Morocco have more than 20% North Africa remains the furthest away from parity, female ministers, while Saudi Arabia and Lebanon with a 62.6% parity score. This is a 0.9 percentage- continue to have an all-male cabinet. Apart from point decline in parity since the last edition for this Tunisia and Israel, no country in this region has had region, based on the constant sample of countries a female head of state in the last 50 years. covered since 2006. The United Arab Emirates, Israel and Bahrain have achieved the highest parity in the region, while Morocco, Oman and Algeria North America rank the lowest. The three most populous countries – Egypt, Algeria and Morocco – register declines in their parity scores since the last edition. On the Just behind Europe, North America ranks second, other hand, 昀椀ve countries, led by Bahrain, Kuwait having closed 75% of the gap, which is 1.9 and Qatar, have increased their parity by 0.5% or percentage points lower than the previous edition. more. At the current rate of progress, full regional While Canada has registered a 0.2 percentage- parity will be attained in 152 years. point decline in the overall parity score since the last edition, the United States has seen a reduction When it comes to Economic Participation and of 2.1 percentage points. At the current rate of Opportunity, 44% of the gender gap has been progress, 95 years will be needed to close the closed, ranking the region 7th out of eight regions, gender gap for the region. just above Southern Asia. There is highly uneven progress in parity on this subindex among different North America has achieved the highest gender countries. Algeria’s level of parity, 31.7%, is less parity score among all regions, 77.6%, on the than half of that of Israel which has closed 68.9% Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex. of the gender gap. The United Arab Emirates and This marks a 0.2 percentage-point increase in the Egypt have registered increases in both the share parity score since the last edition. Canada improved of women senior of昀椀cer positions and the share by 0.5 percentage points and the United States of women in technical positions. Further 10 out of by 0.2 percentage points. Parity in wage equality 13 countries in the region have advanced towards for similar work and estimated earned income parity in estimated earned income by at least 0.5 increased in both countries. percentage points. Regional parity on the Educational Attainment The Middle East and North Africa is at 95.9% parity subindex stands at 99.5%. While Canada has on the Educational Attainment subindex, and Israel achieved full parity, the United States, barring is the only country in the region to have full parity. enrolment in secondary education, is virtually Kuwait, Bahrain and Jordan come close, with more at parity for literacy rate, enrolment in primary than 99% gender parity. Relatively more populous education and enrolment in tertiary education. countries such as Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt have the lowest parity on this subindex, and Global Gender Gap Report 2023 23

With a score of 96.9%, North America ranks 5th Ranking 昀椀fth out of eight regions, Southern Asia has out of eight regions on the Health and Survival closed 96% of the gender gap on the Educational subindex. The region has seen a 1 percentage- Attainment subindex. India, Sri Lanka and Maldives point decline in parity in health since 2013. For have the highest regional parity scores, while. example, parity for healthy life expectancy, at 1.03, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan is more than just Middle East and North Africa and have achieved less than 95% parity. Afghanistan Southern Asia. Women’s healthy life expectancy has is a negative outlier, having closed only 48.1% of declined more than that of men since 2013 in both the gender gap. Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka Canada and the United States, further contributing and India are either at parity or close to parity in to the reduction in parity on this subindex. enrolment in secondary education. On enrolment in tertiary education – barring Afghanistan, Bangladesh The decline in the overall regional gender and Pakistan – all countries are at full parity, though parity score can be partially attributed to the levels are low for both men and women. 7.7 percentage-point decline on the Political Empowerment subindex, which currently stands at Southern Asia has the second-lowest regional 26.1%. Both the United States and Canada have parity score on the Health and Survival subindex, increased the share of parliamentary positions at 95.3%. Based on the constant sample of held by women. However, the measured share countries covered by the index since 2006, that of women ministers has dropped signi昀椀cantly – is a 1.1 percentage-point improvement since the particularly in the United States, where the share last edition. Pakistan, India, the Maldives and declined from 46.2% to 33.3% – which has affected Nepal have improved by varying degrees. All four the overall regional score on this subindex. This countries have bettered their sex ratios at birth, with is partly explained by a stricter de昀椀nition of what Pakistan and India making the most improvement. quali昀椀es as a ministerial position being applied in No country except Sri Lanka has attained full parity the source database produced by UN Women. See in healthy life expectancy. Appendix B for more detail. Similar to other regions, the widest gender gap on the index is on the Political Empowerment Southern Asia subindex. Behind Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and North America, Southern Asia’s is the fourth-highest score among the eight regions, Southern Asia has achieved 63.4% gender parity, at 25.1% parity. Based on the constant sample of the second-lowest score of the eight regions. The countries, this is the only subindex for this region score has risen by 1.1 percentage points since the that has experienced a setback: there has been a last edition on the basis of the constant sample of 1% reduction in parity since the last edition. Only countries covered since 2006, which can be partially the Maldives, Bangladesh and Nepal improved their attributed to the rise in scores of populous countries scores. Parity has backslid in Iran, Sri Lanka and such as India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Along with Afghanistan, as the share of ministerial positions held Bhutan, these are the countries in this region that by women has dropped in these countries since have seen an improvement of 0.5 percentage points 2022. Further, Nepal and Afghanistan have seen or more in their scores since the last edition. On the negative changes in parity in parliamentary positions, other hand, parity has backslid by 0.5 percentage while other countries have not seen much change. points or more in Sri Lanka, Afghanistan and Nepal. Bangladesh, Bhutan and Sri Lanka are the best- performing countries in the region, while Pakistan Sub-Saharan Africa and Afghanistan are at the bottom of both the regional and global ranking tables. At the current rate of progress, full parity will be achieved in 149 years. Sub-Saharan Africa’s parity score is the sixth- highest among the eight regions at 68.2%, ranking Compared to other regions, Southern Asia remains above Southern Asia and the Middle East and the furthest away from parity on the Economic North Africa. Progress in the region has been Participation and Opportunity subindex, having uneven. Namibia, Rwanda and South Africa, along closed 37.2% of the gap. However, based on the with 13 other countries, have closed more than constant sample of countries covered since 2006, 70% of the overall gender gap. The Democratic there has been an improvement of 1.4 percentage Republic of the Congo, Mali and Chad are the points since the last edition. This can be partially lowest-performing countries, with scores below attributed to the progress of Pakistan, India and 62%. And while there has been progress of Bangladesh. All three have advanced towards 0.5 percentage points or more in 17 out of 36 parity on the labour-force participation rate and countries, scores for 17 countries have seen decline estimated earned income indicators. On the other of 0.5 percentage points or more since the last hand, parity has receded in the Maldives and edition. Based on the constant sample, this marks a Nepal. Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Maldives have the marginal improvement of 0.1 percentage points. At region’s highest parity scores on the Economic the current rate of progress, it will take 102 years to Participation and Opportunity subindex, while close the gender gap in Sub-Saharan Africa. Pakistan and Afghanistan are the countries that lag the most behind. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 24

Sub-Saharan Africa has closed 67.2% of the 0.5 percentage points or more in parity in 23 out gender gap on the Economic Participation and of 36 countries, with gains in parity in literacy rate Opportunity subindex. Liberia, Eswatini and Burundi in 23 out of 36 countries. However, the number are at the top of the ranking table, while Benin, Mali of countries with 90% or more parity decreases and Senegal have attained the least parity. At the with enrolment in successive levels of education. indicator level, there has been an improvement of Apart from Mali, Guinea and Chad, all countries 0.5 percentage points or more in parity in estimated have more than 90% parity in enrolment in primary earned income in 20 out of 36 countries. Further, education, and 16 have reached full parity. Ten the share of technical positions assumed by women countries have less than 90% parity in secondary has increased for more than 1 percentage point in education and 21 countries less than 90% parity in six countries, including populous countries such as tertiary education. the Democratic Republic of Congo and Ethiopia. Seven countries – including the Democratic Sub-Saharan Africa has the third-highest parity Republic of the Congo, Tanzania and Rwanda – score, 97.2%, on the Health and Survival subindex, have seen greater than 1 percentage-point rise in following Latin America and the Caribbean and the share of senior of昀椀cer positions held by women. Eurasia and Central Asia. Twenty-昀椀ve countries have more than 97% parity. Niger, Liberia and Mali are Sub-Saharan Africa is the lowest-ranked region in the lowest-performing countries on this subindex. closing the gender gap on Educational Attainment, All countries have attained parity in sex ratio at birth, with a parity score of 86%, and only Botswana, and 11 out of 36 countries are at parity for healthy Lesotho and Namibia have achieved full parity. life expectancy. Sixteen countries have achieved less than 90% parity on this subindex, with the Democratic With 昀椀ve countries having less than 10% parity Republic of the Congo and Chad achieving the and 昀椀ve countries with more than 40% parity, lowest scores. There has been an improvement of progress has been highly uneven when it comes TABLE 1.3 The Global Gender Gap Index rankings by region, 2023 Eurasia and Central Asia Europe Country Rank Score Country Rank Score Regional Global Regional Global Moldova, Republic of 1 19 0.788 Iceland 1 1 0.912 Belarus 2 41 0.752 Norway 2 2 0.879 Armenia 3 61 0.721 Finland 3 3 0.863 Kazakhstan 4 62 0.721 Sweden 4 5 0.815 Ukraine 5 66 0.714 Germany 5 6 0.815 Georgia 6 76 0.708 Lithuania 6 9 0.800 Kyrgyzstan 7 84 0.700 Belgium 7 10 0.796 Azerbaijan 8 97 0.692 Ireland 8 11 0.795 Tajikistan 9 111 0.672 Latvia 9 13 0.794 Türkiye 10 129 0.638 United Kingdom 10 15 0.792 Albania 11 17 0.791 Spain 12 18 0.791 East Asia and the Paci昀椀c Switzerland 13 21 0.783 Estonia 14 22 0.782 Country Rank Score Denmark 15 23 0.780 Netherlands 16 28 0.777 Regional Global Slovenia 17 29 0.773 New Zealand 1 4 0.856 Portugal 18 32 0.765 Philippines 2 16 0.791 Serbia 19 38 0.760 Australia 3 26 0.778 France 20 40 0.756 Singapore 4 49 0.739 Luxembourg 21 44 0.747 Lao PDR 5 54 0.733 Austria 22 47 0.740 Viet Nam 6 72 0.711 Croatia 23 55 0.730 Thailand 7 74 0.711 Poland 24 60 0.722 Mongolia 8 80 0.704 Slovakia 25 63 0.720 Indonesia 9 87 0.697 Bulgaria 26 65 0.715 Cambodia 10 92 0.695 Montenegro 27 69 0.714 Timor-Leste 11 95 0.693 Malta 28 70 0.713 Brunei Darussalam 12 96 0.693 North Macedonia 29 73 0.711 Malaysia 13 102 0.682 Italy 30 79 0.705 Korea, Republic of 14 105 0.680 Bosnia and Herzegovina 31 86 0.698 China 15 107 0.678 Romania 32 88 0.697 Vanuatu 16 108 0.678 Greece 33 93 0.693 Fiji 17 121 0.650 Hungary 34 99 0.689 Myanmar 18 123 0.650 Czech Republic 35 101 0.685 Japan 19 125 0.647 Cyprus 36 106 0.678 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 25

TABLE 1.3 The Global Gender Gap Index rankings by region, 2023 Latin America and the Carribean Southern Asia Country Rank Score Country Rank Score Regional Global Regional Global Nicaragua 1 7 0.811 Bangladesh 1 59 0.722 Costa Rica 2 14 0.793 Bhutan 2 103 0.682 Jamaica 3 24 0.779 Sri Lanka 3 115 0.663 Chile 4 27 0.777 Nepal 4 116 0.659 Barbados 5 31 0.769 Maldives 5 124 0.649 Mexico 6 33 0.765 India 6 127 0.643 Peru 7 34 0.764 Pakistan 7 142 0.575 Argentina 8 36 0.762 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 8 143 0.575 Colombia 9 42 0.751 Afghanistan 9 146 0.405 Ecuador 10 50 0.737 Suriname 11 52 0.736 Honduras 12 53 0.735 Sub-Saharan Africa Bolivia 13 56 0.730 Brazil 14 57 0.726 Country Rank Score Panama 15 58 0.724 Uruguay 16 67 0.714 Regional Global El Salvador 17 68 0.714 Namibia 1 8 0.802 Dominican Republic 18 81 0.704 Rwanda 2 12 0.794 Belize 19 89 0.696 South Africa 3 20 0.787 Paraguay 20 91 0.695 Mozambique 4 25 0.778 Guatemala 21 117 0.659 Burundi 5 35 0.763 Cabo Verde 6 37 0.761 Liberia 7 39 0.760 Middle East and North Africa Zimbabwe 8 45 0.746 Eswatini 9 46 0.745 Tanzania, United Rep. of 10 48 0.740 Country Rank Score Madagascar 11 51 0.737 Regional Global Botswana 12 64 0.719 Ethiopia 13 75 0.711 United Arab Emirates 1 71 0.712 Kenya 14 77 0.708 Israel 2 83 0.701 Uganda 15 78 0.706 Bahrain 3 113 0.666 Lesotho 16 82 0.702 Kuwait 4 120 0.651 Zambia 17 85 0.699 Jordan 5 126 0.646 Togo 18 90 0.696 Tunisia 6 128 0.642 Cameroon 19 94 0.693 Saudi Arabia 7 131 0.637 Mauritius 20 98 0.689 Lebanon 8 132 0.628 Ghana 21 100 0.688 Qatar 9 133 0.627 Senegal 22 104 0.680 Egypt 10 134 0.626 Burkina Faso 23 109 0.676 Morocco 11 136 0.621 Malawi 24 110 0.676 Oman 12 139 0.614 Sierra Leone 25 112 0.667 Algeria 13 144 0.573 Comoros 26 114 0.664 Angola 27 118 0.656 Gambia 28 119 0.651 North America Côte d'Ivoire 29 122 0.650 Nigeria 30 130 0.637 Country Rank Score Niger 31 135 0.622 Guinea 32 137 0.617 Regional Global Benin 33 138 0.616 Canada 1 30 0.770 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the 34 140 0.612 United States of America 2 43 0.748 Mali 35 141 0.605 Chad 36 145 0.570 Source World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Index, 2023. to Political Empowerment. On average across the the Congo, have improved on this subindex by region, 22.6% parity has been achieved. Based 0.5 percentage points or more. Further, Ethiopia, on the constant sample of countries covered Togo, Tanzania, Namibia and Uganda currently have on the index since 2006, this is an improvement heads of states who are women. of 1.1 percentage points compared to the last edition. Nineteen countries, including the populous Nigeria, Ethiopia and the Democratic Republic of Global Gender Gap Report 2023 26

1.6 In-focus country performances: Top 10 and 15 most populous This section illustrates the state of country-level Since 2016, the gender gap in estimated earned gender parity across the four dimensions and income has shrunk and full parity in technical roles sheds light on important dynamics. The share has been achieved and maintained. However, the of the global female population represented by gender gap in senior roles (score 50.3%) has been the countries discussed in this section is both widening and its labour-force participation rate statistically and strategically signi昀椀cant to monitoring (84.5%) is yet to recover since the pandemic hit. and benchmarking efforts. Based on the data that Additionally, women’s healthy life expectancy at was of昀椀cially reported for the period covered in this birth of 71.6 years is still 2.7 years below the 2020 edition, distinct trends and shifts were observed in edition, worsening the gap in health attainment by the index’s top 10 as well as the 15 most populous 1.1 percentage point to 96.1% compared to results countries,2 which, combined, represent two-thirds from the 2020 edition. of the world’s female population. After a sharp rebound in gender parity scores Top 10 countries between 2017 and 2021, Finland’s progress has been marginal. It advances by 0.3 percentage Iceland continues to incrementally advance points since the last edition to register 86.3% towards gender parity since the inaugural 2006 parity in the 2023 edition, ranking 3rd globally. edition and ranks 1st for the 14th consecutive year. Finland maintains its longstanding gender parity Iceland has closed 91.2% of the gender gap, which on Educational Attainment. The recent tenure of is 0.4 percentage points higher than the previous a female head of state and parity at ministerial edition. The overall gender parity ranking is buoyed position boosts parity on Political Empowerment to by its relatively strong performance across the 70%, which is the fourth-highest score on this pillar Political Empowerment and Economic Participation globally. Yet, progress on Economic Participation and Opportunity subindexes. Iceland has almost and Opportunity (78.3%) seems to be stagnating, doubled its gender parity score in Political marked by slight reversals in parity at senior Empowerment since 2006. Iceland has been led positions and wage equality since the last edition. by a female head of state for 25 of the last 50 However, women have been representing 50% or years and more than two-昀椀fth of its ministerial and more of technical positions since the inaugural 2006 parliamentary positions are held by women, which edition. On the other hand, like several other high- 3 has propelled the country to close 90.1% of the income economies, the healthy life expectancy of gender gap. While Iceland ranks relatively high at women declined by almost 1.5 years since 2006, 14th (score 79.6%) on the Economic Participation partly widening the present gender gap on Health and Opportunity subindex, the gender parity score and Survival (97%). has suffered setbacks since 2021 (84.6%) and now is closer to its 2017 level. Speci昀椀cally, parity in In the last 昀椀ve years, New Zealand has gained wages and in representation among senior of昀椀cials more than 5 percentage points to close 85.6% has declined since 2021. However, since 2006, of the overall gender gap, ranking 4th globally in Iceland maintains parity in the share of women 2023. With parity in parliamentary positions, and in technical roles. On Health and Survival, parity a female head of state for 16 of the last 50 years, marginally regresses, partly owing to the 1.5 years New Zealand has the world’s third-highest level decline in the healthy life expectancy of women of parity on Political Empowerment. New Zealand since the 2020 edition. On Education Attainment has bridged the gender divide in enrolment across (99.1%) Iceland remains almost at parity. all levels of education and literacy rate. In terms of Economic Participation and Opportunity (73.2%), Progress towards gender parity in Norway has there remains a 12.5% gender gap in labour-force been steady, resulting in Norway improving its participation. Estimated earned incomes of both gender parity score to 87.9% and climbing one men and women have been increasing since 2006, rank to the 2nd position in this year’s index. A but men’s income increased at a higher rate than major part of Norway’s continuous improvement that of women, worsening the gap (score 64.2%) can be ascribed to its achievements on Political by 4 percentage points since. On Health and Empowerment (score 76.5%), which has increased Survival, women have lost three years of healthy life by 27.1 percentage points since 2006. Women expectancy since the 2020 edition, reducing parity now assume 50% of the ministerial positions on the subindex (score 96.6%). and 46.2% of parliamentary positions. Further, the country had a female head of state for 18 of Sweden maintains its rank of 5th since the last the last 50 years. Norway also reaches parity in edition; it has closed 81.5% of the gender gap, enrolment rates in primary education and tertiary 0.7 percentage points lower than the 2018 edition. education. However, gender parity on the Economic With 46.4% women parliamentarians and 47.8% Opportunity and Participation (80%) subindex – women ministers who head ministries, Political though recovered slightly since the last edition – is Empowerment is at 50.3% parity. Parity on still 1.8 percentage points below the 2016 level. Economic Participation and Opportunity (79.5%) Global Gender Gap Report 2023 27

has also stagnated recently, and even reversed after a phase of rapid and broad-based increase by 1.7 percentage points since the last edition. in economic parity up until 2018, parity has been The gap in labour-force participation seems to be 昀氀agging. This is mostly due to a 4.8 percentage- at a standstill, while parity in estimated earned point decline in parity in estimated earned income income declined by 7.3 percentage points since and 2 percentage-point decline in parity in labour- the last edition. On the upside, the share of women force participation rate since 2018. Namibia has in technical positions has remained at more than achieved 44.3% parity in Political Empowerment 50% since the 2006 edition and there has mostly with 44.2% women parliamentarians, 31.6% been steady progress in the share of women in women ministers and a female prime minister in senior positions over the last decade. Sweden power since 2015. also achieves a full parity score on Educational Attainment. However, parity in Health and Survival Lithuania re-enters the top 10 and ascends (96.3%) has been sliding because of an almost 1.3 two ranks since the 2022 edition to 9th position. years loss in female healthy life expectancy at birth The parity score at 80.0%, is 0.1 percentage since the 2020 edition. point higher than previous edition. Lithuania’s improvement in its gender parity pro昀椀le after Germany sustains its upward trajectory in 2020 can be attributed to the surge in share of gender parity, climbing four ranks since last year women in parliamentary positions and electing a to 6th position and registering an additional 1.4 female prime minister, resulting in 46.6% parity on percentage points to a score of 81.5%. This the Political Empowerment subindex. Lithuania advancement is due mainly to the increase of the has covered 76.7% of the gender gap on the share of women in parliamentary and ministerial Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex. positions, which have boosted the Political This dimension is however marked by mixed Empowerment subindex (63.4%) by 8.4 percentage performance across the indicators. While parity points since 2022. Germany has also attained parity has backtracked in senior positions and estimated in enrolment in all levels of education except for earned income since 2022, full party in technical secondary education. However, a backslide in parity roles has been sustained, and perceptions of in wage equality and estimated earned income wage equality for similar jobs have improved by has depleted the parity on Economic Participation 0.2 percentage points. For Educational Attainment and Opportunity (66.5%) by 6.9 percentage points (98.9%) and Health and Survival (98%), Lithuania since 2018. While parity has been achieved and edges towards parity. sustained in technical roles, the share of women in senior positions is back at the 2018 level (parity The newest entrant to the top 10 is Belgium at score 41.3%). On Health and Survival, Germany is 10th position. It has closed 79.6% of the overall plateauing at 97.2% parity. gender gap, indicating a recovery of 5.7 percentage points since 2017. Most of the development is Nicaragua is the highest-ranking Latin American on the Political Empowerment subindex, where country on the index. It maintains its 7th rank from it has reached full parity in ministerial positions the last edition and only marginally improves to and women in 42.7% of parliamentary seats, 81.1% parity. Progress has been plateauing since marking signi昀椀cant improvements since 2017. 2017 on the overall index. Nicaragua has achieved Further, Belgium remains at parity on Educational gender parity on Educational Attainment and has Attainment. Perception of wage equality for similar been at a standstill at 97.8% parity on the Health jobs and share of women in senior positions have and Survival subindex. The share of women in also been increasing incrementally, and parity has ministerial and parliamentary positions has been been achieved in technical roles. Overall, 72.8% of surpassing the 50% mark in recent years. However, the gender gap is closed on Economic Participation the overall parity score on Political Empowerment and Opportunity subindex. However, a decline in has stagnated, at 62.6% since the last edition. gender parity in healthy life expectancy since 2017 Despite ranking relatively high on the other has been gradually depleting its parity in the Health dimensions, Nicaragua’s performance lags on the and Survival subindex (96.8%). Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex, where only 64% parity is attained. The widest gap 15 most populous countries exists in the share of women in senior positions followed by wage equality. China ranks 107th and has achieved 67.8% gender parity. Compared to the previous edition, Ranked 8th is Namibia, the highest-ranking Sub- this represents a 0.4 percentage-point decline in Saharan African country in this edition, which has score and a decline of 昀椀ve positions in rank. China attained 80.2% gender parity, a 0.5 percentage- is at 93.5% parity on Educational Attainment, point decline since the last edition. Namibia has with full parity on tertiary education. On Economic achieved full parity on both the Health and Survival Participation and Opportunity, China has closed and Educational Attainment subindexes, although 72.7% of the gender gap and attains 81.5% their absolute levels of attainment are low for both parity in labour-force participation rate. It also women and men. With 56% of technical workers secures 11.4% parity on Political Empowerment, and 43.6% of senior of昀椀cers being women, with 4.2% women ministers and 24.9% women Economic Participation and Opportunity is at parliamentarians. China continues to have one of 78.4% parity and is ranked 19th globally. However, the lowest sex ratios at birth (89%), affecting parity Global Gender Gap Report 2023 28

levels on the Health and Survival subindex (93.7%, points on the Economic Participation and 145th). Opportunity subindex in the last decade to attain 36.2% parity, though this level of parity India has closed 64.3% of the overall gender remains one of the lowest globally. There is broad gap, ranking 127th on the global index. It has progress across all indicators on this subindex, but improved by 1.4 percentage points and eight particularly in the share of women technical workers positions since the last edition, marking a partial and the achievement of parity in wage equality for recovery towards its 2020 (66.8%) parity level. The similar work. Despite relatively high disparities, parity country has attained parity in enrolment across in literacy rate and enrolment in secondary and all levels of education. However, it has reached tertiary education are gradually advancing, leading only 36.7% parity on Economic Participation and to 82.5% parity on the Educational Attainment Opportunity. On the one hand, there are upticks in subindex. On Health and Survival, Pakistan secures parity in wages and income; on the other hand, the parity in sex ratio at birth, boosting subindex parity shares of women in senior positions and technical by 1.7 percentage points since 2022. Like most roles have dropped slightly since the last edition. other countries, Pakistan’s widest gender gap is on On Political Empowerment, India has registered Political Empowerment (15.2%). It has had a female 25.3% parity, with women representing 15.1% of head of state for 4.7 years of the last 50 years, and parliamentarians, the highest for India since the one-tenth of the ministers as well as one-昀椀fth of inaugural 2006 edition. On the Health and Survival parliamentarians are women. index (95%), the improvement in sex ratio at birth by 1.9 percentage points to 92.7% has driven up parity Brazil’s parity at 72.6% is 57th globally and at after more than a decade of slow progress. its highest parity level since 2006. Brazil has appointed women in 36.7% of ministerial positions, Ranked 43rd, the United States has closed the highest in its history. Further, there has also 74.8% of its overall gender gap. On Educational been a 2.9 percentage-point increase in women Attainment, the country is at parity or virtually parliamentarians (share, 17.7%). Combined, they at parity across all levels of education except have almost doubled the parity level on Political secondary education. On the Economic Empowerment (26.3%) since the previous edition. Participation and Opportunity subindex (78%), the There has also been marginal improvement on the United States has recovered almost to its 2018 Economic Participation and Opportunity dimension. level of parity. Income parity (67.5%) has been While parity in technical positions is sustained, gradually improving, however the share of women parity in estimated incomes is at 62.8%, despite in senior positions has been receding over the registering some improvement compared to the last two editions of the index. Further, over the 2022 edition. There is full parity in Health and last decade, women’s healthy life expectancy has Survival outcomes, based on sex ratio at birth declined by 昀椀ve years and men’s by close to three and healthy life expectancy. On the Educational years. This has worsened gender parity in Health Attainment subindex (99.2%), apart from enrolment and Survival outcomes (97%) by 0.9 percentage in primary education, there is full gender parity points since the 2013 edition. The country’s parity in literacy rate, secondary education and tertiary on Political Empowerment stands at 24.8%, with education. a marginal improvement in the share of women parliamentarians and still no female head of state. Nigeria’s parity is at 63.7% (130th), 1 percentage point lower than its 2013 level. Since then, parity on Indonesia’s gender parity scores were improving the Political Empowerment subindex has receded steadily until they dropped in 2021. In this edition, from 11.9% to 4.1%, due to a decline in parity Indonesia (87th) maintains the same 69.7% score in both parliamentary and ministerial positions. as last year, sustaining a recovery to almost match Further, parity on Educational Attainment has been its 2020 parity level. On Economic Participation 昀氀uctuating in recent years and has only marginally and Opportunity, there is 66.6% parity, indicating improved over the last decade; currently, its 82.6% a partial recovery to its 2020 parity level (68.5%). parity is one of the lowest in the world. Its absolute Since 2020, the share of women senior of昀椀cials levels of women’s literacy rates and enrolment rates has dropped from 55% to 31.7%, while the share across levels of education have also been lagging. of technical workers has increased from 40.1% Nigeria has perfect parity for sex ratio at birth, which to more than 50%, thus attaining parity. Further, has contributed to a 96.7% parity on the Health and there has been marginal improvement in parity in Survival subindex. Further, with a global ranking of estimated earned income, though the gap remains 54th, its Economic Participation and Opportunity wide: for every dollar of income earned by a man, score (71.5%) has experienced both advances a woman earns just 51.9 cents. The Political and setbacks over the last decade. Nigeria has Empowerment subindex is at 18.1% parity, with more than 64% representation of women in senior 21.6% women parliamentarians and 20.7% women positions, but women earn only 50% of the income ministers. Parity across Educational Attainment earned by men. (97.2%) and Health and Survival (97%) remain virtually unchanged compared to the 2022 edition. With the highest gender parity in Southern Asia, Bangladesh ranks 59th globally, with a score Pakistan (142nd) is at 57.5% parity, its highest of 72.2%. The country’s trajectory is mostly since 2006. It has improved by 5.1 percentage characterized by continuous progress on Political Global Gender Gap Report 2023 29

Empowerment. At 55.2% parity, Bangladesh 56.1% and ranks 123rd out of 146 countries. ranks seventh globally on this subindex. It has had a woman head of state for 29.3 years out of the Ethiopia ranks 75th, having closed 71.1% of last 50 years, the longest duration in the world. the gender gap. Compared to the previous However, its shares of women in ministerial (10%) edition, it has improved by 0.6 percentage points. and parliamentary positions (20.9%) are relatively Ethiopia has had a woman president the past low. On Health and Survival (96.2%), there is 4.35 years, along with 41.3% incumbent woman parity in sex ratio at birth. However, gender parity parliamentarians and 40.9% women ministers. in healthy life expectancy has been dropping This results in a closing 43.1% of the gender gap as men’s life expectancy has been increasing on the Political Empowerment subindex, almost faster than that of women since the 2020 edition. triple its score since a decade back (14.6% in Bangladesh’s Educational Attainment parity is at 2013). On Health and Survival, Ethiopia is close 93.6%. Both women and men’s literacy rate and to parity (97.1%). By contrast, on Educational enrolment in secondary and tertiary education has Attainment, though parity across the indicators is been increasing steadily over the last decade. While gradually improving, Ethiopia has one of the lowest there is now full parity in enrolment in secondary parity levels globally (135th) at 85.4%. After some education, for literacy rate and enrolment in tertiary 昀氀uctuations, parity on Economic Participation and education, there remains a persistent gap. At Opportunity is also low, at 58.7%. Labour-force 43.8% parity, Bangladesh’s Economic Participation participation parity is at 72.7% and women earn and Opportunity subindex performance is one of 66.1% of men’s estimated earned income. Only the lowest globally (139th). However, this marks a 25.4% of senior of昀椀cers and 34.3% of technical recovery to its 2020 parity level. Improvement in the positions are held by women. estimated earned income since 2021 edition has helped drive this recovery, as the gaps across the The Philippines has achieved 79.1% gender parity other indicators show less change. and ranks 16th globally. Despite an improvement of three positions and 0.88 percentage points since Ranked 33rd, Mexico’s 76.5% parity is 0.1 last year, this is only a partial recovery towards percentage points better than the previous edition, its 2018 parity level (79.9%). With 26% women though its rank drops by two positions. On cabinet ministers, the Philippines has recovered Educational Attainment, Mexico is close to subindex on that indicator. However, the gap widened in the parity, with full parity in enrolment in secondary and share of parliamentarians who are women (37.6% tertiary education and 98.4% parity in literacy rate. parity), thus effectively decreasing overall parity on Despite this, there is persistent gender disparity in the Political Empowerment subindex (40.9%) by labour-force participation (57.6%), and women’s 0.7 percentage points since 2018. The Philippines estimated earned income is only 52.3% of that is almost at parity on Educational Attainment of men. Further, only 38.5% of senior of昀椀cers are (99.9%). After being close to parity on Health and women. However, women represent almost half of Survival since 2006, the country has regressed the country’s technical workers. Overall, Mexico’s on this subindex (96.8%) due to a slight decline in 60.1% parity on Economic Participation and sex ratio at birth. On Economic Participation and Opportunity stands at 110th globally. On Health Opportunity, the Philippines maintains full parity and Survival, women have lost 2.4 years and men in senior of昀椀cer and technical workers, though have lost 1.5 years of healthy life expectancy since women’s income is just 71.6% that of men. the 2020 edition, widening the subindex gender gap by 0.4 percentage points (97.5%). With parity Egypt is at 62.6% parity and ranks 134th. Egypt in parliamentary positions, 42.1% women ministers advanced towards parity between the 2017 and no woman head of state yet, the Political editions (60.8%) and 2021 editions (63.9%), before Empowerment subindex is at 49% parity, the same regressing for the subsequent 2022 (63.5%) and as the last edition. the current edition. Since 2021, there has been a 3 percentage-point decline in parity on the Japan’s parity declines slightly for the second Educational Attainment subindex, due to slight consecutive year since the 2021 edition. With backslides in parity in enrolment in secondary and a parity of 64.7% (125th), it has slipped 0.25 tertiary education. At 96.8% parity, Health and percentage points compared to the previous survival remains virtually unchanged. However, editions and now stands nine positions lower in the on Economic Participation and Opportunity, a rankings. Japan’s parity in Political Empowerment 6.8 percentage-point increase in the share of at 5.7% is one of the lowest in the world (ranking women in senior of昀椀cer (share 12.4%) and a 4.3 138th). Ten percent of its parliamentary positions percentage-point increase in the share of women in and 8.3% of ministerial positions are held by technical positions (35.1%) since the 2022 edition women, while there has not been any female head have boosted subindex parity by 1.7 percentage of state. There is almost full parity on both the points to 42%. Further, with 27.5% women Educational Attainment and Health and Survival parliamentarians and 18.8% women ministers, there subindexes. There has been 1.1% improvement is 17.5% parity on Political Empowerment. in parity at estimated earned income since the last edition; 54.2% of women are in the labour force Viet Nam, with a score of 71.1% and a global rank and 12.9% of senior of昀椀cers are women. Japan’s of 72nd, continues its gradual progress towards Economic Participation and Opportunity parity is at gender parity. It has progressed by 2.3 percentage Global Gender Gap Report 2023 30

points since 2007 (score 68.9%) when it was The Democratic Republic of the Congo ranks 昀椀rst covered. As compared to the last edition, it 140th, with 61.2% of the gender gap closed. has advanced by 0.62 percentage points as well This is a 3 percentage-point improvement since as 11 positions in rank. While the 2022 edition 2018 when the country was 昀椀rst included in the reported no female ministers, there are now 11.1% index. Most of this improvement can be attributed women ministers, driving up the parity score on the to its progress on the Economic Participation Political Empowerment subindex from 13.5% to and Opportunity and Political Empowerment 16.6%. Viet Nam’s sex ratio at birth has been one subindexes. The country has advanced its parity of the country’s lowest-performing indicators and in estimated earned income, senior of昀椀cials it suffered further setbacks, worsening the Health and technical workers. Further, on the Political and Survival parity by 0.4 percentage points to Empowerment subindex, the share of women in 94.6%, which is among the lowest in the world. parliamentary and ministerial positions has also On Educational Attainment, Viet Nam is at 98.5% risen since the 2018 edition. The other dimension parity. There is also full parity in the share of women where the Democratic Republic of the Congo has as technical workers, and women earn 81.4% of advanced is Educational Attainment (68.3% parity), men’s estimated earned income. Labour-force although it still ranks among the lowest (144th) participation parity is at 88.1%, though only 25.6% globally. This increase is driven by progress in of the senior of昀椀cials are women. Overall, Viet Nam parity in literacy rate and enrolment in secondary is at 74.9% parity on the Economic Participation education. On Health and Survival, the country has and Opportunity subindex. achieved full parity in sex ratio at birth, attaining 97.6% subindex parity. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 31

Endnotes 1. See Appendix B for more detail on the upper threshold of the Health and Survival subindex. 2. With the exception of Russian Federation, which is not featured in the 2023 edition. 3. See research from Nordregio for more details: https://nordregio.org/maps/change-in-life-expectancy-2019-2020-by- country-in-europe/. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 32

June 2023 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 2 Gender gaps in the workforce This chapter sheds light on global workforce, markets and senior leadership to equip decision- leadership and skilling patterns across industries makers with the data to tackle gender gaps in the and across time to give a more nuanced picture most targeted and impactful way possible. of the current anatomy of gender gaps in labour 2.1 Evolving gender gaps in the global labour market As we approach the middle of 2023, the global edition, while women have (re-)entered the labour economy has resisted slipping into recession, force at higher rates than men globally, leading to yet the risks to future growth and broad-based a small recovery in gender parity in the labour-force prosperity remain many and expected volatility high. participation rate, gaps remain wide overall and in Risks include those inherent in ongoing geopolitical several speci昀椀c dimensions. con昀氀icts, open questions about the future of trade and global supply chains, large-scale climate events, as well as the disruptive impact of emerging Labour-force participation technologies. Many of these risks are expected to have a disproportionately negative effect on women, especially for women in vulnerable situations. Between 2019 and 2020, the global women’s labour-force participation rate declined by 3.4%, 5 The International Monetary Fund (IMF) predicts as compared to 2.4% for men. Women have been modest global growth in the near term at 2.8% in (re-)entering the workforce at a slightly higher rate 1 2023, improving marginally in 2024. Yet, further than men since then, resulting in a modest recovery down the line, the World Bank projects falling long- in gender parity. Between the 2022 and 2023 term global economic prospects in the absence of editions, parity in the labour-force participation rate 2 deep structural transformation. Unlocking all talent increased from 63% to 64%. However, the recovery in the workforce, in innovation and leadership will be remains un昀椀nished, as parity is still at the second- critical in brightening the current prospects. lowest point since the 昀椀rst edition of the index in 2006 and signi昀椀cantly below its 2009 peak of 69%. Increases in the cost-of-living are set to remain elevated, with baseline global in昀氀ation expected At the regional level, developments have been around 7% in 2023, signi昀椀cantly above traditional uneven. After all regions saw a downturn in the central bank targets of 2%. This will continue to put 2022 edition, the most marked recovery this year disproportionate pressure on individuals with low is observed in Southern Asia, followed by Latin 3 incomes. Furthermore, labour markets are showing America and the Caribbean, Eurasia and Central signs of cooling after a post-pandemic period of Asia, East Asia and the Paci昀椀c, then Sub-Saharan high demand for workers and upward pressures Africa. Parity in labour-force participation in both on wages. In the longer run, International Labour Europe and North America saw virtually no change Organization (ILO) projections point to rising global compared to the 2022 edition, while the Middle unemployment and informal work as well as further East and North Africa saw a slight drop. slowing productivity growth.4 Overall, the lowest levels of parity in participation on The 2022 edition of the Global Gender Gap Report average at the regional level are in the Middle East raised concerns over the state of gender parity and North Africa (30%) and Southern Asia (34%). Of in the labour market. Not only was women’s all regions, North America attains the highest score participation slipping globally, but other markers of of 84%, followed by Europe at 82% and East Asia economic opportunity were showing substantive and the Paci昀椀c at 80%. disparities between women and men. Since the last Global Gender Gap Report 2023 33

FIGURE 2.1 Gender gap in labour-force participation, 2006-2023 0.690 0.680 ce 0.670 -for 0.660 0.650 participation (0-1, parity)0.640 Gender gap in labour 0.630 0.620 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019* 2020 2021 2022 2023 Edition Source Note World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Report, The fourteenth edition of the Global Gender Gap Index, titled The Global Gender Gap Report 2006-2023. 2020, was released in December 2019. There is no corresponding edition for 2019. FIGURE 2.2 Gender gap in labour-force participation, by region, 2006-2023 1.0 Eurasia and Central Asia East Asia and the Pacific Europe ce -for 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 Gender gap in labourparticipation (0-1, parity)0 2006 2023 2006 2023 2006 2023 1.0 Latin America and the Caribbean Middle East and North Africa North America 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2006 2023 2006 2023 2006 2023 1.0 Southern Asia Sub-Saharan Africa 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2006 2023 2006 2023 Source World Economic Forum calculations based on Global Gender Gap Report, 2006-2023. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 34

of educational attainment tends to vary based Unemployment on a country’s income level. In many advanced economies individuals with basic education face Labour-force participation rates mask trends in a higher risk of unemployment, and this pattern is unemployment since the former counts both those particularly pronounced for women (Figure 2.4.a). working and those unemployed but actively looking Conversely, in low- and middle-income countries, for employment. individuals with advanced education are more susceptible to unemployment, with women again After the surge in unemployment due to disproportionately affected (Figure 2.4.b). pandemic lockdowns, both men’s and women’s unemployment rates have almost returned to pre- Further, women face greater dif昀椀culties in their pandemic levels (Figure 2.3). Historically, women search for employment. An individual is considered have consistently faced higher unemployment unemployed if they are actively looking for work rates than men, except for a short period in 2020 and are available to start a job within a short notice when the pandemic led to a peak in unemployment period, typically a week. However, this de昀椀nition for both genders (and slightly more so for men). assumes that men and women face similar Since then, the likelihood of women experiencing conditions in their job searches and are equally unemployment is again higher than for men, available to take up employment on short notice. To compounding the gender gap observed in labour- address these limitations, the ILO has introduced force participation: not only are fewer women the “jobs gap” measure, which encompasses participating in the labour market, but out of those all individuals who desire employment but are who are, relatively fewer are employed. According currently unemployed, including those actively to the latest data from the International Labour seeking employment and readily available to start Organization (ILO), the global unemployment rate work on short notice, those not actively searching stands at approximately 4.5% for women and 4.3% employment opportunities and not available for for men.6 immediate job placement, and those searching for employment but unable to join the workforce on Disparity in female and male unemployment is short notice. highest in the Middle East and North Africa region, where the parity ratio currently stands at 2.69, According to this ILO estimate, 12.3%, or 473 followed by Latin America and the Caribbean, with million people, fall into the jobs gap category. 1.51 parity, and Eurasia and Central Asia at 1.21. Women’s jobs gap rate of 15% is signi昀椀cantly higher 7 East Asia and the Paci昀椀c is the only region below than men’s jobs gap rate of 10.5%. Among both parity (1.0), meaning unemployment is lower for men and women actively seeking employment, female workers than for men. women are also signi昀椀cantly less likely to be readily 8 available to start work on short notice than men. Figure 2.4 further illustrates that unemployment Evidence suggests that these gaps persist due patterns for women tend to be an ampli昀椀ed version to both a lack of suitable job opportunities and of what is experienced by men. The likelihood of lack of access to existing opportunities, in turn unemployment among workers with different levels due to disproportionate care responsibilities and FIGURE 2.3 Gender gap in unemployment, 2013-2022 1.10 1.05 (0-1, parity) 1.00 Parity line Gender gap in unemployment 0.95 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Year Source World Economic Forum calculations based on ILO modeled estimates, 100 countries, constant sample. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 35

FIGURE 2.4 Unemployment by level of education, female and male workers, by income level, 2022 or latest year available A. Female B. Male 40 35 Tunisia 30 Pakistan Jordan Morocco 25 Mali Saudi Arabia Algeria 20 Jordan Rwanda Botswana Guinea Morocco Cameroon Angola South-Africa 15 Chad Rwanda Botswana Lebanon Georgia Greece South Africa Montenegro 10 Spain Algeria North Macedonia North Macedonia Eswatini Italy Finland Spain 5 Sweden Unemployment of workers with advanced education (%)Finland Sweden Slovakia Azerbaijan Slovakia Bulgaria 0 USA Bulgaria 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Unemployment of workers with basic education (%) Emerging market economies Advanced economies Source Note International Labour Organization (ILO), ILOSTAT. Educational attainment based on the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). Basic education is defined as primary and lower secondary education and advanced education is defined as short-cycle tertiary education, bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent levels. discouragement to search for opportunities, among Overall, over the last decade, there has been 9 other factors. insuf昀椀cient progress in improving working conditions, interrupted by shocks in key labour- force indicators. Women still encounter barriers Working conditions entering the workforce, struggle to 昀椀nd jobs, and face relatively poorer working conditions, calling for renewed focus by both governments and business When women secure employment, they often leaders. Across the world, inadequate care systems face substandard quality of working conditions. A are one of the largest roadblocks to improving signi昀椀cant portion of the recovery in employment gender gaps in the labour market. since 2020 can be attributed to informal employment. The ILO estimates that out of every 昀椀ve jobs created for women, four are within the informal economy, whereas for men, the ratio is two out of every three jobs.10 While informal work is critical and may drive production and employment, it is often a “last-resort” option characterized by a lack of legal protections, social security, and decent working conditions, and poses numerous challenges for women’s economic and social well- being. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 36

2.2 Workforce representation across industries In addition to overall barriers to labour-force Industries where women are under-represented participation and employment, global data provided yet still make up more than 40% of the workforce by LinkedIn shows persistent skewing in women’s (i.e. above the global average score of 41.9%, and representation in the workforce across industries.11 the median score of 42.4%) are Retail (48.7%), Entertainment Providers (48.4%), Administrative In LinkedIn’s sample, which comprises all LinkedIn and Support Services (46.5%), Real Estate (44.7%), users in 163 countries, women account for 41.9% Accommodation and Food (43.3%) and Financial of the workforce (ILO reports 39.5% in 2021 for the Services (42.4%). Finally, women are poorly global workforce12). Trends over time indicate that represented in sectors like Oil, Gas and Mining the share of women hired into the total workforce (22.7%) and Infrastructure (22.3%), where they saw upward trends between 2016-2019, increasing account for less than one-quarter of workers. from 41.6% to 42.1% before plateauing in 2020. In the last three years, the proportion of jobs held by The drop in women’s workforce representation women increased again in 2021 (+0.12 percentage between 2022 and 2023 noted earlier is observed points), followed by a slight drop in 2022 (-0.03 across industries, but especially in Consumer percentage points) and a steeper decline in 2023 Services (-0.71 percentage points), Accommodation (-0.31 percentage points). and Food (-0.67 percentage points), Agriculture (-0.65 percentage points), and Wholesale (-0.62 A closer look across industries reveals that percentage points). Healthcare and Care Services (64.7%) continues to be a female-dominated 昀椀eld. Women also The share of women in Accommodation and Food, outnumber men, though to a lesser degree, however, has been experiencing a downward trend in Education (54.0%) and Consumer Services since 2020 – along with women’s share in Retail (51.8%). The Government and Public sector is the and, to a smaller extent, in Healthcare and Care only one showcasing a fairly balanced distribution Services and Financial Services (for the latter, the of men and women across occupations, with decline started in 2018). women accounting for almost half (49.7%) of the workforce in 2023 (down from 50% in 2022). FIGURE 2.5 Representation of women in the workforce, by industry, 2016-2023 70 Healthcare and Care Services 60 Education Consumer Services Government and Public 50 Sector Retail Entertainment Providers e (%) Administrative and Support Services Shar Real Estate Accommodation and Food 40 Financial Services Overall Professional Services Technology, Information and Media Wholesale 30 Utilities Manufacturing Agriculture Supply Chain and Transportation Oil, Gas and Mining 20 Infrastructure 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Year Source Note LinkedIn Economic Graph. The 2023 data points only include data for Q1 2023. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 37

The industries where women’s representation has points), Infrastructure (+1.16 percentage points), been trending markedly upward since 2016 (albeit Consumer Services (+1.1 percentage points), dipping at the beginning of 2023) are: Government Professional Services (+0.95 percentage points) and Public Sector (+1.8 percentage points in 2022 and Technology, Information and Media (+0.94 compared to 2016), Agriculture (+1.24 percentage percentage points). 2.3 Representation of women in senior leadership LinkedIn data indicates that the share of women Industries with the greatest discrepancy between in senior leadership positions – where “senior women’s share in senior contributor roles and leadership” is de昀椀ned as Director,13 Vice-President that in either Director or higher-ranked roles (VP 14 15 (VP) or C-suite – is at 32.2% in 2023 nearly or C-suite) are Real Estate (-12.9 percentage 10 percentage points lower than women’s points), Administrative and Support Services overall 2023 workforce representation of 41.9%. (-11.7 percentage points), Entertainment Providers Women continue to be outnumbered by men in (-10.9 percentage points) and Healthcare and Care senior leadership positions across all industries, Services (-10 percentage points). The 昀椀elds with especially so in 昀椀elds like Manufacturing (24.6% a better retention of women and thus less abrupt women); Agriculture (23.3%); Supply Chain and drops in women’s share in senior contributor Transportation (23.0%); Oil, Gas and Mining versus senior leader roles are Education (-1.3 (18.6%); and Infrastructure (16.1%). percentage points) and Consumer Services (-1.4 percentage points). The sectors where gender diversity in senior leadership is more present, with women taking Despite a signi昀椀cant drop in gender diversity from up between one-third and one-half of senior more junior to more senior levels, Healthcare and leadership roles, are: Healthcare and Care Services Care Services is the only industry where women (49.5%), Education (46.0%), Consumer Services surpass men in either Manager (60.7%) or Director (45.9%), Government and Public Sector (40.3%), (53.8%) positions, while also displaying the highest Retail (38.5%), Entertainment Providers (37.1%), share of women in either VP (46.8%) or C-suite Administrative and Support Services (34.7%), and (39.8%) roles. The next-best industries for female Accommodation and Food (33.5%). senior leaders are Consumer Services (e.g. 49.9% of Director positions, 46.3% of VP roles and 38.4% of C-suite roles are held by women) and Education Organizational hierarchy levels (e.g. 49.3% of Director positions, 41.4% of VP roles and 38.6% of C-suite roles are held by women). When further disaggregating the data by seniority levels, it becomes apparent that different industries Senior leadership display different intensities and patterns when it comes to the “drop to the top” – the degree to which female representation drops as seniority level Despite the overall “drop to the top”, women have increases. This is illustrated in Figure 2.7. increased their representation in senior leadership since 2016 across all industries. The sectors that Representation drops to 25% in C-suite positions made gains in women taking up Director roles, for on average, which is just more than half of the instance, are Technology, Information and Media representation in entry-level positions, at 46%. (an increase of 2.4 percentage points from 30.8% in Women fare relatively better in industries such as 2016 to 33.2% in 2022), Professional Services (+2.1 Consumer Services, Retail, and Education, which percentage points) and Government and Public register ratios of C-suite vs entry level representation Sector (+2 percentage points). Slower progression between 64% and 68%, as shown in Table 2.1. over time is noticed in the 昀椀eld of Entertainment Construction, Financial Services and Real Estate, Providers (+0.4 percentage points) and in Healthcare on the other hand, present the toughest conditions and Care Services (+0.5 percentage points). for aspiring female leaders, with a ratio of C-suite to entry-level representation of less than 50%. The latter, however, displays one of the more marked improvements of women’s representation in On average, across industries, a signi昀椀cant gap is VP roles, with an increase of 1.6 percentage points seen when comparing the share of women in senior between 2016-2022, alongside even more notable contributor positions (44.0%) to that of women in progress in Technology, Information and Media as Manager (35.5%) or Director roles (36.8%). The well as Professional Services (both registering a disproportionate share of men holding top positions rise of 1.9 percentage points). Women’s ranks in is even starker among higher-ranked positions, VP positions have not increased as quickly in either where men account for 71.7% of Vice-President (VP) Accommodation and Food (+0.4 percentage points) roles and 74.6% of C-suite positions on average. or Administrative and Support Services (+0.3 percentage points). Global Gender Gap Report 2023 38

FIGURE 2.6 Women's representation in the workforce, overall vs. in leadership, by industry, 2022 Accommodation 34% and Food 43% Administrative and 35% Support Services 47% Agriculture 25% 32% Consumer Services 46% 52% Education 46% 54% Entertainment Providers 37% 48% Financial Services 32% 42% Government and 40% Public Sector 50% Healthcare and 50% Care Services 65% Infrastructure 16% 22% Manufacturing 25% 32% Oil, Gas and Mining 19% 23% Overall 32% 42% Professional Services 32% 42% Real Estate 29% 45% Retail 39% 49% Supply Chain and 23% Transportation 30% Technology, Information 28% and Media 36% Utilities 25% 33% Wholesale 25% 34% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Share (%) Senior leaders All levels Source LinkedIn Economic Graph. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 39

FIGURE 2.7 Industry representation of women, by seniority level, as of March 2023 70 Consumer Services Retail Education 60 50 e (%) 40 30 Shar 20 10 0 A B C D E F A B C D E F Entry (A) ector (D) Senior (B) C-suite (F) Dir esident (E) Manager (C) Vice pr 70 Administrative and Support Service Professional Services Entertainment Providers 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 A B C D E F A B C D E F A B C D E F 70 Oil, Gas, and Mining Hospitals and Health Care Global 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 A B C D E F A B C D E F A B C D E F Technology, Information 70 Manufacturing Farming, Ranching, Forestry and Media 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 A B C D E F A B C D E F A B C D E F Accommodation and 70 Government Administration Food Services Utilities 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 A B C D E D A B C D E D A B C D E D Share of women Global Gender Gap Report 2023 40

FIGURE 2.7 Industry representation of women, by seniority level, as of March 2023 Transportation, Logistics, Supply 70 Wholesale Chain and Storage Construction 60 50 e (%)40 30 Shar 20 10 0 A B C D E F A B C D E F Entry (A) ector (D) Senior (B) C-suite (F) Dir esident (E) Manager (C) Vice pr Real Estate and Equipment 70 Financial Services Rental Services 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Share of women A B C D E F A B C D E F Source Note LinkedIn Economic Graph. Charts are arranged in descending order by the difference between women in entry-level and C-suite positions as a share of the overall number of those positions. TABLE 2.1 Drop to the top, by industry, as of March 2023 The data presented in this graph is ordered in descending order based on the ratio of women's representation in both entry-level positions and C-suite positions. Percentage of women in... Entry-level position (a) C-suite level positions (b) “Drop to the top” (b)/(a) Consumer Services 57% 38% 0.68 Retail 53% 36% 0.67 Education 60% 39% 0.64 Administrative and Support Services 50% 29% 0.59 Professional Services 45% 26% 0.58 Entertainment Providers 52% 30% 0.57 Oil, Gas, and Mining 24% 14% 0.57 Hospitals and Health Care 71% 40% 0.56 Overall 46% 25% 0.56 Manufacturing 34% 19% 0.55 Farming, Ranching, Forestry 36% 20% 0.54 Technology, Information and Media 37% 20% 0.53 Government Administration 55% 29% 0.53 Accommodation and Food Services 49% 26% 0.53 Utilities 35% 18% 0.52 Wholesale 38% 19% 0.50 Transportation, Logistics, Supply Chain and Storage 34% 17% 0.50 Construction 25% 12% 0.49 Financial Services 49% 23% 0.47 Real Estate and Equipment Rental Services 54% 23% 0.43 0 1 Share 0% 100% Source Source LinkedIn Economic Graph. The data presented in this graph is presented in descending order based on the ratio of women's representation in both entry-level and C-suite positions. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 41

FIGURE 2.8 Share of women in senior leadership, by industry, 2016-2023 60 50 Healthcare and Care Services Education Consumer Services 40 Government and Public Sector Retail Entertainment Providers e (%) Accommodation and Food Administrative and Support Shar Services Overall 30 Professional Services Financial Services Real Estate Technology, Information and Media Utilities Wholesale Manufacturing 20 Agriculture Supply Chain and Transportation Oil, Gas and Mining Infrastructure 10 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Year Source Note LinkedIn Economic Graph. The 2023 data points only include data for Q1 2023. The global share of women taking up senior Leadership hiring rates leadership roles (Director, VP or C-suite) had been on an upward slope in recent years, increasing from 31.1% in 2016 to 32.6% in 2022, yet dropping to A similar trajectory is observed when tracking 32.2% in the 昀椀rst quarter of 2023. Between 2016 the evolution of leadership hiring rates over and mid-2022, progress on women’s representation time, which in turn affects the overall leadership in senior leadership was seen across industries: representation rates as seen in Figure 2.8. For the upward trends were steeper in Technology, past eight years, the proportion of women hired into Information and Media (+1.98 percentage points); leadership positions has been steadily increasing Professional Services (+1.96 percentage points); by about 1% per year globally. In the 昀椀rst months Government and Public Sector (+1.93 percentage of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, there was points); Manufacturing (+1.84 percentage points); a decline followed by a recovery matching or in and Utilities (+1.75 percentage points). some industries even exceeding the pre-pandemic trajectory. However, this trend shows a clear Yet, women’s workforce representation decreased reversal starting in 2022, bringing the 2023 rate at all levels of seniority across the examined back to 2021 levels (Figure 2.9). industries in the early 2023 data (-0.31 percentage points), and the decline is stronger for senior leader Progress in hiring women into top positions has positions (-0.33 percentage points). The recent drop not been advancing at the same rate across in the representation of women in top positions is industries since 2016 (Figure 2.10). Some sectors especially visible in sectors like Consumer Services are displaying upward trends over several years (-0.58 percentage points), Healthcare and Care (Financial Services; Professional Services; Oil, Services (-0.42 percentage points), Real Estate Gas, and Mining), while others are 昀氀uctuating (-0.41 percentage points), and Infrastructure and (Government Administration, Administrative and Agriculture (-0.4 percentage points). Support Services). Global Gender Gap Report 2023 42

FIGURE 2.9 Proportion of women in leadership hires, seasonally adjusted, 2016-2023 33 32 31 30 e (%)29 Shar 28 27 26 25 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Year Quarterly share of hiring Yearly moving average Source LinkedIn Economic Graph. The recent downturn shown in Figure 2.9 has and Agriculture, which continue to stay on trend. been observed across industries. Estimates by The most affected industries are Technology and LinkedIn show that as of May 2023, the proportion Professional Services, which in May 2023 was 4 of women hired into leadership is lower than what percentage points below trend, and Entertainment would be predicted based on the pre-2022 trend Providers and Wholesale, which were 3 percentage line for most industries, apart from Construction; points below trend (Figure 2.10). Real Estate; Oil, Gas and Mining; Education; Global Gender Gap Report 2023 43

FIGURE 2.10 Share of women hired into senior leadership, by industry, 2016-2023 55 Hospitals and Health Care Consumer Services Education 45 Government Administration Entertainment Providers Administrative and Support Services Retail Professional Services e (%)35 Accommodation and Food Services Shar Real Estate and Equipment Rental Services Financial Services Technology, Information and Media Wholesale Utilities 25 Manufacturing Transportation, Logistics, Supply Chain and Storage Farming, Ranching, Forestry Oil, Gas and Mining Construction 15 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Year Source Note LinkedIn Economic Graph. The 2023 data points only include data for Q1 2023. 2.4 Gender gaps in the labour markets of the future STEM occupations cohort, the numbers on the integration of STEM university graduates into the labour market show that the retention of women in STEM one year after Examining more closely science, technology, graduating sees a signi昀椀cant drop. Figure 2.12 engineering and math (STEM) occupations – an shows that among those graduating with a STEM important set of jobs that are well remunerated and degree in 2017, for instance, 35.5% were women; expected to grow in signi昀椀cance and scope in the a year after graduation, 29.6% of those holding future – LinkedIn data on members’ job pro昀椀les show STEM jobs were women (a drop of 5.9 percentage that women remain signi昀椀cantly underrepresented points). In 2021, women comprised 38.5% of STEM 16 in the STEM workforce. Women make up almost degree recipients compared with 31.6% of STEM half (49.3%) of total employment across non-STEM workers one year following graduation (a drop of 6.9 occupations, but just 29.2% of all STEM workers percentage points). Once in the workforce, however, (Figure 2.11). The fraction of women in STEM jobs women are generally less likely to drop out in the has nonetheless grown by 1.58 percentage points 昀椀rst years (until they start climbing the hierarchy, see from 27.6% in 2015, and the growth outpaces that Figure 2.12). For example, the difference between for non-STEM jobs (0.37 percentage points). year 2 after graduation and year 1 after graduation is around 1 or 2 percentage points. This data from LinkedIn suggests that one 昀椀rst point of intervention in improving numbers could be to When it comes to STEM occupations, women smooth the transition for female STEM graduates are scarce throughout all industries, apart from from university to the world of work. While the Healthcare and Care Services, where they represent percentage of female STEM graduates entering 51.5% of the workforce. Gender parity in STEM into STEM employment is increasing with every jobs across industries varies widely. In Technology, Global Gender Gap Report 2023 44

FIGURE 2.11 Share of women in STEM and non-STEM workforce, 2015-2023 60 50 e (%) 40 Shar 30 20 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Year STEM Non-STEM Source LinkedIn Economic Graph. FIGURE 2.12 Share of women STEM graduates (Bachelor's degree or higher), by years since graduation 40 35 e (%) 2021 2020 2019 Shar 2018 2017 30 25 0 1 2 3 4 5 Years since graduation Source LinkedIn Economic Graph. FIGURE 2.13 Share of women in the workforce, by seniority level and STEM occupation status 70 60 50 40 e (%) Shar30 20 10 0 Entry Senior Manager Director Vice president Chief executive Non-STEM STEM Source LinkedIn Economic Graph. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 45

Information and Media, for example, the share of AI occupation take-up STEM occupations stands at 23.4% for women versus 43.6% for men, meaning that women are half (53.8%) as likely to take up STEM employment As AI continues to revolutionize the labour market, in this 昀椀eld. In other industries, such as Real Estate, a new metric has been developed in collaboration women are only 35% as likely as men to work in with LinkedIn to analyse the gender gap in the STEM, whereas in Agriculture and Education, parity distribution of AI talent across industries that have 17 reaches 69% and 61.5% respectively. experienced signi昀椀cant impacts from AI. Women generally tend to be underrepresented The concentration of AI talent overall has surged, in leadership roles, but especially in STEM work: increasing six times between 2016 and 2022. The they account for 29.4% of entry-level workers and extent of this increase varies across industries, 29.9% of senior workers, but the share of women with Technology, Education, Professional Services, in Manager or Director positions drops to one- and Financial Services exhibiting the highest quarter (25.5% and 26.7% respectively). Women’s concentration of AI talent. representation in high-level leadership roles such as VP and C-suite drops even lower, to 17.8% and However, when it comes to gender gaps, 12.4%, respectively. representation of female AI talent is lower compared FIGURE 2.14 Gender representation for AI talent, by industry, 2022 Education 40% 60% Consumer Services 38% 62% Government and 35% 65% Public Sector Professional Services 31% 69% Financial Services 727% 73% Technology, Information 25% 75% and Media Manufacturing 22% 78% Overall 30% 70% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Share (%) Women Men Source LinkedIn Economic Graph. to men in all large industries, as depicted in Figure The gender gap in AI professionals has far-reaching 2.14. Overall, as of 2022, only 30% of AI talent implications that extend beyond the realm of were female. The industries with the highest technology. It exacerbates the existing gender concentration of AI talent include those with a low disparities in the workforce, particularly in a rapidly- representation of women, as well as those with growing sector like AI that holds signi昀椀cant in昀氀uence higher representation, such as Financial Services over various industries. As AI is disrupting critical (female representation of 28%); Education (40%); solutions in knowledge work, supply chains, hiring, Professional Services (31%); and Technology, education, health and the environment, among Information, and Media (25%). Additionally, others, underrepresentation of women in AI can Consumer Services (38%) and Government and impede the realization of the innovation premium Public Sector (35%) are industries with a large associated with diversity. In addition, when gender gap overall and in AI. Female representation women’s perspectives, experiences and insights are in AI is progressing, yet very slowly. The percentage not adequately incorporated into AI development of women working in AI today is roughly 4% higher and deployment, biased algorithms and than it was in 2016 (~26%). technologies may be perpetuated, risking biased and suboptimal solutions to emerging challenges. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 46

2.5 Gender gaps in the skills of the future As labour markets get recon昀椀gured with the men and women in 2020. Even after the lockdowns emergence of new working arrangements and were relaxed, a combination of online, blended frontier technologies, education and skills do not and hybridized modalities of learning continued, only drive employability, productivity and wages, highlighting new opportunities in online skilling they also impact people’s access to temporal and adult training. However, studying the gap and geographical 昀氀exibility and their ability to between women and men’s enrolment throughout balance caregiving responsibilities around work. this period points to persistent gender disparities This has been an important factor for labour-force and indicates missed opportunities and barriers for participation choices among women and men, their women to access and bene昀椀t from such learning career progression and their stress levels, especially opportunities. 18 since the COVID-19 pandemic began. As of 2022, except for teaching and mentoring It is no longer suf昀椀cient to frontload skills through courses, there is disparity in enrolment in every skill training in the initial phase of the career for a single category. For enrolment in cognitive skills such as 19 22 quali昀椀cation throughout a lifetime. In the changing creative thinking (64.3% parity ), analytical thinking job market, demand for skills is rapidly shifting. As (52.7%) and systems thinking (55.6%), which are illustrated in Figure 2.15, creative thinking, analytical projected to become increasingly crucial in the thinking, technological literacy, curiosity and lifelong next 昀椀ve years, gender gaps remain persistent and 23 learning and resilience, 昀氀exibility and agility are even register declines since 2015 parity levels. For increasing in demand, according to the Forum’s enrolment in technology skills such as technological Future of Jobs survey that studied the business literacy (43.7% parity) and AI and big data (33.7%), expectations of evolution of the importance of these which are within the top 10 skills projected to grow, skills. there is less than 50% parity and progress has been sluggish since 2015. To match supply for these rapidly evolving demand for skills, governments and organizations However, there is a relatively higher degree of have been calling for policy focus and 昀椀nancial gender parity in enrolling in courses for obtaining investment into adult education, training and lifelong attitudes and socio-emotional capabilities. This learning, in line with SDG 4 (“Ensure inclusive and is particularly important as attitudes and socio- equitable quality education and promote lifelong emotional skills are among the most important skills 20 learning opportunities for all”). In this context, the to employers. Companies place great emphasis emergence of online learning has introduced a wide on these “human” skills that are less susceptible to array of new educational solutions that can assist automation and that allow their workforce to more 24 individuals in adapting to the dynamic job market. ef昀椀ciently respond to change. For self-ef昀椀cacy skills, such as curiosity and lifelong learning (87.6% Online learning offers the advantages of 昀氀exibility, parity); resilience, 昀氀exibility and agility (77.1%); and accessibility and customization, enabling learners motivation and self-awareness (86.8%), parity in to acquire knowledge in a manner that suits their enrolment has been relatively high. Gender gaps speci昀椀c needs and circumstances. However, are also relatively lower in enrolling for skills under women and men currently do not have equal the category of working with others, for example, opportunities and access to these online platforms, teaching and mentoring (131.5%), leadership and 21 given the persistent digital divide. Even when they social in昀氀uence (75.8%) and empathy and active do use these platforms, there are gender gaps in listening (72.3%). However, women still tend to skilling, especially those that are projected to grow enrol in smaller numbers compared to men in all in importance and demand. In the subsections these skills except teaching and mentoring. that follow, analysis developed in collaboration with Coursera reveals important aspects related Over time since 2015, these gender gaps have to gender gaps in the enrolment, attainment reduced only slowly in most skills, including those and ef昀椀ciency in the acquisition of skills that are with glaring gender differences such as AI and expected to grow in importance. big data, technological literacy, analytical thinking and creative thinking. Further, in skills such as curiosity and lifelong learning, resilience, 昀氀exibility Online enrolment and agility, motivation and self-awareness, disparity in enrolment shows signs of worsening as gender parity in enrolment in these skills have declined in The number of enrolments in courses on online the last one or two years. learning platform Coursera experienced more than a fourfold growth in users between 2015 and 2022. A closer examination of learning hours further In particular, the lockdown during the pandemic supports and mirrors the analysis in gender precipitated this growth across the education disparities in enrollment across these skills. Overall, technology industry as learners of all levels had to parity in enrolment in many key skills has been low. shift to online platforms. Coursera witnessed its Further, they are slow to progress towards parity, highest year-on-year increase in enrolments for both and except for teaching and mentoring, talent Global Gender Gap Report 2023 47

FIGURE 2.15 Skills on the rise Share of companies which consider skills to be increasing or decreasing in importance, ordered by the net difference Creative thinking 73.2% Analytical thinking 71.6% Technological literacy 67.7% Curiosity and lifelong learning 66.8% Resilience, flexibility and agility 65.8% Systems thinking 59.9% AI and big data 59.5% Motivation and self-awareness 58.9% Talent management 56.4% Service orientation and customer service 54.8% Leadership and social influence 53.1% Empathy and active listening 52.3% Dependability and attention to detail 52.0% Resource management and operations 51.4% Networks and cybersecurity 50.3% Quality control 49.5% Design and user experience 48.4% Teaching and mentoring 47.8% Environmental stewardship 43.2% Programming 38.8% Marketing and media 38.4% Multi-lingualism 38.0% Reading, writing and mathematics 26.4% Global citizenship 23.8% Sensory-processing abilities 22.6% Manual dexterity, endurance and precision 14.9% -25 0 25 50 75 100 Share of companies surveyed (%) Increasing importance Declining importance Net difference: Skills, knowledge and abilities Attitudes Source Note World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2023. The Future of Jobs Survey uses the World Economic Forum's Global Skills Taxonomy. The share of companies which consider skills to be of stable importance to their workers is not plotted. For more information, see https://www1.reskillingrevolution2030.org/skills-taxonomy/index.html. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 48

FIGURE 2.16 Gender gap in enrolment in lifelong learning courses, by skill, 2015-2022 Organized by the share of organizations which consider skills to be increasing or decreasing in importance, according to the Future of Jobs Report 2023 2.0 Creative thinking Analytical thinking Technological literacy 1.5 1.0 Parity line Gender gap0.5 0 2015 2022 2015 2022 2015 2022 2.0 Curiosity and lifelong learning Resilience, flexibility and agility Systems thinking 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 2015 2022 2015 2022 2015 2022 2.0 AI and big data Motivation and self-awareness Talent management 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 2015 2022 2015 2022 2015 2022 Service orientation and 2.0 customer service Leadership and social influence Empathy and active listening 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 2015 2022 2015 2022 2015 2022 Dependability and Resource management 2.0 attention to detail and operations Networks and cybersecurity 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 2015 2022 2015 2022 2015 2022 Cognitive skills Engagement skills Ethics Management skills Self-efficacy Technology skills Working with others Global Gender Gap Report 2023 49

FIGURE 2.16 Gender gap in enrolment in lifelong learning courses, by skill, 2015-2022 Organized by the share of organizations which consider skills to be increasing or decreasing in importance, according to the Future of Jobs Report 2023 2.0 Quality control Design and user experience Teaching and mentoring 1.5 1.0 Parity line Gender gap0.5 0 2015 2022 2015 2022 2015 2022 2.0 Environmental stewardship Programming Marketing and media 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 2015 2022 2015 2022 2015 2022 2.0 Reading, writing and mathematics Global citizenship 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 2015 2022 2015 2022 Cognitive skills Engagement skills Ethics Management skills Self-efficacy Technology skills Working with others Source Source World Economic Forum calculations based on Coursera data. Skills are coloured according to the level-2 skill type in the Global Skills Taxonomy and ordered by increasing importance as per the Future of Jobs Survey. management and design and user experience, to men, a smaller number of women achieve parity in any skills has not progressed by more than intermediate and advanced levels in this skill 3 percentage points since last year. category. Notably, the most signi昀椀cant gender gap is found in the technology skills category, across all pro昀椀ciency levels. Furthermore, gender disparity in Skill pro昀椀ciency through online cognitive skills also remains relatively high across all learning pro昀椀ciency levels. Across all skill categories, the gender gaps tend to The 昀椀ndings regarding parity in enrolment extend widen as pro昀椀ciency levels increase. The largest to patterns of parity in skilling outcomes. Gender drop in attainment occurs in the management differences in skilling outcomes reveal slightly and engagement skills skill category, where parity varied patterns across different skill categories and observed at the beginner level decreases from pro昀椀ciency levels. 108.8% to 71.7% at the advanced level. There is also a 29% difference between parity in attaining Women are at parity with men in acquiring beginner beginner level (75.9%) and advanced level (46.8%) and advanced levels of self-ef昀椀cacy, working technology skills. For cognitive skills, there is with others, and ethics skills. They also exhibit 85.3% parity in attaining cognitive skills; however, parity in attaining beginner-level management and this drops to 61.4% parity in advance level skill engagement skills. However, when compared attainment. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 50

The underlying factors contributing to this disparity and engagement skills, self-ef昀椀cacy, working with and the disadvantages faced by women warrant others, and ethics and technology skills, in less further investigation. In the subsequent section, we time compared to men. Only at beginner levels of delve into the examination of gender disparities in pro昀椀ciency for self-ef昀椀cacy, working with others and the time required to acquire these skills to study the ethics and management and engagement skills did ef昀椀ciency with which women and men are attaining women require slightly more learning hours. these skills. The pattern may stem from factors like time poverty experienced by women, the ef昀椀ciency of Time required to attain the enrolled women, or a combination of various pro昀椀ciency in key skill categories elements. The gendered patterns observed in skilling have Even as women are getting fewer learning signi昀椀cant rami昀椀cations for economic progress opportunities than men, they demonstrate relatively due to their effects on talent allocation, utilization more ef昀椀ciency in attaining them across pro昀椀ciency and innovation in the context of fast evolving levels for most skills. Women are especially skill demands. This has the potential to impede outpacing men in achieving pro昀椀ciency in skills progress in reducing occupational segregation, that take relatively longer to acquire, as measured thereby restricting job opportunities, and limiting by median learning hours. Women tend to attain the available talent pool. This can consequently 25 most pro昀椀ciency levels in all the skill categories negatively impact economic growth. Moreover, studied, such as cognitive skills, management the enduring nature of this segregation, combined FIGURE 2.17 Gender gap in skill proficiency attainment, by level of proficiency and skill category, 2022 Cognitive skills Management and engagement skills Advanced Intermediate oficiency level Pr Beginner 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Self-efficacy, working with others and ethics Technology skills Advanced Not available Intermediate Beginner 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Gender gap in skill proficiency attainment (1 = gender parity) Source World Economic Forum calculations based on Coursera data. with obstacles to acquiring speci昀椀c skills and the trainings, such as courses, seminars, workshops or perpetuation of gender stereotypes, may result in organized sessions, tend to earn higher wages than 26 missed opportunities for women to increase their their male counterparts. earnings and advance in their careers. According to an OECD study based on data from the PIAAC Improving women’s access to skilling opportunities Survey of Advanced Skills, there is a positive will be critical to respond to the rapid shifts in the correlation between wages and adult training and skills needed in the job market. Research based on learning for both male and female workers. Further, Coursera data in the Future of Jobs Report 2023 women who engage in job-related non-formal highlighted that learners without degrees can learn Global Gender Gap Report 2023 51

FIGURE 2.18 Median number of learning hours, by gender, across proficiency levels, 2022 Cognitive skills Management and engagement skills Advanced Intermediate oficiency level Pr Beginner 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 Self-efficacy, working with others and ethics Technology skills Advanced Not available Intermediate Beginner 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 Median number of learning hours Men Women Source World Economic Forum calculations based on Coursera data. critical skills just as fast as degree holders. This will be particularly important for women without advanced formal education and there is signi昀椀cant potential for skills-based approaches such as industry micro-credentials and skills-based hiring to tackle skills gaps and talent shortages.27 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 52

2.6 Gender gaps in political leadership Much like in the case of representation of women Head of state level in business leadership, gender gaps in political leadership continue to persist. Although there has been an increase in the number of women As of 31 December 2022, approximately 27.9% holding political decision-making posts worldwide, of the global population, equivalent to 2.12 billion achieving gender parity remains a distant goal and people, live in countries with a female head of state. regional disparities are signi昀椀cant. The sections While this indicator experienced stagnation between below examine the progress made so far, regional 2013 and 2021, 2022 witnessed a signi昀椀cant disparities and the challenges ahead. increase. This surge can primarily be attributed to FIGURE 2.19 Global population under female head of state, 2013-2022 100 80 60 40 e of population (%) 20 Shar 0 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 Year Female head of state Male head of state Source Calculation based on World Economic Forum data and United Nations' World Population Prospects data. India, the world’s most populous country, where during recent years. Conversely, the Middle East a female president assumed power following the and North Africa was the only region to experience 2022 presidential election. In total, since January a signi昀椀cant decline in women’s representation in 2022, nine women have come into power, with parliament from 2020 to 2021, partly driven by the eight of them still holding their positions as of March drastic drop in Algeria, from 26% to 8%. 2023. Depending on the political system of the country, these heads of state positions have varying Further, in 2022, Malta witnessed the most powers in terms of national agenda setting and substantial jump in the share of women in representation of the state. parliament across all countries, followed by Colombia and Slovenia. Notably, these countries have implemented legislated candidate quotas in Parliaments their electoral laws. Nicaragua has the strongest representation of women in its National Assembly in 2022, with 51.65% of members being women. Another recent positive trend is observed when Mexico’s Chamber of Deputies and New Zealand’s examining the share of women in parliaments, House of Representatives have achieved gender weighted by population. In 2013, only 18.7% of parity. More than one-third but less than one-half of parliament members globally were women among the representatives were women in 28 economies the 76 countries with consistent data. By 2022, in 2022. These countries include Iceland (47%), this number had risen steadily to 22.9%, re昀氀ecting Costa Rica (47%), United Kingdom (35%) and progress over the years. However, global trends Nepal (33%). Women make up less than one-third do mask the regional disparities. At the regional of parliamentarians in the remaining 45 countries, level, as illustrated in Figure 2.20, the trends show including Canada (31%), United States (29%), and diverse trajectories. Europe leads the way with the Japan (10%), as well as in populous emerging highest share of women in parliament, followed by markets such as China (25%), Brazil (18%), India Latin America and the Caribbean, North America, (15%) and Türkiye (17%). and Sub-Saharan Africa. Southern Asia, Eurasia and Central Asia, and East Asia and the Paci昀椀c have maintained stability in women’s representation Global Gender Gap Report 2023 53

FIGURE 2.20 Women's representation in parliament (weighted by population), by region, 2013-2022 40 Eurasia and Central Asia East Asia and the Pacific Europe 30 e (%) Shar20 10 2013 2022 2013 2022 2013 2022 40 Latin America and the Caribbean Middle East and North Africa North America 30 20 10 2013 2022 2013 2022 2013 2022 40 Southern Asia Sub-Saharan Africa 30 20 10 2013 2022 2013 2022 Source World Economic Forum’s calculations based on data from Inter-Parliamentary Union and World Population Prospects data. Local governance the forefront, women contribute to creating more equitable and responsive local communities. Women’s equal political participation at all levels Data reveals that signi昀椀cant strides have been of government is recognized in international made in terms of women’s representation in local frameworks such as the Beijing Declaration and government globally, though disparities remain Platform for Action and the 2030 Agenda for between countries and regions. Out of the 117 29 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Traditional countries with available data since 2017, only 18 efforts to promote gender equality in politics have countries, including Bolivia (50.4%), India (44.4%) primarily focused on national parliaments. However, and France (42.3%), have achieved representation the SDGs have introduced a new indicator that of women of over 40% in local governance. On the emphasizes women’s political representation in local other hand, 24 economies, mostly in the Middle decision-making positions. This expansion enables East, North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa, such a broader understanding of the opportunities and as Saudi Arabia (1.2%), Ghana (3.8%), Türkiye challenges for leveraging women’s contributions to (10.1%) and Japan (14.31%), have below 15% local decision-making. representation. The remaining 75 economies fall within the 15%-30% range, including diverse Research indicates that women in local decision- nations such as Brazil (15.7%), Indonesia (15.7%), making positions play a crucial role in rede昀椀ning China (28.1%), Ireland (23.9%), Germany (30.3%) local priorities. They bring a unique perspective to and the United Kingdom (35.3%). governance, emphasizing inclusivity, prioritizing family-friendly policies, and promoting gender Overall, almost 3 million women have been elected equality in areas such as income, employment to local deliberative bodies in 136 countries. 28 and parental leave. By bringing these issues to Encouragingly, 85 countries have introduced Global Gender Gap Report 2023 54

legislated gender quotas for local elections, with members in local government worldwide, only 2.18 66 countries legislating candidate quotas and 19 million (36%) are women. Although this is a higher reserving seats for women.30 percentage of women’s representation than in national parliaments (25%), achieving gender parity However, despite these positive developments, as in local governance remains an urgent priority. of January 2020, out of the 6.02 million elected 2.7 DEI programmes to close gender gaps In the private sector, the scope of gender parity the workplace, companies have intensi昀椀ed efforts action by pioneering 昀椀rms has begun to broaden to provide more 昀氀exibility – although the overall from a focus on the workforce to whole-of-business impact on outcomes such as career progression approaches encompassing inclusive design, is currently an open question. Further, a growing inclusive supply chains and community impact. number of employers are boosting employee Led by an overall post-pandemic recon昀椀guration of bene昀椀ts related to caregiving.31 FIGURE 2.21 Industry investment in DEI targets and quotas Share of organizations surveyed that select targets and quotas as the key component of their DEI programme Non-governmental and 41.2% Membership Organizations Supply Chain and Transportation 37.3% Agriculture and Natural Resources 31.8% Energy and Materials 31.2% Professional Services 29.4% Information Technology and 28.9% Digital Communications Manufacturing 28.8% Accommodation, Food and Leisure 27.3% Financial Services 26.1% Care, Personal Services and Wellbeing 23.5% Health and Healthcare 23.5% Retail and Wholesale of Consumer Goods 21.4% Infrastructure 18% Media, Entertainment and Sports 17.6% Automotive and Aerospace 15.0% Government and Public Sector 15.0% Education and Training 13.0% Real Estate 12.5% 0 10 20 30 40 50 Share (%) Source World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Report 2023. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 55

FIGURE 2.22 DEI programmes focusing on women, by industry Share of organizations surveyed that select women as the priority of their DEI programme Energy and Materials 91.1% Agriculture and Natural Resources 90.9% Supply Chain and Transportation 84.6% Financial Services 84.3% Education and training 83.3% Care, Personal Services and Wellbeing 81.8% Retail and Wholesale of Consumer Goods 77.5% Infrastructure 77.1% Manufacturing 7.07% Information Technology and 75.8% Digital Communications Accommodation, Food, and Leisure 75% Professional Services 74.3% Health and Healthcare 73.1% Non-governmental and 72.7% Membership Organisations Government and Public Sector 70.0% Automotive and Aerospace 68.8% Real Estate 61.5% Media, Entertainment and Sports 60.0% 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Share (%) Source World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Report 2023. The World Economic Forum’s 2023 Future of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing (31.8%); and Jobs Survey suggests that more than two-thirds Energy and Materials (31.2%). The sectors that of the organizations surveyed have implemented have invested the least on DEI targets and quotas a Diversity, Equity and Inclusion (DEI) programme. are Education and Training (13%) and Real Estate DEI programmes are one pathway to closing (12.5%). workplace gender gaps and can include mentoring, sponsorship, leadership training, speci昀椀c policies The majority (79%) of companies surveyed are for caregivers or increased 昀氀exibility of working implementing DEI programmes with a focus on arrangements. This can encompass action around women. The survey suggests that those efforts gender parity, racial and ethnic equity, LGBTQI are primarily designed around training, and less so inclusion and inclusion of people with disabilities. around material actions to close gender gaps at DEI efforts, however, vary signi昀椀cantly across both industry and economy level. industries. The sectors that have invested the most in promoting a more inclusive workforce, with at The industries which focus the highest percentage least 30% of companies reporting DEI initiatives, are of their DEI activity on gender parity issues, and Nongovernmental and Membership Organizations where female workers are typically scarce at (41.2%); Supply Chain and Transportation (37.3%); all levels of seniority, are Energy and Materials Global Gender Gap Report 2023 56

(91.1%); Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing United Kingdom, DEI programmes tend to prioritize (90.9%); and Supply Chain and Transportation 昀氀exibility on degree requirements for roles and (84.6%) – alongside sectors with a relatively recruitment, as well as on Employment Resource better representation of women, such as Financial Groups (ERGs). Services (84.3%); Education and Training (83.3%); and Care, Personal Services and Wellbeing (81.8%). The existence of DEI programmes alone is not The sectors that place lower emphasis on gender enough for meaningful progress. A recent study parity in their overall DEI efforts are Real Estate identi昀椀ed 昀椀ve success factors that DEI initiatives (61.5%) and Media, Entertainment and Sports with the highest impact for underrepresented 32 (60%). groups had in common. These are (1) a nuanced understanding of the root causes of There is further signi昀椀cant cross-national variation underrepresentation; (2) a meaningful de昀椀nition of in DEI efforts promoting gender inclusion in the success; (3) accountable and invested business workplace. According to the Future of Jobs Survey, leaders; (4) a solution designed for its speci昀椀c the countries where companies are particularly context; and (5) rigorous tracking and course committed to establishing a more gender-diverse correction. These factors must further be re昀椀ned workforce are Colombia, the Netherlands, Italy, and customized across industries and regional United Kingdom and Canada. In Colombia and the contexts. 2.8 Putting gender parity at the heart of economic recovery and transformation The 2022 edition of the Global Gender Gap Report And at an economy-wide level, gender parity is called attention to a post-pandemic crisis in the increasingly being recognized as critical for 昀椀nancial workforce: gender parity across key indicators stability and economic performance.34 was slipping, implying large-scale disruption of economic opportunities for women worldwide in Collective, coordinated and bold action by private- labour-market participation, in skilling, in wealth and public-sector leaders will be instrumental in 33 accumulation and in overall wellbeing. The accelerating progress towards gender parity and recovery from the shock and ensuing polycrisis igniting renewed growth and greater resilience. has been slow and, so far, incomplete, and the Beyond leadership representation, companies can current context, coupled with technological and engage in strategies to transform organizational climate change, risks causing further regression in culture, and design products and services to serve women’s economic empowerment. Not only are a broader range of consumers by making innovation millions of women and girls losing out on economic processes more inclusive. Impactful initiatives are access and opportunity, but these reversals also emerging at the frontier of business strategy and have wide-ranging consequences for the global government policy, yet adoption beyond the frontier economy. too often remains on the surface, is incomplete or altogether deprioritized. Government policy can Following a series of gradual but steady increases be better designed to increase women’s labour- in the share of women in leadership roles over force participation, wages, and 昀椀nancial and the past two decades, this share has edged up technology access, and improve care systems and to, on average, 33.7% in 2023 from 33.4% in representation in public-sector leadership. 2022 across public- and private-sector leadership roles. However, high-frequency data presented in Some governments are taking an equity and the report shows that hiring rates for women into inclusion lens to economic policy-making, with leadership positions across industries have been in recent gender mainstreaming efforts explicitly decline since mid-2022. recognizing gender parity as critical to economic growth and 昀椀nancial stability. A number of Increasing women’s economic participation and governments are implementing more gender equal achieving gender parity in leadership, in both approaches to increasing labour force participation, business and government, are two key levers for pay equity and health and safety standards, addressing broader gender gaps in households, preventing harassment and sexual violence at work. societies and economies. In addition, there are At the federal government level, progress can be multiple mechanisms that link gender parity with enabled through gender-responsive budgeting 昀椀rm-level and economic performance: a robust which has in recent years been pioneered and gender strategy is increasingly seen as essential expanded by a growing number of countries, to attracting the best talent and ensuring long-run including Sweden, India and Kenya. Further, economic performance, resilience and survival. governments are increasingly recognizing the Evidence on diversity in decision making shows that importance of investing in the care economy and a diverse group of leaders makes more fact-based taking steps to support it. They are implementing decisions that result in higher quality outcomes. policies such as expanding access to affordable Global Gender Gap Report 2023 57

childcare, improving parental leave policies, and investing in healthcare and eldercare services to promote the wellbeing of individuals and the overall economy. Ongoing efforts are a step in the right direction yet will need signi昀椀cant scaling to overcome existing gender gaps in economic participation. Recent years have seen major setbacks and the state of gender parity still varies widely by company, industry and economy. Yet, a growing number of actors have recognized the importance and urgency of taking action and evidence on effective gender parity initiatives is solidifying. We hope the data and analysis provided in this report can further accelerate the speed of travel towards parity by catalysing and informing action by public- and private-sector leaders in their efforts to close the global gender gap. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 58

Endnotes 1. IMF, 2023. 2. Kose, et al., 2023. 3. IMF, 2022b. 4. ILO, 2023a. 5. Authors’ calculations based on ILO modelled estimates on labour-force participation rate (accessed 31 March 2023). 6. ILO, 2022. 7. Ibid. 8. ILO, 2023b. 9. Ibid. 10. ILO, 2023c. 11. See also Lara, et al., 2023. 12. ILO, 2023b. 13. LinkedIn categorizes a Director-level individual as one who is an experienced manager with direct reports and leadership responsibilities for multiple groups of individuals. 14. LinkedIn categorizes a Vice-President-level individual as someone who has direct reports and leadership responsibilities for a major portion of a business function. 15. LinkedIn categorizes a C-Suite-level individual as someone who has direct reports and leadership responsibilities for the entire business function. 16. Baird, Ghalawat, et al. (2023) presents the methodology for classifying STEM. Baird, Ko, et al (2023) present measurements for the United States and discussion around some of the metrics presented in this report. 17. The “AI talent concentration” metric is determined by comparing the number of AI professionals to the total number of LinkedIn members worldwide. An individual is considered AI talent if they have explicitly listed AI skills on their pro昀椀le and/ or works in a job classi昀椀ed as an AI occupation. The concentration of AI talent is then calculated by taking the ratio of the number of AI talent by the number of LinkedIn members in that industry. 18. Goldin, 2022. 19. ILO, 2018. 20. For example, see UNESCO CONFINTEA VII Marrakech Framework for Action: Harnessing the transformational power of Adult Learning and Education, 2022, https://www.uil.unesco.org/sites/default/昀椀les/medias/昀椀chiers/2022/06/FINAL%20 MarrakechFrameworkForActionEN_06_21_22_0.pdf 21. Plan International, 2023. 22. The level of progress toward gender parity (the parity score) is calculated as the ratio of the value of each indicator for women to the value for men. A parity score of 100% indicates full parity. 23. The gender gap is the distance from full parity. 24. World Economic Forum, 2023b. 25. EIGE, 2017. 26. Fialho, et al., 2019. 27. World Economic Forum, 2023b. 28. UN Women, 2022a. 29. UN Women, 2022b. 30. Ibid. 31. Care.com, 2023. 32. World Economic Forum, 2023a. 33. World Economic Forum, 2022. 34. IMF, 2022a. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 59

References Addati, Laura, Umberto Cattaneo and Emanuela dgreports/-- stat/documents/publication/ Pozzan, Care at work: Investing in care leave wcms_870519.pdf. and services for a more gender equal world of work, International Labour Organization ————, World Economic and Social Outlook, 2023c. (ILO), 2022. International Monetary Fund (IMF), IMF Strategy Baird, M., N. Gahlawat, R. Hood, P. Ko and Toward Mainstreaming Gender, 2022a, S. Lara, “LinkedIn STEM Classi昀椀cation https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/Policy- Methodology”, LinkedIn Economic Papers/Issues/2022/07/28/IMF-Strategy- Graph Technical Note #1, 2023, https:// Toward-Mainstreaming-Gender-521344. economicgraph.linkedin.com/content/dam/ me/economicgraph/en-us/PDF/measuring- ————, World Economic Outlook, October 2022, gender-gaps-in-the-us-stem-workforce.pdf 2022b, https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/ WEO/Issues/2022/10/11/world-economic- Baird, M., P. Ko, N. Gahlawat, S. Lara and R. outlook-october-2022. Hood, “Measuring gender gaps in the U.S. STEM workforce”, LinkedIn Economic ————, World Economic Outlook, April 2023, Graph White Paper, 2023, https:// 2023, https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/ economicgraph.linkedin.com/content/dam/ WEO/Issues/2023/04/11/world-economic- me/economicgraph/en-us/PDF/measuring- outlook-april-2023. gender-gaps-in-the-us-stem-workforce.pdf Kose, M. Ayhan and Franziska Ohnsorge, Falling Care.com, Future of Bene昀椀ts Report 2023, 2023. Long-Term Growth Prospects: Trends, Expectations, and Policies, World Bank, European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE), 2023, http://hdl.handle.net/10986/39497 Gender segregation in education, training and License: CC BY 3.0 IGO. the labour market, 2017. Lara, Silvia, M. Baird, and R. Hood, Progress and Fialho, P., G. Quintini and M. Vandeweyer, Returns barriers in global gender leadership, LinkedIn to different forms of job related training: Economic Graph White Paper. https:// Factoring in informal learning, OECD Social, economicgraph.linkedin.com/content/dam/ Employment and Migration Working me/economicgraph/en-us/PDF/global- Papers, no. 231, OECD, 2019. https://doi. gender-representation.pdf, 2023. org/10.1787/b21807e9-en. Plan International, Bridging the Digital Divide, Goldin, C., “Understanding the Economic Impact 2023, https://plan-international.org/quality- of COVID-19 on Women”, Brookings Papers education/bridging-the-digital-divide/ on Economic Activity (Spring), pp. 65-110, (accessed on 28 May 2023). 2022, https://scholar.harvard.edu/sites/ scholar.harvard.edu/昀椀les/goldin/昀椀les/bpea- UN Women, Women’s representation in local sp22_goldin_paper.pdf. government: A global analysis, 2022a. International Labour Organization (ILO), Assessing ————, Global data on women’s political the current state of the global labour market: participation, 2022b (accessed 2 June Implications for achieving the Global Goals, 2023). ILOSTAT.ilo.org, 2023a, https://ilostat.ilo. org/assessing-the-current-state-of-the- World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Report global-labour-market-implications-for- 2022, 2022. achieving-the-global-goals/. ————, Global Parity Alliance: Diversity, Equity and ————, Financing life-long learning for the future of Inclusion Lighthouses 2023, 2023a, https:// work, 2018, https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/ www.weforum.org/reports/global-parity- groups/public/---dgreports/---inst/ alliance-diversity-equity-and-inclusion- documents/publication/wcms_646046.pdf. lighthouses-2023. ————, ILO modelled estimates database, ————, Future of Jobs Report 2023, 2023b, https:// ILOSTAT, 2022 (accessed 2 June 2023). www.weforum.org/reports/the-future-of- jobs-report-2023/. ————, Spotlight on Work Statistics n°12, March 2023b (White paper), 2023b, https:// www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/--- Global Gender Gap Report 2023 60

June 2023 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 Appendix A Regional Classi昀椀cations TABLE A.1 Regional classi昀椀cations of the 146 countries included in the 2023 Global Gender Gap Index The following regional classi昀椀cations are used for creating the regional performance tables and 昀椀gures in Chapter 1. Eurasia and Central Asia Europe North America Malta Armenia Montenegro Canada Azerbaijan Netherlands United States of America Belarus North Macedonia Georgia Norway Southern Asia Kazakhstan Poland Kyrgyz Republic Afghanistan Portugal Bangladesh Moldova, Republic of Romania Tajikistan Bhutan Serbia India Türkiye Slovakia Ukraine Iran (Islamic Republic of) Slovenia Maldives Spain Nepal East Asia and the Pacific Sweden Pakistan Australia Switzerland Sri Lanka Brunei Darussalam United Kingdom Cambodia China Sub-Saharan Africa Fiji Latin America and the Caribbean Angola Indonesia Argentina Benin Japan Barbados Botswana Korea, Republic of Belize Burkina Faso Lao PDR Bolivia (Plurinational State of) Burundi Malaysia Brazil Cape Verde Mongolia Chile Cameroon Myanmar Colombia Chad New Zealand Costa Rica Comoros Philippines Dominican Republic Congo, Democratic Republic of the Singapore Ecuador Côte d'Ivoire Thailand El Salvador Eswatini Timor-Leste Guatemala Ethiopia Vanuatu Honduras Gambia (Republic of the) Viet Nam Jamaica Ghana Mexico Guinea Europe Nicaragua Kenya Panama Lesotho Albania Paraguay Liberia Austria Peru Madagascar Belgium Suriname Malawi Bosnia and Herzegovina Uruguay Mali Bulgaria Mauritius Croatia* Mozambique Cyprus Namibia Czechia Middle East and North Africa Niger Denmark Algeria Nigeria Estonia Bahrain Rwanda Finland Egypt Senegal France Israel Sierra Leone Germany Jordan South Africa Greece Kuwait Tanzania, United Republic of Hungary Lebanon Togo Iceland Morocco Uganda Ireland Oman Zambia Italy Qatar Zimbabwe Latvia Saudi Arabia Lithuania Tunisia Luxembourg United Arab Emirates *New to index in 2023 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 61

June 2023 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 Appendix B Data and methodology Section A: Computation of resources. Thus, in the case of education, for and composition of example, the index penalizes or rewards countries based on the size of the gap between male and the Global Gender Gap female enrolment rates, but not for the overall levels of education in the country. Index Outcomes versus inputs The second basic concept underlying the Global The methodology of the index has remained stable Gender Gap Index is that it evaluates countries since its original conception in 2006, providing based on outcomes rather than inputs or means. a basis for robust cross-country and time-series Our aim is to provide a snapshot of where men and analysis. This year’s edition introduces a minor women stand with regard to some fundamental but required update to one indicator under the outcome indicators related to basic rights such Economic Participation and Opportunity subindex as health, education, economic participation and and sees an updated de昀椀nition by the collecting political empowerment. Indicators related to country institution for one indicator under the Political speci昀椀c policies, rights, culture or customs – factors Empowerment subindex. The changes are detailed that we consider “input” or “means” indicators – in Sections c and d. are not included in the index but are discussed further in the analytic sections of this chapter, as Three underlying concepts well as featured in the report’s Economy Pro昀椀les. For example, the index includes an indicator There are three basic concepts underlying the comparing the gap between men and women in Global Gender Gap Index, forming the basis of how high-skilled jobs such as legislators, senior of昀椀cials indicators were chosen, how the data is treated and and managers (an outcome indicator) but does how the scale can be used. First, the index focuses not include data on the length of maternity leave on measuring gaps rather than levels. Second, it (a policy indicator). This approach has contributed captures gaps in outcome variables rather than signi昀椀cantly to the index’s distinctiveness over the gaps in input variables. Third, it ranks countries years and, we believe, continues to provide the according to gender equality rather than women’s most objective basis for discussing underlying empowerment. contextual factors.1 Gaps vs. levels Gender equality vs. women’s empowerment The index is designed to measure gender-based The third distinguishing feature of the Global Gender gaps in access to resources and opportunities Gap Index is that it ranks countries according to in countries, rather than the actual levels of their proximity to gender equality rather than to the available resources and opportunities in women’s empowerment. Our aim is to focus on those countries. We do this to disassociate the whether the gap between women and men in the Global Gender Gap Index from countries’ levels chosen indicators has declined, rather than whether of development. In other words, the index is women are winning the so-called “battle of the constructed to rank countries on their gender sexes”. Hence, the index rewards countries that gaps not on their development level. For example, reach the point where outcomes for women equal advanced economies, generally speaking, are able those for men, but it neither rewards nor penalizes to offer more education and health opportunities cases in which women are outperforming men in to all members of society, although this is quite particular indicators in some countries. Thus, a independent of the gender-related gaps that country that has higher enrolment for girls rather may exist within those higher levels of health than boys in secondary school will score equal to or education. The Global Gender Gap Index a country where boys’ and girls’ enrolment is the rewards countries for smaller gaps in access to same. these resources, regardless of the overall level Global Gender Gap Report 2023 62

TABLE B.1 Structure of the Global Gender Gap Index Subindex Indicator Source Economic Participation Labour-force participation rate International Labour Organization (ILO), ILOSTAT database, Labour Force Surveys. and Opportunity Economic Participation Wage equality for similar work World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey (EOS). and Opportunity Economic Participation Estimated earned income International Labour Organization (ILO), ILOSTAT database; World Population Prospects and Opportunity 2022; World Bank, World Development Indicators database. Economic Participation Legislators, senior officials and managers International Labour Organization (ILO), ILOSTAT database. and Opportunity Economic Participation Professional and technical workers International Labour Organization (ILO), ILOSTAT database. and Opportunity UNESCO, UIS.Stat Education statistics data portal. When not available, data is sourced Educational Attainment Literacy rate from United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports, most recent year available between 2013 and 2023. Educational Attainment Enrolment in primary education UNESCO, UIS.Stat Education statistics data portal. Educational Attainment Enrolment in secondary education UNESCO, UIS.Stat Education statistics data portal. Educational Attainment Enrolment in tertiary education UNESCO, UIS.Stat Education statistics data portal. Health and Survival Sex ratio at birth World Bank, World Development Indicators database. Health and Survival Healthy life expectancy World Health Organization (WHO), Global Health Observatory database. Political Empowerment Women in parliament Inter-parliamentary Union. Political Empowerment Women in ministerial positions Inter-parliamentary Union-UN Women. Political Empowerment Years with female/male head of state (last 50) World Economic Forum’s calculations. Source World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Index 2023. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 63

The four subindexes Section B: Construction The Global Gender Gap Index examines the gap of the index between men and women across four fundamental categories (subindexes): Economic Participation and Opportunity, Educational Attainment, Health The Global Gender Gap Index is constructed and Survival, and Political Empowerment. Table using a four-step process, outlined below. Some B1 displays all four of these subindexes and the of the indicators listed in Table B2 require speci昀椀c 14 indicators that compose them, along with the standardization or modi昀椀cation to be used in the sources of data used for each. index. For further information on the indicator- speci昀椀c calculations, please refer to Section B of Economic Participation and Opportunity this appendix. This subindex contains three concepts: the participation gap, the remuneration gap and Step 1. Convert to ratios: the advancement gap. The participation gap is Initially, all data is converted to female-to-male captured using the difference between women ratios. For example, a country with 20% of women and men in labour-force participation rates. The in ministerial positions is assigned a ratio of 20 remuneration gap is captured through a hard data women to 80 men, thus a value of 0.25. This is to indicator (ratio of estimated female-to-male earned ensure that the index is capturing gaps between income)2 and a qualitative indicator gathered women and men’s attainment levels, rather than the through the World Economic Forum’s annual levels themselves. Executive Opinion Survey (wage equality for similar 3 work). Finally, the gap between the advancement Step 2. Data truncation at parity benchmark: of women and men is captured through two hard The ratios obtained above are truncated at the data statistics (the ratio of women to men among “equality benchmark”. For all indicators, except legislators, senior of昀椀cials and managers, and the two health indicators, this equality benchmark the ratio of women to men among technical and is considered to be 1, meaning equal numbers of professional workers). women and men. In the case of sex ratio at birth, 5 the equality benchmark is set at 0.944, and in Educational Attainment the case of healthy life expectancy the equality This subindex captures the gap between women’s benchmark is set at 1.06 to capture that fact that and men’s current access to education through women tend to naturally live longer than men. the enrolment ratios of women to men in primary-, As such, parity is considered as achieved if, on 6 secondary- and tertiary-level education. A longer- average, women live 昀椀ve years longer than men. term view of the country’s ability to educate women and men in equal numbers is captured Truncating the data at the equality benchmarks through the ratio of women’s literacy rate to men’s for each assigns the same score to a country that literacy rate. has reached parity between women and men and one where women have surpassed men. The Health and Survival type of rating scale chosen determines whether This subindex provides an overview of the the index is rewarding women’s empowerment differences between women’s and men’s health or gender equality.7 To capture gender equality, using two indicators. The 昀椀rst is the sex ratio two possible scales were considered. One was at birth, which aims speci昀椀cally to capture the a negative-positive scale capturing the size and phenomenon of “missing women”, prevalent in direction of the gender gap. This scale penalizes 4 countries with a strong son preference. Second, either men’s advantage over women or women’s we use the gap between women’s and men’s advantage over men and gives the highest points healthy life expectancy. This measure provides to absolute equality. The second choice was a an estimate of the number of years that women one-sided scale that measures how close women and men can expect to live in good health by are to reaching parity with men but does not reward accounting for the years lost to violence, disease, or penalize countries for having a gender gap in malnutrition and other factors. the other direction. We 昀椀nd the one-sided scale more appropriate for our purposes, as it does not Political Empowerment reward countries for having exceeded the parity This subindex measures the gap between men benchmark. However, disparities in either direction and women at the highest level of political are recorded in the Economy Pro昀椀les. decision-making through the ratio of women to men in ministerial positions and the ratio of women Step 3. Calculation of subindex scores: to men in parliamentary positions. In addition, Each of the four subindexes is computed as the the index includes the ratio of women to men in weighted average of the underlying individual terms of years in executive of昀椀ce (prime minister indicators. Averaging the different indicators would or president) for the last 50 years. Differences implicitly give more weight to the measure that between the participation of women and men exhibits the largest variability or standard deviation. at local levels of government are currently not We therefore 昀椀rst normalize the indicators by captured. Should such data become available at a equalizing their standard deviations. For example, globally comparative level in future years, it will be within the Educational Attainment subindex, considered for inclusion in the index. standard deviations for each of the four indicators Global Gender Gap Report 2023 64

TABLE B.2 Calculation of weights within each subindex Economic Participation and Opportunity Ratio Standard deviation Standard deviation Weight per 1% point change Labour-force participation rate, % (females-to-males ratio) 0.160 0.063 0.199 Wage equality for similar work (survey), 1-7 scale (females-to-males ratio) 0.103 0.097 0.310 Estimated earned income, PPP, int.$ (females-to-males ratio) 0.144 0.069 0.221 Legislators, senior officials and managers, % (females-to-males ratio) 0.214 0.047 0.149 Professional and technical workers, % (females-to-males ratio) 0.262 0.038 0.121 Educational Attainment Ratio Standard deviation Standard deviation Weight per 1% point change Literacy rate, % (females-to-males ratio) 0.145 0.069 0.191 Enrolment in primary education, % (females-to-males ratio) 0.060 0.167 0.459 Enrolment in secondary education, % (females-to-males ratio) 0.120 0.083 0.230 Enrolment in tertiary education, % (females-to-males ratio) 0.228 0.044 0.121 Health and Survival Ratio Standard deviation Standard deviation Weight per 1% point change Sex ratio at birth, % (females-to-males ratio) 0.010 0.998 0.693 Healthy life expectancy, years (females-to-males ratio) 0.023 0.441 0.307 Political Empowerment Ratio Standard deviation Standard deviation Weight per 1% point change Women in parliament, % (females-to-males ratio) 0.166 0.06 0.31 Women in ministerial positions, % (females-to-males ratio) 0.208 0.048 0.247 Years with female head of state (last 50), Share of tenure years (females-to-males ratio) 0.116 0.086 0.443 Note Population-weighted averages, including the 102 economies featured throughout all the 2006- 2023 editions of the Global Gender Gap Index. are calculated. Then we determine what a 1 larger weight will penalize more heavily those percentage-point change would translate to in countries that deviate from this value. Table B2 8 terms of standard deviations by dividing 0.01 by displays the values of the weights used. the standard deviation for each indicator. These four values are then used as weights to calculate Step 4. Calculation of 昀椀nal scores: the weighted average of the four indicators. This For all subindexes, the highest possible score is way of weighting indicators allows us to make sure 1 (gender parity) and the lowest possible score is 9 that each indicator has the same relative impact 0 (imparity). A simple average of each subindex on the subindex. For example, an indicator with a score is used to calculate the overall Global Gender small variability or standard deviation gets a larger Gap Index score – a 昀椀nal value that, like subindex weight within the subindex than an indicator with a scores, ranges between 1 (parity) and 0 (imparity). larger variability. Therefore, a country with a large The parity and imparity benchmarks have remained gender gap in the 昀椀rst indicator will be more heavily 昀椀xed through report editions to allow for the 10 penalized. Another example is the case of the sex comparison and relative ranking of countries in a ratio at birth indicator (within the Health and Survival given year, and across time. This allows readers to subindex): where most countries have a very high track individual country progress. Furthermore, the sex ratio and the spread of the data is small, the option of roughly interpreting the 昀椀nal index scores Global Gender Gap Report 2023 65

as a percentage value that reveals how a country positions now focuses solely on Cabinet members has reduced its gender gap should help make the who head ministries. Individuals who are not index more intuitively appealing to readers.11 members of the Cabinet and Cabinet members who do not head ministries are excluded from the Section C: Update measurement, starting with this edition. of the labour-force This methodological change allows for a more precise examination of women’s representation participation rate in executive positions by concentrating on top political executive roles. These roles possess indicator two key characteristics: (a) the highest individual policy-making power as leaders of speci昀椀c policy 昀椀elds, and (b) the highest joint executive power as Past editions (2006-2022) of the Global Gender members of the collective decision-making body, Gap Report have used modelled estimates for the i.e. the Cabinet. ‘Labour-force participation rate’ (LFPR) indicator as calculated by the International Labour Organization By re昀椀ning the measurement criteria, the updated (ILO). These estimates are based on both nationally methodology ensures greater consistency and reported observations and imputed data for comparability of data across countries. countries with missing data. The ILO has recently issued guidance against the Section E: Indicator use of modelled estimates in country benchmarking de昀椀nitions and sources 12 efforts. Following consultations with the ILO, the Global Indicators composing the Global Gender Gap Gender Gap Index has responded by adhering to Index ILO guidance. Consequently, this year’s edition no longer employs modelled estimates for the labour- Labour-force participation rate, % force participation rate, and instead uses nationally The labour-force participation rate is the labour reported labour-force data that complies with ILO force as a percentage of the working-age standards and has been validated and reported in population. The labour force is the sum of all ILOSTAT. persons of working age who are employed and those who are actively looking for employment. The update has been carried out with a view to maintaining coherence and continuity of the Global Period: 2010 or latest year available. Gender Gap Index methodology, ensuring that Source: International Labour Organization (ILO), conceptual proximity, empirical proximity and ILOSTAT. indicator quality and availability are respected. Section D: Update in Wage equality for similar work, 1–7 (best) the share of women in Response to the World Economic Forum Executive Opinion Survey question, “In your country, for ministerial positions similar work, to what extent are wages for women equal to those of men?” (1 = not at all, signi昀椀cantly indicator below those of men; 7 = fully, equal to those of men). The representation of women in ministerial positions For the past 44 years, the World Economic Forum’s has been included in the Political Empowerment Executive Opinion Survey (referred to as the Survey) pillar of the Global Gender Gap Index since its has played a vital role in 昀氀agship publications of inception in 2006. This indicator is collected on the World Economic Forum, as well as at other a biennial basis, with the most recent collection organizations and research institutions. It stands as occurring in March 2023, at which time the indicator the most comprehensive and enduring survey of de昀椀nition was also updated. its kind, with responses from over 12,000 business leaders across 121 countries in 2022. The Survey Prior to 2023, the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) delves into assessing crucial factors that drive collected the data for this indicator. Beginning in economic growth and competitiveness, including 2023, the data is being collected by UN Women. aspects of diversity, equity and inclusion. The signi昀椀cance of this survey lies in its ability to offer The update to the de昀椀nition has been implemented valuable insights when statistical data is unavailable during the 2023 data collection period as part or is extremely dif昀椀cult to measure on a global scale. of a deliberate effort to enhance the precision of It captures the perspectives of business leaders assessing women’s representation in executive who are best positioned to assess their operating positions. The measurement of women in ministerial environment. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 66

Period: Moving average 2021-2022 or most recent International Standard Classi昀椀cation of Occupations year available (no earlier than 2019-2020). (ISCO-08).14 Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey (EOS). Period: 2022 or most recent year available. Source: International Labour Organization (ILO), ILOSTAT. Estimated earned income, int’l $1,000s The estimated female earned income is a proxy for how much command women have over a Professional and technical workers, % country’s economic resources. For each country, Ratio of women to men employed in professional it is computed using female and male shares of and technical roles, de昀椀ned by the ILO as those the economically active population, the ratio of the who increase the existing stock of knowledge, female to male wages (both indicators are sourced apply scienti昀椀c or artistic concepts and theories from the ILO), gross domestic product valued or those who perform technical and related tasks at constant 2017 international dollars (IMF), and that require advanced knowledge and skill. It female and male shares of population (World Bank). corresponds to the sum of Major Groups 2 and The methodology used to compute this indicator 3 of the International Standard Classi昀椀cation of is adapted from the methodology developed by Occupations (ISCO-08). the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Report Of昀椀ce for computing Period: 2022 or most recent year available. the Gender Development Index (UNDP, 2021-2022, Source: International Labour Organization (ILO), 13 pages 6-7). Female and male wage measures ILOSTAT. used in the computation of the gender wage ratio correspond to the mean nominal monthly earnings of female and male employees, respectively. In the absence of wage data, a gender wage ratio of Literacy rate, % 0.75 is used in the computation of the wage bill. Percentage of the adult population (women and ILO’s measure of earning corresponds to the mean men over 15 years of age) with the ability to of monthly earnings of all employees in nominal both read and write and make simple arithmetic terms. The earnings of employees relate to the calculations. For advanced economies for which gross remuneration in cash and in kind paid to data was unavailable in the last 10 years, the employees, as a rule at regular intervals, for time authors assumed based on older data that the worked or work done together with remuneration gender gap on literacy rate is closed. for time not worked, such as annual vacation, other type of paid leave or holidays. Earnings Period: 2021 or most recent year available. exclude employers’ contributions with respect to Source: UNESCO, UIS.Stat education statistics employees’ social security and pension schemes data portal; when not available, data is sourced and also the bene昀椀ts received by employees under from the UNDP Human Development Reports, most these schemes. Earnings also exclude severance recent data available. and termination pay. Statistics of earnings relate to the gross remuneration of employees, i.e. the total before any deductions are made by the employer. The measurement period of this indicator Enrolment in primary education, % corresponds to that of the wage data. In the Percentage of girls and boys in the of昀椀cial primary Economy Pro昀椀les, values reported are the estimated school age range (Net Enrolment rate in Primary average annual earned income per capita in education) who are enrolled in primary education constant 2017 international dollars for women and (International Standard Classi昀椀cation of Education 15 men, respectively, and the ratio of the two values. [ISCED] 1). Period: 2021 or most recent year available. Period: 2021 or most recent year available. Source: International Labour Organization (ILO), Source: UNESCO, UIS.Stat education statistics ILOSTAT; International Monetary Fund (IMF), World data portal. Economic Outlook; World Bank, World Development Indicators. Enrolment in secondary education, % Based on Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER). Measures Legislators, senior of昀椀cials and managers, % the percentage of girls and boys enrolled in Ratio of women to men employed in senior roles, secondary education, regardless of age, expressed de昀椀ned by the ILO as those who plan, direct, as a percentage of the of昀椀cial school-age coordinate and evaluate the overall activities of population corresponding to secondary education. enterprises, governments and other organizations, A high GER generally indicates a high degree of or of organizational units within them, and participation, whether the pupils belong to the formulate and review their policies, laws, rules and of昀椀cial age group or not. A GER value approaching regulations. It corresponds to Major Group 1 of the or exceeding 100% indicates that a country is, in Global Gender Gap Report 2023 67

principle, able to accommodate all of its school-age portfolio may occur. IPU-UN Women does not population, but it does not indicate the proportion provide information for two of the 146 countries already enrolled. The achievement of a GER of (Myanmar and Afghanistan) included in the sample. 100% is therefore a necessary but not suf昀椀cient We consider the share of women holding cabinet condition for enrolling all eligible children in school. positions in these two contexts to be zero. Period: 2021 or most recent year available. Period: Data as of 1 January 2023. Source: UNESCO, UIS.Stat education statistics Source: Inter-parliamentary Union-UN Women. data portal. Years with female/male head of state (last 50) Enrolment in tertiary education, % The number of years in the past 昀椀fty-year period for Total enrolment in tertiary education (gross rate), which a woman has held a post equivalent to an regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of elected head of state or head of government in the the most recent 昀椀ve-year age cohort that has left country. It takes into account prime ministers and/ secondary school. Tertiary education consists of or presidents. Royalties are not considered. ISCED levels 5 to 8, and gross enrolment data should be examined within the context of a country Period: 1 March 1973 – 1 March 2023. structure regarding military service as well as Source: World Economic Forum’s calculations. propensity of students to seek education abroad. Period: 2021 or most recent year available. Source: UNESCO, UIS.Stat education statistics Contextual Indicators data portal. General indicators GDP, current US$ billions Sex ratio at birth, % Gross domestic product (GDP) at purchaser’s Sex ratio at birth refers to male births per female prices is the sum of gross value added by all births. The data represents 昀椀ve-year averages. resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included Period: 2020 or most recent year available. in the value of the products. Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators database. Period: 2021 or most recent year. Source: World Bank. Healthy life expectancy, years Average number of years that a person of each GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2017 gender can expect to live in full health, calculated international $) by taking into account years lived in less than full Per capita value for gross domestic product (GDP) health due to disease and/or injury. expressed in current international dollars converted by purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion factor. Period: 2019 or most recent year available. Source: World Health Organization (WHO), Global Period: 2021 or most recent year. Health Observatory data repository. Source: World Bank. Women in parliament, % Total population, million people Percentage of women holding parliamentary seats Estimate of the number of people of all ages living as a share of total parliamentary seats. In instances in a country, regardless of residency status or where a parliamentary system is bicameral, the citizenship (except for refugees not permanently 昀椀gure used is the one for the lower house. settled in the country of asylum who are generally considered part of the population of their country of Period: Data as of 1 February 2023. origin). Source: Inter-parliamentary Union (IPU). Period: 2022. Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Women in ministerial positions, % Population Prospects. Percentage of women holding ministerial portfolios as a share of total ministry positions in each government. Some overlap between ministers and heads of government that also hold a ministerial Global Gender Gap Report 2023 68

Population sex ratio (female/male), % dam/enterprisesurveys/documents/methodology/ Ratio of the number of females (thousands) to Indicator-Descriptions.pdf. males (thousands) in the population of a society. World Bank staff estimates based on age/sex Period: 2022 or most recent year. distributions of United Nations Population Division’s Source: World Bank Enterprise Survey. World Population Prospects. Period: 2021. Source: World Bank. Firms with female top managers, % Percentage of 昀椀rms in the private sector who have females as top managers. “Top manager” refers to the highest-ranking manager or CEO of the Population growth rate, % establishment. This person may be the owner if he/ Year-on-year percentage change in total population, she works as the manager of the 昀椀rm. The results calculated based on current and previous year. are based on surveys of more than 100,000 private Population is based on the de facto de昀椀nition of 昀椀rms. population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. Period: 2021 or most recent year. Source: World Bank Enterprise Survey. Period: 2021. Source: World Bank. Share of workers in informal sector, % Ratio of employment of women/men in the informal Work participation & leadership sector to the total employment (irrespective of the informality/formality) of women/ men. Employment Gender wage gap in the informal sector refers all persons who, during The gender wage gap is de昀椀ned as the difference a given reference period, were employed in at between male and female median wages divided least one informal sector enterprise, irrespective by male median wages. Wages are computed for of their status in employment and whether it was full-time equivalent dependent employees and are their main or a secondary job. An informal sector expressed in US$ using current exchange rates enterprise is (1) an unincorporated enterprise, (2) a and US$ Purchasing Power Parity rates (PPPs) for market enterprise (i.e. it sells at least some of the private consumption expenditures as conversion goods or services it produces), and (3) meets at factors. For more details about the computation least one of the following criteria: (i) the enterprise of wage estimates, refer to https://data.oecd.org/ is not registered, (ii) the employees of the enterprise earnwage/average-wages.htm. are not registered, or (iii) the number of persons engaged on a continuous basis is below a threshold Period: 2021 or most recent year. determined by the country. Source: OECD, Employment database. Period: 2022 or most recent year. Source: International Labour Organization (ILO), ILOSTAT. Share of women’s membership on boards, % Share of board members of listed companies that are women. “Board members” refers to all members of the highest decision-making body in the given Advancement of women to leadership roles, 1-7 company, such as the board of directors for a (best) company in a unitary system or the supervisory Response to the survey question, “In your country, board in the case of a company in a two-tier to what extent do companies provide women with system. the same opportunities as men to rise to positions of leadership?” 1=not at all; 7=to a great extent. Period: 2021. Source: OECD, Employment database. Period: 2022 or most recent year. Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey (EOS). Firms with female majority ownership, % Percentage of 昀椀rms answering, “More than 50%” to the question, “What percentage of the 昀椀rm Labour force, 1 million people (%) is owned by females?”. For African countries Total number of people (M/F) participating in the surveyed in 2009–2011, this indicator is the labour force. The ratio is the percentage of women percentage of companies answering, “Majority participating in the labour force with respect to the are women” or “All women” to the question, “Are total labour force. the owners of the 昀椀rm?”. For more details refer to: https://www.enterprisesurveys.org/content/ Period: 2022 or most recent year. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 69

Source: International Labour Organization (ILO), rights to open a bank account and obtain credit at ILOSTAT. a formal 昀椀nancial institution to women and men, without legal exceptions regarding some groups of women. However, some customary, religious or traditional practices or laws discriminate against Unemployed adults, % of labour force women’s legal rights; Uneven rights: Women and Share of the labour force aged 15–64 (M/F) that men have the same rights to open a bank account is without work but available for and seeking and obtain credit at a formal 昀椀nancial institution to employment. De昀椀nitions of labour force and women and men. However, this does not apply to unemployment differ by country. all groups of women; Restricted rights: Women and men have the same rights to open a bank account Period: 2022 or most recent year. at a formal 昀椀nancial institution. However, women do Source: International Labour Organization (ILO), not have the same rights as men to obtain credit; ILOSTAT. Unequal rights: Women do not have the same rights as men to open a bank account at a formal 昀椀nancial institution. Share of workers employed part-time, % Period: 2019. The incidence of part-time employment, also known Source: OECD, Gender, Institutions and as the part-time employment rate, represents Development Database (GID-DB). the percentage of employment that is part time. Part-time employment in this table is based on a common de昀椀nition of less than 35 actual weekly hours worked. It is derived from both the indicator Inheritance for widows & daughters on employment by sex and actual weekly hours Index measuring whether women and men have worked. the same legal rights to inheritance of land and non-land assets. For each case, the OECD Period: 2022 or most recent year. numerical scores have been translated as: Equal Source: International Labour Organization (ILO), rights: Widows and daughters enjoy the same ILOSTAT. rights as widowers and sons to inherit land and non-land assets. This applies to all groups of women. Customary, religious and traditional laws or practices do not discriminate against women’s Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic inheritance rights; Near-equal rights: Widows and and care work, by sex, age and location, % daughters enjoy the same rights as widowers and Monitors the average time men and women sons to inherit land and non-land assets. This spend on unpaid domestic and care work per applies to all groups of women. However, there are day. Data is expressed as a proportion of time some customary, religious or traditional laws that in a day. Domestic and care work includes food discriminate against women’s inheritance rights; preparation, dishwashing, cleaning and upkeep of Uneven rights: Widows and daughters enjoy the a dwelling, laundry, ironing, gardening, caring for same rights as widowers and sons to inherit land pets, shopping, installation, servicing and repair of and non-land assets. However, this does not apply personal and household goods, childcare, and care to all groups of women; Restricted rights: Widows of the sick, elderly or disabled household members, or daughters do not enjoy the same rights as among others. widowers and sons to inherit land and/or non-land assets; Unequal rights: Widows and daughters do Period: 2020 or most recent year. not enjoy the same rights as widowers and sons to Source: United Nations, Department of Economic inherit land and/or non-land assets. and Social Affairs. Period: 2019. Source: OECD, Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID-DB). Access to 昀椀nance Access to 昀椀nancial services Measures whether women and men have the same Access to land assets legal rights to open a bank account and obtain Index measuring whether women and men have credit at a formal 昀椀nancial institution. For each case, the same legal rights and secure access to land the OECD numerical scores have been translated assets. For each case, the OECD numerical scores as: Equal rights: Women and men have the same have been translated as: Equal rights: Women rights to open a bank account and obtain credit at a and men have the same legal rights and secure formal 昀椀nancial institution, without legal exceptions access to land assets, without legal exceptions regarding some groups of women. Customary, regarding some groups of women. Customary, religious and traditional laws or practices do not religious and traditional laws or practices do not discriminate against women’s above legal rights; discriminate against women’s legal rights; Near- Near-equal rights: Women and men have the same equal rights: Women and men have the same legal Global Gender Gap Report 2023 70

rights and secure access to land assets, without over the past 昀椀fty-year period as head of state or legal exceptions regarding some groups of women. head of government in a country. However, some customary, religious or traditional practices or laws discriminate against women’s Period: Data as of 1 March 2023. legal right; Uneven rights: Women and men have Source: World Economic Forum’s calculations. the same legal rights and secure access to land assets. However, this does not apply to all groups of women; Restricted rights: Women and men have the same legal rights to own land assets, but not Access to justice to use, make decisions and/or use land assets as Measures whether women and men have the collateral; Unequal rights: Women do not have the same rights to provide testimony in court, hold same legal rights as men to own land assets. public or political of昀椀ce in the judiciary and sue. For each case, the OECD numerical scores have been Period: 2019. translated as: Equal rights: A woman’s testimony Source: OECD, Gender, Institutions and holds the same evidentiary weight as a man’s in all Development Database (GID-DB). types of court cases and women have the same rights as men to sue and to hold public or political of昀椀ce in the judiciary. Customary, religious and traditional laws or practices do not discriminate Access to non-land assets against women’s legal right to sue, to provide Index measuring whether women and men have the testimony in court or to be a judge, advocate or same legal rights and secure access to non-land other court of昀椀cer; Near-equal rights: A woman’s assets. For each case, the OECD numerical scores testimony holds the same evidentiary weight as have been translated as: Equal rights: Women a man’s in all types of court cases and women and men have the same legal rights and secure have the same rights as men to sue and to hold access to non-land assets, without legal exceptions public or political of昀椀ce in the judiciary. Women’s regarding some groups of women. Customary, testimony carries the same evidentiary weight in religious and traditional laws or practices do not customary/religious courts/tribunals. However, discriminate against women’s legal rights; Near- some customary, traditional or religious practices equal rights: Women and men have the same or laws discriminate against women’s legal right to legal rights and secure access to non-land assets, sue, to provide testimony in court or to be a judge, without legal exceptions regarding some groups advocate or other court of昀椀cer; Uneven rights: A of women. However, some customary, religious or woman’s testimony holds the same evidentiary traditional practices or laws discriminate against weight as a man’s in all types of court cases and women’s legal right; Uneven rights: Women and women have the same rights as men to sue. men have the same legal rights and secure access However, women do not have the same right as to non-land assets. However, this does not apply to men to hold public or political of昀椀ce in the judiciary; all groups of women; Restricted rights: Women and Restricted rights: Women and men have the same men have the same legal rights to own non-land rights to sue. However, a woman’s testimony does assets, but not to use, make decisions and/or use not hold the same evidentiary weight as a man’s land assets as collateral; Unequal rights: Women in all types of court cases; Unequal rights: Women do not have the same legal rights as men to own and men do not have the same rights to sue. non-land assets. Period: 2019. Period: 2019. Source: OECD, Gender, Institutions and Source: OECD, Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID-DB). Development Database (GID-DB). Freedom of movement Civil and political freedom Measures whether women and men have the same rights to apply for national identity cards (if Year women received right to vote applicable) and passports and travel outside the Refers to the year in which the right to vote or stand country. For each case, the OECD numerical scores for election on a universal and equal basis was have been translated as: Equal rights: Women and recognized. Where two years are shown, the 昀椀rst men have the same rights to apply for national refers to the 昀椀rst partial recognition of the right to identity cards (if applicable) and passports and to vote or stand for election. travel outside the country, without legal exceptions regarding some groups of women. Customary, Period: 2023. religious and traditional laws or practices do not Source: Inter-parliamentary Union (IPU) Parline. discriminate against these rights: Near-equal rights: Women and men have the same rights to apply for national identity cards (if applicable) and passports and to travel outside the country, Number of female heads of state to date without legal exceptions regarding some groups The number of women who have ever taken of昀椀ce of women. However, some customary, traditional Global Gender Gap Report 2023 71

or religious practices or laws discriminate against Unmet family planning these rights; Uneven rights: Women and men have Unmet need for family planning is de昀椀ned as the same rights to apply for national identity cards (if the percentage of women ages 15-49 who do applicable) and passports and to travel outside the not want to become pregnant but are not using country. However, this does not apply to all groups contraception. of women; Restricted rights: Women do not have the same rights as men to apply for national identity Period: 2021 or latest year available. cards (if applicable) or passports or to travel outside Source: USAID Demographic and Health Surveys the country; Unequal rights: Women do not have Program. the same rights as men to apply for national identity cards (if applicable) or passports and to travel outside the country. Early marriage, % Period: 2019. Percentage of girls aged 15–19 years who are or Source: OECD, Gender, Institutions and have ever been married, divorced, widowed or in an Development Database (GID-DB). informal union. Period: 2019. Source: OECD, Gender, Institutions and Election list quotas for women, national (yes/ Development Database (GID-DB). no) Reports if a country has in place electoral laws specifying quotas for female candidates in national elections to the lower parliamentary house. Mean age of women at birth of 昀椀rst child The mean age of mothers at 昀椀rst child’s birth is Period: Data as of 1 March 2023. de昀椀ned as the average completed year of age of Source: Institute for Democracy and Electoral women when their 昀椀rst child is born. Assistance (IDEA), Gender Quotas Database. Period: 2020 or most recent year. Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Party membership quotas, voluntary, (yes/no) Population Prospects 2022. Reports if a country has in place voluntary quotas specifying the number of women for political party membership. Right to divorce Period: Data as of 1 March 2023. Index measuring whether women and men have Source: IDEA, Gender Quotas Database. the same legal rights to initiate divorce and have the same requirements for divorce or annulment. For each case, the OECD numerical scores have been translated as: Equal rights = Women have Seats held in upper house, % of total seats the same rights to initiate divorce and the same Percentage of women holding seats in the higher requirements to 昀椀nalize divorce or annulment as house of representatives as a share of total seats. men, without negative repercussions from their Applies only to bicameral parliamentary systems. parental authority. This applies to all groups of women. Customary, religious and traditional laws Period: 2023. or practices do not discriminate against women’s Source: Inter-parliamentary Union (IPU). rights regarding divorce or parental authority after divorce; Near equal rights = Women have the same rights to initiate divorce and the same requirements to 昀椀nalize divorce or annulment as men, without Family and care negative repercussions from their parental authority. This applies to all groups of women. However, there Public spending on family bene昀椀ts, % of GDP are some customary, religious or traditional laws or Public spending on family bene昀椀ts includes 昀椀nancial practices that discriminate against women’s rights support that is exclusively for families and children. regarding divorce and/or parental authority after Spending recorded in other social policy areas such divorce; Uneven rights = Women have the same as health and housing may also assist families, but rights to initiate divorce and the same requirements not exclusively, and is not included in the indicator. to 昀椀nalize divorce or annulment as men, without negative repercussions from their parental authority. Period: 2021 or latest year available. However, this does not apply to all groups of Source: OECD, Family database. women; Restricted rights = Women do not have the same rights over divorce as men: either their rights to initiate divorce and/ or the requirements to 昀椀nalize divorce or annulment are unequal, or their freedom from parental authority after divorce is restricted; Global Gender Gap Report 2023 72

Unequal rights = Women do not have the same Source: UNESCO, Education database. rights over divorce as men: their rights to initiate divorce and/or the requirements to 昀椀nalize divorce or annulment are unequal, and their freedom from parental authority after divorce is restricted. Engineering, Manufacturing & Construction graduates, % Period: 2019. Percentage of male/female tertiary education Source: OECD, Gender, Institutions and graduates from Engineering, Manufacturing & Development Database (GID-DB). Construction programmes. Period: 2019 or most recent year. Source: UNESCO, Education database. Length of paid parental leave, calendar days Parental leave refers to leave available equally to parents – regardless of gender – for the purpose of childcare immediately following maternity Health & Welfare graduates, % and paternity leave OR instead of maternity and Percentage of male/female tertiary education paternity leave. Where the paid leave period is graduates from Health and Welfare programmes. available only by sex, it is indicated under “female” or “male”. Where the leave period can be shared Period: 2019 or most recent year. amongst the parents as they choose, the length of Source: UNESCO, Education database. the paid leave period is indicated under “Value”. Period: 2022. Source: World Bank, Women, Business and the Information and Communication Technologies Law Database. graduates, % Percentage of male/female tertiary education graduates from Information and Communication Technologies programmes. Education and skills Period: 2019 or most recent year. Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary Source: UNESCO, Education database. graduates, % Percentage of male/female tertiary education graduates from Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary programmes. Natural Sciences, Mathematics and Statistics graduates, % Period: 2019 or most recent year. Percentage of male/female tertiary education Source: UNESCO, Education database. graduates from Natural Sciences, Mathematics and Statistics programmes. Period: 2019 or most recent year. Arts & Humanities graduates, % Source: UNESCO, Education database. Percentage of male/female tertiary education graduates from Arts & Humanities programmes. Period: 2019 or most recent year. Social Science, Journalism and Information Source: UNESCO, Education database. graduates, % Percentage of male/female tertiary education graduates from Social Science & Journalism programmes. Business, Administration and Law graduates, % Percentage of male/female tertiary education Period: 2019 or most recent year. graduates from Business, Administration and Law Source: UNESCO, Education database. programmes. Period: 2019 or most recent year. Source: UNESCO, Education database. STEM graduates, % Percentage of male/female tertiary education graduates from STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) programmes. Education graduates, % Percentage of male/female tertiary education Period: 2019 or most recent year. graduates from Education programmes. Source: UNESCO, Education indicators. Period: 2019 or most recent year. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 73

Vocational training, % attainment Maternal mortality ratio Percentage of 15–24-year-old girls/ boys enrolled Number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. in vocational education to the total 15–24-year-old population. Period: 2017. Source: UNICEF. Period: 2022 or most recent year. Source: UNESCO, Education database. Total fertility rate, births per woman Measures the average number of children a PhD graduates, % attainment hypothetical cohort of women would have at the Percentage of 25+ year-old women/men who have end of their reproductive period if they were subject attained a doctoral degree or equivalent (ISCED 8) during their whole lives to the fertility rates of a given relative to the total population of over-25-year-olds. period and if they were not subject to mortality. Period: 2021 or most recent year. Period: 2020 or most recent year. Source: UNESCO, Education database. Source: World Bank. Tertiary education graduates, % Reproductive autonomy Percentage of male/female tertiary education Index measuring whether the legal framework graduates. protects women’s reproductive health and rights. For each case, the following scores are assigned: Period: 2022 or most recent year. 0 = The legal framework protects women’s Source: UNESCO, Education database. reproductive health and rights in case of unwanted pregnancy, without any justi昀椀cations; Near-equal rights = The legal framework protects women’s reproductive health and rights in case of unwanted Health pregnancy, but requires justi昀椀cations; Uneven rights = The legal framework only protects women’s Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime, % reproductive health and rights in case of unwanted women pregnancy with some justi昀椀cations; Restricted Percentage of ever-partnered women who ever rights = The legal framework only protects women’s suffered intimate partner physical and/or sexual reproductive health and rights in case of unwanted violence. pregnancy with strict justi昀椀cations; Unequal rights = The legal framework does not protect women’s Period: 2019. reproductive health and rights in case of unwanted Source: OECD, Gender, Institutions and pregnancy. Development Database (GID-DB). Period: 2019. Source: OECD, Gender, Institutions and Development Database (GID-DB). Births attended by skilled personnel, % live births Share of live births attended by skilled health personnel to total live births in a given year. Period: 2021 or most recent year. Source: UNICEF. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 74

Endnotes 1. See Hausmann, 2016, for further detail. 2. Following a methodology originally developed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Global Gender Gap Index estimates the average income earned by women, relative to income earned by men, in a calculation that takes into account a country’s GDP per capita (US$), the share of women and men in the labour force, and their mean nominal wages. To account for globally rising income levels, beginning with 2018’s edition, the report no longer caps the maximum income per capita value considered in the calculation. This follows UNDP’s own adjustment of the methodology and the fact that the $40,000 cap formerly used in previous editions of the Global Gender Gap Index had increasingly lost some of its ability to discern the level of gender-based income disparities among high-income nations such as the Nordics, the United States and the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council. For a full overview of the 2016 methodology change, please refer to that report edition’s Appendix D. 3. For more information about the Executive Opinion Survey, see Appendix B. 4. The report utilizes the United Nations Population Division’s World Population Prospects as a source for the sex ratio at birth indicator. Previous editions of the report had utilized data from the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency’s World Factbook as an alternative data source. 5. This ratio is based on what is considered to be a “normal” sex ratio at birth: 1.06 males for every female born. See Klasen and Wink, 2003. 6. This ratio is based on the standards used in the UNDP’s Gender-Related Development Index, which uses 87.5 years as the maximum age for women and 82.5 years as the maximum age for men. 7. A 昀椀rst attempt to calculate the gender gap was made by the World Economic Forum in 2005; see Lopez-Claros and Zahidi, 2005. The 2005 index, which was attempting to capture women’s empowerment, used a scale in which the highest score was assigned to the country with the biggest gap in favour of women. 8. As in previous editions of the index, weights derived for the 2006 index were used again this year to allow for comparisons over time. They may be revised in future editions to re昀氀ect the evolution of the gender gap over the past decade. 9. Strictly, in the case of the Health and Survival subindex, the highest possible value a country can achieve is 0.9796. However, for purposes of simplicity, we will refer to this value as 1 throughout the chapters and in all tables, 昀椀gures and Country Pro昀椀les. 10. Because of the special equality benchmark value of 0.9796 for the Health and Survival subindex, the equality benchmark for the overall index score is not strictly 1. This value is in fact (1 + 1 + 1 + 0.9796) / 4 = 0.9949. However, for purposes of simplicity, we will refer to the overall equality benchmark as 1 throughout the chapters and in all tables, 昀椀gures and Economy Pro昀椀les. 11. Since the indicators in the subindexes are weighted by the standard deviations, the 昀椀nal scores for the subindexes and the overall index are not a pure measure of the gap vis-à-vis the equality benchmark, and therefore cannot be strictly interpreted as percentage values measuring the closure of the gender gap. However, for ease of interpretation and intuitive appeal, we will be using the percentage concept as a rough interpretation of the 昀椀nal scores. 12. “Impact of the pandemic on ILO modelled estimates and projections”, ILOSTAT Database Description: ILO Modelled Estimates (ILOSTAT database) https://ilostat.ilo.org/resources/concepts-and-de昀椀nitions/ilo-modelled-estimates/ 13. UNDP, 2022. 14. International Standard Classi昀椀cation of Occupations (ISCO), https://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/stat/isco/docs/ groupdefn08.pdf. 15. International Standard Classi昀椀cation of Education (ISCED), http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/昀椀les/documents/ international-standard-classi昀椀cation-of-education-isced-2011-en.pdf. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 75

References Hausmann, R., “Learning Without Theory”, Project Syndicate, 30 March 2016, https:// www. project-syndicate.org/commentary/ learning- without-theory-by-ricardohausmann-2016- 03?barrier=accesspaylog. Klasen, S. and C. Wink, “Missing Women: Revisiting the Debate”, Feminist Economics, vol. 9, no. 2–3, 2003, pp. 263–299. Lopez-Claros, A. and S. Zahidi, Women’s Empowerment: Measuring the Global Gender Gap, World Economic Forum, 2005. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Human Development Report 2021-2022, 2022. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 76

June 2023 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 User’s Guide How to read the Economy Pro昀椀les The Economy Pro昀椀les section of the report presents a two-page pro昀椀le for each of the 146 economies Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition 1 (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) covered by this year’s edition. The 昀椀rst page Angola 0.656 118th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 corresponds to the index results, and the second Angola score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy offers a complementary set of contextual indicators Global Gender Gap Index 0.656 118th 0.638 125th 0.605 and metrics for that economy. Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.605 107th 0.637 99th E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.305 0.738 l t i o o P n The Global Gender Gap Report 2023 is 0.738 142nd 0.693 142nd Health and Survival 0.976 44th 0.976 50th complemented by a digital explorer, which provides 0.976 Health Political Empowerment detailed Economy Pro昀椀les of all economies featured 0.305 46th 0.246 59th in the index, as well as a Data Explorer tool enabling 2 Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max the reader to explore 2006-2023 detailed index 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 107th 0.605 - - - 0-100 results, rankings and comparisons by economy, Labour-force participation rate % 3rd 0.956 -3.44 74.72 78.16 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) 95th 0.600 - - 0-150 region, indicator and subindex. The Global Gender Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 53rd 0.682 -2.24 4.80 7.04 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 126th 0.181 -69.28 15.36 84.64 0-100 Gap Data Explorer can be found at http://reports. Professional and technical workers % 126th 0.420 -40.86 29.57 70.43 Educational Attainment 142nd 0.738 - - - weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2023. - Literacy rate % 130th 0.755 - - - Enrolment in primary education % - - - - - 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 138th 0.643 -22.03 39.74 61.77 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 112th 0.889 -1.25 10.01 11.26 Health and Survival 44th 0.976 - - - - Economy selection Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 56th 1.050 - - Political Empowerment 46th 0.305 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 46th 0.506 -32.80 33.60 66.40 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 30th 0.600 -25.00 37.50 62.50 0-50 To monitor the state of gender parity across the Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 80th 0.000 -50.00 0 50.00 widest possible range of countries, the index performance for an economy is computed when recent data is available for at least 12 of the 14 indicators composing the index. Obsolescence The second section 2 of each Economy Pro昀椀le varies by indicator; while most data points date provides an overview of each economy’s ranks from the past two years or less, for a few cases, and scores on the four subindexes of the Global up to 10-year-old data points are used for the Gender Gap Index, as well as on the individual calculation. Given the update to the labour-force indicators that compose each subindex. For each participation rate data series introduced this year, of the indicators, column one displays the country’s an allowance is made for this edition to include data rank; column two displays the country’s score; up to 2010 in individual cases for this particular column three locates the country’s score against indicator. the population-weighted global average for that indicator (out of 146 economies); column four displays the gap between the female and male Economy Pro昀椀les value; column 昀椀ve charts the female and male value on a scale, respectively; and, 昀椀nally, column six provides the minimum and maximum value used Each Economy Pro昀椀le is divided into three sections: to scale each indicator in the previous column. Although full-precision values have been used for The 昀椀rst section 1 presents each country’s overall calculating ratios and scores, rounded values to one Global Gender Gap Index rank out of the 146 decimal are displayed to facilitate reading. The “n/a” reviewed countries and its progress, represented on symbol indicates where data is unavailable, and a 0-to-1 scale, towards closing the gender gap and the symbol “-” indicates where the statistic cannot achieving full gender parity (benchmark score of 1). be computed. Economy scores are highlighted by The radar chart on the top left-hand side of each a colour scale – increasing by 20% intervals from Economy Pro昀椀le gives an overview of the country’s light blue (0.0–0.2; worst) to dark blue (0.8–1.0; scores for each of the four subindexes relative to best) – to help the reader visually interpret the index the ideal outcome of full gender parity (score of 1) results. The female-male values and their gaps are and the global average score of all economies in the Index weighted by population across all economies. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 77

color-coded – purple for men and green for women. Data Explorer online features The gap between them is coloured based on which gender has the “lead”, or higher value. To calculate the index, all ratios are truncated at the parity A number of additional features may be accessed in benchmark of 1 and thus the highest score possible the online Data Explorer (available at http://reports. is 1 – except for the sex ratio at birth (0.944) and weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2023). the healthy life expectancy (1.06) indicators. The reader has the possibility to switch between Economy Pro昀椀les and interactive index rankings The third section 3 of the Economy Pro昀椀le in a tile, bar chart or world map format by clicking includes contextual indicators, which are not on the corresponding icon option at the top-right incorporated into the calculation of the index but corner of the page 4 . The reader can also explore provide relevant information about gender parity in data from previous editions of the report and see different aspects. These indicators are displayed results by economy income group or by regional separately because data is available for only a grouping by selecting the corresponding option few economies or is not updated regularly. They on the “re昀椀ne by group” drop-down menu on the are in turn organized into seven thematic groups: upper-left corner of the page 5 . a) General indicators; b) Work participation and leadership; c) Access to 昀椀nance; d) Civil and political freedom; e) Family and care; f) Education 5 4 and skills; g) Health. The full de昀椀nitions of all indicators are provided in Appendix B. Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 3 Angola 0.656 118th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Indicator Value Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 67.4 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 5.91 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 38.00 Population sex ratio female/male 1.02 Early marriage % 24.70 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 3.17 n. a. Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 18.00 17.59 35.59 Right to divorce Uneven rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 90.00 1.00 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms n. a. STEM Graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Firms with female top managers % firms n. a. Share of workers in informal sector % workers 90.30 Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary 28.21 71.79 0.39 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities 36.43 63.57 0.57 Advancement of women to leadership roles 3.78 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law 48.29 51.71 0.93 Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 16.33 16.34 16.34 Education n. a. n. a. n. a. Workers employed part-time % of employed people 34.34 28.59 31.52 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction n. a. n. a. n. a. Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare 66.83 33.17 2.02 and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies 37.96 62.04 0.61 Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 5.02 4.77 9.79 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to financial services Near-equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Uneven rights Vocational training n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to land assets Uneven rights Access to non-land assets Uneven rights PhD graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1975 Graduates from tertiary education n. a. n. a. n. a. Number of female heads of state to date number 0 Seats held in upper house % total seats n. a. Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value % women 34.80 Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime Election list quotas for women, national Yes Party membership quotas, voluntary Yes Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 49.60 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 241.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 5.37 Access to justice Near-equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Equal rights Reproductive autonomy Equal rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 78

Interactive ranking tables Economy Comparison Tool By clicking on the icon menu at the top-right corner The reader also has the possibility to directly of the Data Explorer 6 , the interactive rankings may compare two countries side-by-side and across be switched between a tile view, which visualizes the time series. The Economy Comparison Tool economies’ overall performance on each subindex 8 can be accessed by 昀椀rst selecting an economy for context; a bar-chart view, which depicts an through the “search” drop-down menu on the top- economy’s performance for the selected indicator left corner of the page, and then selecting a second relative to other economies; and a world-map view, economy from the “compare with” drop-down which allows the reader to explore geographical menu on the top right corner of the explorer. This trends and patterns. In the map view, countries feature enables a side-by-side view of indicators are highlighted by an extended colour scale to for the selected comparison economy relative to enhance contrast and readability—ranging in 20% the original economy selected in the Economy intervals from light blue (0.0–0.2, worst) to dark Pro昀椀le view of the Data Explorer. The reader may blue (0.8–1.0, best). In addition, the reader has the also select the time period for comparison 9 . The possibility to switch between selected indicators reader may return to the original view by clicking on and across the time series, narrow their selection to the Back-to-Economy menu option at the top-left a speci昀椀c region, or go directly to the results for a corner of the page or may continue exploring the speci昀椀c economy of interest through the drop-down data by clicking through to the other views of the menu strip at the top of the Data Explorer 7 . Data Explorer. 7 6 9 8 7 6 9 9 8 7 6 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 79

Index of Economy Pro昀椀les Country ________________Page Country ________________Page Country ________________Page Afghanistan _______________ 81 Finland __________________ 179 Netherlands ______________ 277 Albania ___________________ 83 France ___________________ 181 New Zealand _____________ 279 Algeria ____________________ 85 Gambia __________________ 183 Nicaragua ________________ 281 Angola ____________________ 87 Georgia __________________ 185 Niger ____________________ 283 Argentina _________________ 89 Germany _________________ 187 Nigeria ___________________ 285 Armenia __________________ 91 Ghana ___________________ 189 North Macedonia __________ 287 Australia __________________ 93 Greece __________________ 191 Norway __________________ 289 Austria ____________________ 95 Guatemala _______________ 193 Oman ___________________ 291 Azerbaijan _________________ 97 Guinea __________________ 195 Pakistan _________________ 293 Bahrain ___________________ 99 Honduras ________________ 197 Panama _________________ 295 Bangladesh ______________ 101 Hungary _________________ 199 Paraguay ________________ 297 Barbados ________________ 103 Iceland __________________ 201 Peru_____________________ 299 Belarus __________________ 105 India ____________________ 203 Philippines _______________ 301 Belgium __________________ 107 Indonesia ________________ 205 Poland___________________ 303 Belize ___________________ 109 Iran, Islamic Republic of ____ 207 Portugal _________________ 305 Benin ____________________ 111 Ireland ___________________ 209 Qatar ____________________ 307 Bhutan __________________ 113 Israel ____________________ 211 Romania _________________ 309 Bolivia ___________________ 115 Italy _____________________ 213 Rwanda _________________ 311 Bosnia and Herzegovina ____ 117 Jamaica _________________ 215 Saudi Arabia ______________ 313 Botswana ________________ 119 Japan ___________________ 217 Senegal __________________ 315 Brazil ____________________ 121 Jordan ___________________ 219 Serbia ___________________ 317 Brunei Darussalam ________ 123 Kazakhstan ______________ 221 Sierra Leone ______________ 319 Bulgaria __________________ 125 Kenya ___________________ 223 Singapore ________________ 321 Burkina Faso _____________ 127 Korea, Rep. ______________ 225 Slovakia _________________ 323 Burundi __________________ 129 Kuwait ___________________ 227 Slovenia _________________ 325 Cabo Verde ______________ 131 Kyrgyzstan _______________ 229 South Africa ______________ 327 Cambodia ________________ 133 Lao PDR _________________ 231 Spain ____________________ 329 Cameroon _______________ 135 Latvia ___________________ 233 Sri Lanka ________________ 331 Canada __________________ 137 Lebanon _________________ 235 Suriname ________________ 333 Chad ____________________ 139 Lesotho __________________ 237 Sweden _________________ 335 Chile ____________________ 141 Liberia ___________________ 239 Switzerland _______________ 337 China ____________________ 143 Lithuania _________________ 241 Tajikistan _________________ 339 Colombia ________________ 145 Luxembourg ______________ 243 Tanzania _________________ 341 Comoros _________________ 147 Madagascar ______________ 245 Thailand _________________ 343 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the ___ 149 Malawi ___________________ 247 Timor-Leste ______________ 345 Costa Rica _______________ 151 Malaysia _________________ 249 Togo ____________________ 347 Côte d’Ivoire ______________ 153 Maldives _________________ 251 Tunisia ___________________ 349 Croatia __________________ 155 Mali _____________________ 253 Türkiye ___________________ 351 Cyprus __________________ 157 Malta ____________________ 255 Uganda __________________ 353 Czech Republic ___________ 159 Mauritius _________________ 257 Ukraine __________________ 355 Denmark _________________ 161 Mexico __________________ 259 United Arab Emirates ______ 357 Dominican Republic _______ 163 Moldova, Republic of ______ 261 United Kingdom ___________ 359 Ecuador _________________ 165 Mongolia _________________ 263 United States _____________ 361 Egypt ____________________ 167 Montenegro ______________ 265 Uruguay _________________ 363 El Salvador _______________ 169 Morocco _________________ 267 Vanuatu __________________ 365 Estonia __________________ 171 Mozambique _____________ 269 Viet Nam _________________ 367 Eswatini _________________ 173 Myanmar ________________ 271 Zambia __________________ 369 Ethiopia __________________ 175 Namibia _________________ 273 Zimbabwe _______________ 371 Fiji ______________________ 177 Nepal____________________ 275 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 80

Global Gender Gap Report 2023 81

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Afghanistan 0.405 146th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 14.79 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 1.52 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 24.47 Population sex ratio female/male 0.98 Early marriage % 35.00 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 2.85 n. a. Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 20.36 20.77 41.13 Right to divorce Unequal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 90.00 14.00 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms 0.50 STEM Graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Firms with female top managers % firms 4.70 Share of workers in informal sector % workers 86.40 Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary 3.42 96.58 0.04 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities 28.22 71.78 0.39 Advancement of women to leadership roles n. a. Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law n. a. n. a. n. a. Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 5.46 5.65 5.60 Education 23.22 76.78 0.30 Workers employed part-time % of employed people 26.76 21.64 22.86 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction 4.09 95.91 0.04 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare 32.34 67.66 0.48 and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies n. a. n. a. n. a. Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 1.34 4.59 5.93 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to financial services Near-equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Restricted rights Vocational training 0.34 1.48 0.23 Access to land assets Near-equal rights Access to non-land assets Near-equal rights PhD graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1963 (Suspended) Graduates from tertiary education 6.10 15.35 10.85 Number of female heads of state to date number 0 Seats held in upper house % total seats n. a. Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women 60.80 Election list quotas for women, national Yes Party membership quotas, voluntary Yes Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 61.80 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 638.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 4.75 Access to justice Restricted rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Restricted rights Reproductive autonomy Restricted rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 82

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Albania 0.791 17th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Albania score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.791 17th 0.787 18th 0.786 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.786 18th 0.774 23rd E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.419 0.999 l t i o o P n 0.999 33rd 0.999 34th Health and Survival 0.960 133rd 0.956 137th 0.960 Health Political Empowerment 0.419 28th 0.419 25th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 18th 0.786 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 73rd 0.778 -15.06 52.87 67.93 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) 1st 0.858 - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 26th 0.756 -4.04 12.50 16.54 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 75th 0.518 -31.77 34.12 65.89 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 1st 1.000 11.66 44.17 55.83 Educational Attainment 33rd 0.999 - - - - Literacy rate % 69th 0.995 - - 0-100 Enrolment in primary education % 1st 1.000 2.67 90.93 93.60 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 1st 1.000 2.95 94.75 97.70 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 1st 1.000 27.96 43.26 71.22 Health and Survival 133rd 0.960 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 138th 0.928 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 79th 1.033 - - Political Empowerment 28th 0.419 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 37th 0.555 -28.60 35.70 64.30 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 1st 1.000 33.33 33.33 66.67 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 80th 0.000 -50.00 0 50.00 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 83

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Albania 0.791 17th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 18.26 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 14.52 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 15.20 Population sex ratio female/male 1.00 Early marriage % 7.20 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years -0.93 26.60 Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 1.43 1.42 2.84 Right to divorce Near-equal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 365.00 3.00 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms 16.90 STEM Graduates 46.65 53.35 0.87 Firms with female top managers % firms 18.10 Share of workers in informal sector % workers 56.70 Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary n. a. n. a. n. a. 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities 74.20 25.80 2.88 Advancement of women to leadership roles 6.43 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law n. a. n. a. n. a. Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 11.72 12.13 11.95 Education 77.68 22.32 3.48 Workers employed part-time % of employed people 24.42 15.35 19.38 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction n. a. n. a. n. a. Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare 78.93 21.07 3.75 and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies 43.71 56.29 0.78 Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 0.57 0.70 1.27 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to financial services Near-equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Near-equal rights Vocational training 2.36 8.28 0.28 Access to land assets Near-equal rights Access to non-land assets Equal rights PhD graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1920 Graduates from tertiary education 59.35 28.28 43.24 Number of female heads of state to date number 0 Seats held in upper house % total seats n. a. Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women 24.60 Election list quotas for women, national Yes Party membership quotas, voluntary n. a. Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 99.80 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 15.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 1.40 Access to justice Equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Equal rights Reproductive autonomy Equal rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 84

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Algeria 0.573 144th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Algeria score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.573 144th 0.602 140th 0.317 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.317 145th 0.466 138th E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.065 0.951 l t i o o P n 0.951 116th 0.915 126th Health and Survival 0.958 137th 0.958 135th 0.958 Health Political Empowerment 0.065 135th 0.070 134th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 145th 0.317 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 143rd 0.259 -48.91 17.13 66.04 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) - - - - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 144th 0.192 -14.78 3.52 18.29 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 138th 0.091 -83.27 8.37 91.64 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 78th 0.916 -4.40 47.80 52.20 Educational Attainment 116th 0.951 - - - - Literacy rate % 120th 0.862 - - - Enrolment in primary education % - - - - - 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 1st 1.000 2.73 107.68 110.42 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 1st 1.000 26.77 40.64 67.41 Health and Survival 137th 0.958 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 143rd 0.990 - - Political Empowerment 135th 0.065 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 134th 0.086 -84.20 7.90 92.10 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 106th 0.154 -73.33 13.33 86.67 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 80th 0.000 -50.00 0 50.00 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 85

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Algeria 0.573 144th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 163.04 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 11.04 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 14.10 Population sex ratio female/male 0.96 Early marriage % 3.10 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 1.66 n. a. Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 22.04 22.86 44.90 Right to divorce Unequal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 98.00 3.00 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms n. a. STEM Graduates 58.17 41.83 1.39 Firms with female top managers % firms n. a. Share of workers in informal sector % workers n. a. Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary n. a. n. a. n. a. 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities 80.57 19.43 4.15 Advancement of women to leadership roles 5.05 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law n. a. n. a. n. a. Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) n. a. n. a. n. a. Education 80.37 19.63 4.10 Workers employed part-time % of employed people 36.23 15.67 19.39 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction 48.46 51.54 0.94 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare 70.52 29.48 2.39 and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies n. a. n. a. n. a. Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 2.19 8.28 10.47 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics 83.06 16.94 4.90 Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to financial services Near-equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Unequal rights Vocational training n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to land assets Near-equal rights Access to non-land assets Near-equal rights PhD graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1944, 1958, 1962 Graduates from tertiary education 58.32 28.94 43.32 Number of female heads of state to date number 0 Seats held in upper house % total seats 4.10 Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women n. a. Election list quotas for women, national Yes Party membership quotas, voluntary Yes Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 98.80 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 112.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 2.94 Access to justice Restricted rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Restricted rights Reproductive autonomy Restricted rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 86

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Angola 0.656 118th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Angola score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.656 118th 0.638 125th 0.605 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.605 107th 0.637 99th E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.305 0.738 l t i o o P n 0.738 142nd 0.693 142nd Health and Survival 0.976 44th 0.976 50th 0.976 Health Political Empowerment 0.305 46th 0.246 59th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 107th 0.605 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 3rd 0.956 -3.44 74.72 78.16 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) 95th 0.600 - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 53rd 0.682 -2.24 4.80 7.04 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 126th 0.181 -69.28 15.36 84.64 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 126th 0.420 -40.86 29.57 70.43 Educational Attainment 142nd 0.738 - - - - Literacy rate % 130th 0.755 - - - Enrolment in primary education % - - - - - 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 138th 0.643 -22.03 39.74 61.77 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 112th 0.889 -1.25 10.01 11.26 Health and Survival 44th 0.976 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 56th 1.050 - - Political Empowerment 46th 0.305 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 46th 0.506 -32.80 33.60 66.40 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 30th 0.600 -25.00 37.50 62.50 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 80th 0.000 -50.00 0 50.00 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 87

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Angola 0.656 118th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 67.4 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 5.91 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 38.00 Population sex ratio female/male 1.02 Early marriage % 24.70 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 3.17 n. a. Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 18.00 17.59 35.59 Right to divorce Uneven rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 90.00 1.00 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms n. a. STEM Graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Firms with female top managers % firms n. a. Share of workers in informal sector % workers 90.30 Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary 28.21 71.79 0.39 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities 36.43 63.57 0.57 Advancement of women to leadership roles 3.78 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law 48.29 51.71 0.93 Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 16.33 16.34 16.34 Education n. a. n. a. n. a. Workers employed part-time % of employed people 34.34 28.59 31.52 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction n. a. n. a. n. a. Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare 66.83 33.17 2.02 and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies 37.96 62.04 0.61 Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 5.02 4.77 9.79 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to financial services Near-equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Uneven rights Vocational training n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to land assets Uneven rights Access to non-land assets Uneven rights PhD graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1975 Graduates from tertiary education n. a. n. a. n. a. Number of female heads of state to date number 0 Seats held in upper house % total seats n. a. Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women 34.80 Election list quotas for women, national Yes Party membership quotas, voluntary Yes Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 49.60 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 241.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 5.37 Access to justice Near-equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Equal rights Reproductive autonomy Equal rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 88

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Argentina 0.762 36th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Argentina score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.762 36th 0.756 33rd 0.644 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.644 95th 0.635 102nd E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.429 1.000 l t i o o P n 1.000 1st 1.000 1st Health and Survival 0.977 41st 0.977 46th 0.977 Health Political Empowerment 0.429 26th 0.413 28th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 95th 0.644 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 92nd 0.709 -20.67 50.48 71.15 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) 93rd 0.602 - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 106th 0.554 -12.40 15.39 27.79 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 84th 0.486 -34.61 32.69 67.31 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 1st 1.000 2.87 48.57 51.43 Educational Attainment 1st 1.000 - - - - Literacy rate % 1st 1.000 - - - Enrolment in primary education % - - - - - 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 1st 1.000 4.77 107.79 112.56 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 1st 1.000 52.85 73.15 126.00 Health and Survival 41st 0.977 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 52nd 1.051 - - Political Empowerment 26th 0.429 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 14th 0.812 -10.40 44.80 55.20 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 64th 0.286 -55.56 22.22 77.78 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 16th 0.242 -30.53 9.74 40.26 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 89

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Argentina 0.762 36th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 487.23 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 21.53 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 12.54 Population sex ratio female/male 1.02 Early marriage % 12.90 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 0.95 n. a. Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 22.98 22.53 45.51 Right to divorce Equal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 90.00 2.00 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) 6.25 Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms 7.90 STEM Graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Firms with female top managers % firms 8.00 Share of workers in informal sector % workers 48.90 Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary n. a. n. a. n. a. 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities n. a. n. a. n. a. Advancement of women to leadership roles 4.56 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law n. a. n. a. n. a. Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 10.05 8.08 8.95 Education n. a. n. a. n. a. Workers employed part-time % of employed people 53.31 29.93 40.02 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction n. a. n. a. n. a. Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare n. a. n. a. n. a. and care work % 23.42 9.25 n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies n. a. n. a. n. a. Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 5.15 6.58 11.73 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to financial services Equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Equal rights Vocational training n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to land assets Near-equal rights Access to non-land assets Equal rights PhD graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1947 Graduates from tertiary education 24.13 10.30 17.12 Number of female heads of state to date number 2 Seats held in upper house % total seats 43.10 Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women n. a. Election list quotas for women, national Yes Party membership quotas, voluntary Yes Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 98.80 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 39.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 1.91 Access to justice Equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Equal rights Reproductive autonomy Uneven rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 90

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Armenia 0.721 61st 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Armenia score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.721 61st 0.698 89th 0.716 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.716 52nd 0.669 84th E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.215 0.999 l t i o o P n 0.999 35th 1.000 28th Health and Survival 0.955 139th 0.954 139th 0.955 Health Political Empowerment 0.215 71st 0.170 89th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 52nd 0.716 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 26th 0.874 -9.04 62.80 71.84 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) 35th 0.708 - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 83rd 0.627 -6.66 11.20 17.86 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 93rd 0.422 -40.69 29.65 70.35 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 1st 1.000 17.86 41.07 58.93 Educational Attainment 35th 0.999 - - - - Literacy rate % 57th 0.999 - - 0-100 Enrolment in primary education % 75th 0.998 -0.16 89.25 89.41 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 1st 1.000 2.66 87.66 90.31 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 1st 1.000 20.27 46.01 66.28 Health and Survival 139th 0.955 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 143rd 0.909 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 1st 1.060 - - Political Empowerment 71st 0.215 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 38th 0.550 -29.00 35.50 64.50 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 98th 0.182 -69.23 15.39 84.62 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 80th 0.000 -50.00 0 50.00 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 91

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Armenia 0.721 61st Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 13.86 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 14.19 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 12.50 Population sex ratio female/male 1.22 Early marriage % 4.80 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years -0.52 25.20 Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 1.53 1.25 2.78 Right to divorce Near-equal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 140.00 7.00 660.00 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms 18.10 STEM Graduates 39.81 60.19 0.66 Firms with female top managers % firms 19.10 Share of workers in informal sector % workers 50.20 Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary 24.45 75.55 0.32 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities 82.48 17.52 4.71 Advancement of women to leadership roles 5.09 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law 49.80 50.20 0.99 Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 7.82 13.54 10.59 Education 74.51 25.49 2.92 Workers employed part-time % of employed people 18.13 13.63 16.04 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction n. a. n. a. n. a. Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare n. a. n. a. n. a. and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies n. a. n. a. n. a. Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 0.77 0.70 1.46 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information 58.40 41.60 1.40 Access to financial services Near-equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Near-equal rights Vocational training 10.00 10.78 0.93 Access to land assets Near-equal rights Access to non-land assets Equal rights PhD graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1918 Graduates from tertiary education 58.18 37.07 46.84 Number of female heads of state to date number 0 Seats held in upper house % total seats n. a. Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women 8.20 Election list quotas for women, national Yes Party membership quotas, voluntary Yes Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 99.80 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 26.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 1.57 Access to justice Near-equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Equal rights Reproductive autonomy Equal rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 92

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Australia 0.778 26th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Australia score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.778 26th 0.738 43rd 0.740 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.740 38th 0.741 38th E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.412 0.991 l t i o o P n 0.991 78th 0.985 87th Health and Survival 0.968 89th 0.968 90th 0.968 Health Political Empowerment 0.412 29th 0.258 50th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 38th 0.740 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 30th 0.867 -9.41 61.23 70.64 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) 53rd 0.664 - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 71st 0.643 -21.69 39.01 60.69 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 39th 0.658 -20.60 39.70 60.30 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 1st 1.000 16.57 41.71 58.29 Educational Attainment 78th 0.991 - - - - Literacy rate % 1st 1.000 - - 0-100 Enrolment in primary education % 70th 0.999 -0.12 98.48 98.60 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 112th 0.962 -5.16 131.81 136.97 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 1st 1.000 37.25 95.91 133.16 Health and Survival 89th 0.968 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 98th 1.023 - - Political Empowerment 29th 0.412 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 31st 0.623 -23.20 38.40 61.60 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 19th 0.769 -13.04 43.48 56.52 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 46th 0.064 -43.98 3.01 46.99 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 93

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Australia 0.778 26th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 1,552.67 2.34 GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 49.77 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 n. a. Population sex ratio female/male 1.01 Early marriage % 0.60 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 0.13 n. a. Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 13.18 13.00 26.18 Right to divorce Equal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 0 14.00 126.00 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) 15.31 Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) 34.80 Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms n. a. STEM Graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Firms with female top managers % firms n. a. Share of workers in informal sector % workers 26.10 Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary n. a. n. a. n. a. 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities 63.30 36.70 1.72 Advancement of women to leadership roles 5.20 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law 52.77 47.23 1.12 Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 3.70 3.87 3.79 Education 79.45 20.55 3.87 Workers employed part-time % of employed people 58.59 35.80 46.57 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction 23.23 76.77 0.30 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare n. a. n. a. n. a. and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies n. a. n. a. n. a. Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 5.60 6.26 11.86 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics 51.28 48.72 1.05 Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information 66.94 33.06 2.02 Access to financial services Equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Equal rights Vocational training 13.99 17.12 0.82 Access to land assets Equal rights Access to non-land assets Equal rights PhD graduates 1.38 1.78 1.58 Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year n. a. Graduates from tertiary education 79.19 55.44 67.13 Number of female heads of state to date number 1 Seats held in upper house % total seats 56.60 Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women 16.90 Election list quotas for women, national Yes Party membership quotas, voluntary Yes Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 98.80 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 6.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 1.58 Access to justice Equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Equal rights Reproductive autonomy Equal rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 94

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Austria 0.740 47th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Austria score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.740 47th 0.781 21st 0.692 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.692 74th 0.673 81st E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.303 0.996 l t i o o P n 0.996 55th 0.994 61st Health and Survival 0.970 77th 0.970 82nd 0.970 Health Political Empowerment 0.303 48th 0.487 16th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 74th 0.692 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 44th 0.844 -10.34 56.09 66.43 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) 79th 0.616 - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 92nd 0.605 -26.77 40.94 67.71 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 67th 0.549 -29.10 35.45 64.55 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 73rd 0.971 -1.49 49.26 50.74 Educational Attainment 55th 0.996 - - - - Literacy rate % 1st 1.000 - - 0-100 Enrolment in primary education % 1st 1.000 0.14 99.67 99.81 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 100th 0.982 -1.87 99.41 101.28 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 1st 1.000 18.78 78.14 96.92 Health and Survival 77th 0.970 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 90th 1.028 - - Political Empowerment 48th 0.303 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 25th 0.678 -19.20 40.40 59.60 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 56th 0.333 -50.00 25.00 75.00 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 62nd 0.024 -47.69 1.16 48.84 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 95

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Austria 0.740 47th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 480.37 2.51 GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 54.12 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 n. a. Population sex ratio female/male 1.03 Early marriage % 2.80 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 0.44 29.70 Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 4.54 4.40 8.94 Right to divorce Equal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 112.00 30.00 365.00 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) 12.38 Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) 34.60 Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms 16.20 STEM Graduates 25.90 74.10 0.35 Firms with female top managers % firms 18.80 Share of workers in informal sector % workers 6.00 Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary 46.92 53.08 0.88 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities n. a. n. a. n. a. Advancement of women to leadership roles 5.07 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law 57.02 42.98 1.33 Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 4.85 5.26 5.06 Education 82.18 17.82 4.61 Workers employed part-time % of employed people 64.13 34.49 48.37 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction 21.54 78.46 0.27 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare 69.31 30.69 2.26 and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies n. a. n. a. n. a. Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 1.95 2.20 4.15 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to financial services Equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Equal rights Vocational training 26.31 29.44 0.89 Access to land assets Equal rights Access to non-land assets Equal rights PhD graduates 0.81 1.25 1.02 Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1918 Graduates from tertiary education 46.12 30.31 37.93 Number of female heads of state to date number 3 Seats held in upper house % total seats 41.00 Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women 13.00 Election list quotas for women, national Yes Party membership quotas, voluntary Yes Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 98.10 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 5.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 1.44 Access to justice Equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Equal rights Reproductive autonomy Equal rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 96

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Azerbaijan 0.692 97th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Azerbaijan score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.692 97th 0.687 101st 0.766 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.766 27th 0.744 36th E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.071 0.996 l t i o o P n 0.996 54th 0.995 55th Health and Survival 0.936 146th 0.941 144th 0.936 Health Political Empowerment 0.071 134th 0.069 135th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 27th 0.766 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 8th 0.916 -5.90 64.20 70.10 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) - - - - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 75th 0.637 -6.42 11.27 17.68 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 61st 0.567 -27.64 36.18 63.82 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 1st 1.000 15.93 42.04 57.96 Educational Attainment 54th 0.996 - - - - Literacy rate % 60th 0.999 - - 0-100 Enrolment in primary education % 1st 1.000 0.47 88.55 89.02 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 98th 0.983 -1.56 92.85 94.40 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 1st 1.000 6.83 35.02 41.86 Health and Survival 146th 0.936 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 146th 0.885 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 53rd 1.051 - - Political Empowerment 134th 0.071 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 106th 0.229 -62.80 18.60 81.40 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 140th 0.000 -100.00 0 100.00 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 80th 0.000 -50.00 0 50.00 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 97

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Azerbaijan 0.692 97th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 54.62 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 14.43 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 n. a. Population sex ratio female/male 1.03 Early marriage % 9.00 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 0.44 24.00 Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 5.25 5.11 10.36 Right to divorce Near-equal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 126.00 0 1.04 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms 10.50 STEM Graduates 35.10 64.90 0.54 Firms with female top managers % firms 16.50 Share of workers in informal sector % workers n. a. Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary n. a. n. a. n. a. 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities n. a. n. a. n. a. Advancement of women to leadership roles 4.97 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law 39.55 60.45 0.65 Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 7.08 4.97 6.00 Education n. a. n. a. n. a. Workers employed part-time % of employed people 24.15 14.96 19.40 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction n. a. n. a. n. a. Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare n. a. n. a. n. a. and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies n. a. n. a. n. a. Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 2.30 2.38 4.68 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics 65.34 34.66 1.88 Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information 57.08 42.92 1.33 Access to financial services Near-equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Equal rights Vocational training 14.15 13.54 1.05 Access to land assets Equal rights Access to non-land assets Equal rights PhD graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1918 Graduates from tertiary education 24.16 22.28 23.18 Number of female heads of state to date number 0 Seats held in upper house % total seats n. a. Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women 13.50 Election list quotas for women, national n. a. Party membership quotas, voluntary n. a. Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 99.90 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 26.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 1.70 Access to justice Near-equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Equal rights Reproductive autonomy Equal rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 98

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Bahrain 0.666 113th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Bahrain score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.666 113th 0.632 131st 0.564 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.564 122nd 0.507 131st E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.146 0.995 l t i o o P n 0.995 57th 0.995 54th Health and Survival 0.959 136th 0.959 134th 0.959 Health Political Empowerment 0.146 99th 0.066 137th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 122nd 0.564 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 128th 0.501 -43.40 43.54 86.94 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) 23rd 0.728 - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 82nd 0.628 -21.39 36.13 57.53 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 116th 0.275 -56.88 21.56 78.44 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 120th 0.483 -34.84 32.58 67.42 Educational Attainment 57th 0.995 - - - - Literacy rate % 1st 1.000 - - 0-100 Enrolment in primary education % 86th 0.990 -0.97 97.17 98.13 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 1st 1.000 8.30 93.23 101.52 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 1st 1.000 34.24 48.94 83.18 Health and Survival 136th 0.959 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 142nd 0.993 - - Political Empowerment 99th 0.146 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 96th 0.250 -60.00 20.00 80.00 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 66th 0.278 -56.52 21.74 78.26 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 80th 0.000 -50.00 0 50.00 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 99

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Bahrain 0.666 113th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 38.87 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 49.39 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 n. a. Population sex ratio female/male 0.61 Early marriage % 5.50 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years -0.97 n. a. Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 0.56 0.91 1.47 Right to divorce Unequal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 60.00 1.00 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms n. a. STEM Graduates 41.21 58.79 0.70 Firms with female top managers % firms n. a. Share of workers in informal sector % workers n. a. Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary n. a. n. a. n. a. 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities n. a. n. a. n. a. Advancement of women to leadership roles 5.51 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law 62.17 37.83 1.64 Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) n. a. n. a. n. a. Education 82.44 17.56 4.69 Workers employed part-time % of employed people n. a. n. a. n. a. Engineering, Manuf. & Construction 30.57 69.43 0.44 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare 73.18 26.82 2.73 and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies 47.14 52.86 0.89 Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 0.15 0.55 0.70 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to financial services Near-equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Unequal rights Vocational training 0.88 5.59 0.16 Access to land assets Near-equal rights Access to non-land assets Near-equal rights PhD graduates 0.22 0.29 0.26 Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1951, 1973, 2002 Graduates from tertiary education 49.88 20.50 32.28 Number of female heads of state to date number 0 Seats held in upper house % total seats 25.00 Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women n. a. Election list quotas for women, national n. a. Party membership quotas, voluntary n. a. Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 99.60 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 14.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 1.83 Access to justice Restricted rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Restricted rights Reproductive autonomy Equal rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 100

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Ban!ladesh 0.722 59th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Bangladesh score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.722 59th 0.714 71st 0.438 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.438 139th 0.427 141st E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.552 0.936 l t i o o P n 0.936 122nd 0.923 123rd Health and Survival 0.962 126th 0.962 129th 0.962 Health Political Empowerment 0.552 7th 0.546 9th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 139th 0.438 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 132nd 0.451 -44.32 36.35 80.67 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) 102nd 0.588 - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 129th 0.438 -4.64 3.61 8.25 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 136th 0.120 -78.52 10.74 89.26 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 125th 0.421 -40.70 29.65 70.35 Educational Attainment 122nd 0.936 - - - - Literacy rate % 109th 0.925 - - - Enrolment in primary education % - - - - - 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 1st 1.000 21.09 65.19 86.27 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 116th 0.833 -4.56 22.78 27.34 Health and Survival 126th 0.962 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 136th 1.002 - - Political Empowerment 7th 0.552 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 91st 0.264 -58.20 20.90 79.10 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 123rd 0.111 -80.00 10.00 90.00 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 1st 1.000 8.61 20.69 29.31 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 101

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Bangladesh 0.722 59th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 416.26 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 5.91 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 13.69 Population sex ratio female/male 1.02 Early marriage % 45.20 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 1.15 n. a. Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 86.33 84.86 171.19 Right to divorce Unequal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 112.00 0 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms 2.50 STEM Graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Firms with female top managers % firms 4.80 Share of workers in informal sector % workers 94.70 Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary 21.19 78.81 0.27 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities 33.15 66.85 0.50 Advancement of women to leadership roles 4.12 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law 26.16 73.84 0.35 Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 6.78 3.49 4.55 Education 22.03 77.97 0.28 Workers employed part-time % of employed people 40.69 10.06 19.45 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction 46.05 53.95 0.85 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare 25.26 74.74 0.34 and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies 27.25 72.75 0.37 Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 16.32 36.18 52.50 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics 14.92 85.08 0.18 Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information 27.78 72.22 0.38 Access to financial services Near-equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Unequal rights Vocational training 1.82 4.73 0.39 Access to land assets Uneven rights Access to non-land assets Uneven rights PhD graduates 0.17 0.32 0.25 Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1937, 1972 Graduates from tertiary education n. a. n. a. n. a. Number of female heads of state to date number 2 Seats held in upper house % total seats n. a. Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women 53.30 Election list quotas for women, national Yes Party membership quotas, voluntary Yes Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 59.00 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 173.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 2.00 Access to justice Restricted rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Equal rights Reproductive autonomy Restricted rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 102

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Barbados 0.769 31st 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Barbados score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.769 31st 0.765 30th 0.860 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.860 4th 0.832 3rd E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.256 0.994 l t i o o P n 0.994 65th 0.993 67th Health and Survival 0.968 92nd 0.968 92nd 0.968 Health Political Empowerment 0.256 58th 0.266 49th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 4th 0.860 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 12th 0.896 -6.84 59.03 65.87 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) 33rd 0.712 - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 5th 0.881 -1.74 12.92 14.66 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 13th 0.971 -1.46 49.27 50.73 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 1st 1.000 15.33 42.33 57.66 Educational Attainment 65th 0.994 - - - - Literacy rate % 1st 1.000 - - 0-100 Enrolment in primary education % 93rd 0.988 -1.15 95.13 96.28 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 1st 1.000 2.67 104.17 106.84 - Enrolment in tertiary education % - - - - - Health and Survival 92nd 0.968 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 102nd 1.022 - - Political Empowerment 58th 0.256 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 74th 0.364 -46.60 26.70 73.30 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 56th 0.333 -50.00 25.00 75.00 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 27th 0.137 -37.97 6.02 43.98 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 103

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Barbados 0.769 31st Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 4.84 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 13.75 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 n. a. Population sex ratio female/male 1.09 Early marriage % 0 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 0.18 n. a. Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 0.15 0.14 0.28 Right to divorce Equal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 84.00 0 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms n. a. STEM Graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Firms with female top managers % firms n. a. Share of workers in informal sector % workers 62.00 Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary n. a. n. a. n. a. 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities n. a. n. a. n. a. Advancement of women to leadership roles 5.10 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law n. a. n. a. n. a. Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 7.48 9.93 8.71 Education n. a. n. a. n. a. Workers employed part-time % of employed people 11.69 9.52 10.60 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction n. a. n. a. n. a. Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare n. a. n. a. n. a. and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies n. a. n. a. n. a. Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 0.06 0.06 0.12 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to financial services Near-equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Equal rights Vocational training n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to land assets Equal rights Access to non-land assets Equal rights PhD graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1950 Graduates from tertiary education n. a. n. a. n. a. Number of female heads of state to date number 3 Seats held in upper house % total seats 42.10 Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women n. a. Election list quotas for women, national n. a. Party membership quotas, voluntary n. a. Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 98.40 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 27.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 1.63 Access to justice Equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Restricted rights Reproductive autonomy Near-equal rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 104

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Belarus 0.752 41st 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Belarus score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.752 41st 0.750 36th 0.819 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.819 7th 0.818 4th E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.217 0.991 l t i o o P n 0.991 75th 0.990 77th Health and Survival 0.980 1st 0.977 44th 0.980 Health Political Empowerment 0.217 69th 0.216 69th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 7th 0.819 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 24th 0.878 -9.14 65.77 74.91 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) - - - - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 87th 0.618 -9.52 15.37 24.89 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 15th 0.893 -5.65 47.18 52.82 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 1st 1.000 40.31 29.85 70.15 Educational Attainment 75th 0.991 - - - - Literacy rate % 1st 1.000 - - 0-100 Enrolment in primary education % 92nd 0.988 -1.09 93.04 94.13 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 96th 0.985 -1.59 103.83 105.42 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 1st 1.000 11.32 76.74 88.06 Health and Survival 1st 0.980 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 1st 1.060 - - Political Empowerment 69th 0.217 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 26th 0.667 -20.00 40.00 60.00 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 138th 0.043 -91.67 4.17 95.83 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 80th 0.000 -50.00 0 50.00 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 105

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Belarus 0.752 41st Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 68.21 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 19.75 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 17.50 Population sex ratio female/male 1.17 Early marriage % 8.40 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years -0.42 26.80 Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 5.14 4.39 9.54 Right to divorce Equal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 126.00 0 1.10 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms 19.20 STEM Graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Firms with female top managers % firms 21.10 Share of workers in informal sector % workers n. a. Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary 55.28 44.72 1.24 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities 76.06 23.94 3.18 Advancement of women to leadership roles n. a. Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law 71.05 28.95 2.45 Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 3.06 4.70 3.88 Education 75.84 24.16 3.14 Workers employed part-time % of employed people 23.77 7.96 15.83 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction 23.21 76.79 0.30 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare n. a. n. a. n. a. and care work % 19.17 9.51 n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies 23.04 76.96 0.30 Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 2.34 2.32 4.66 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information 78.94 21.06 3.75 Access to financial services Equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Equal rights Vocational training 16.50 20.05 0.82 Access to land assets Equal rights Access to non-land assets Equal rights PhD graduates 0.26 0.35 0.30 Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1991 Graduates from tertiary education 76.91 58.09 67.23 Number of female heads of state to date number 0 Seats held in upper house % total seats 25.00 Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women 25.00 Election list quotas for women, national n. a. Party membership quotas, voluntary n. a. Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 99.90 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 2.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 1.38 Access to justice Near-equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Equal rights Reproductive autonomy Equal rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 106

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Belgium 0.796 10th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Belgium score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.796 10th 0.793 14th 0.728 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.728 44th 0.723 52nd E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.486 1.000 l t i o o P n 1.000 1st 1.000 1st Health and Survival 0.968 91st 0.968 91st 0.968 Health Political Empowerment 0.486 16th 0.480 18th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 44th 0.728 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 42nd 0.847 -9.07 50.04 59.11 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) 48th 0.677 - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 63rd 0.665 -20.87 41.43 62.30 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 68th 0.548 -29.18 35.41 64.59 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 1st 1.000 4.13 47.94 52.07 Educational Attainment 1st 1.000 - - - - Literacy rate % 1st 1.000 - - 0-100 Enrolment in primary education % 1st 1.000 1.21 98.27 99.48 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 1st 1.000 18.57 142.54 161.11 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 1st 1.000 23.90 69.26 93.16 Health and Survival 91st 0.968 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 101st 1.022 - - Political Empowerment 16th 0.486 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 18th 0.745 -14.60 42.70 57.30 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 1st 1.000 14.29 42.86 57.14 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 65th 0.019 -48.14 0.93 49.07 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 107

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Belgium 0.796 10th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 594.1 2.77 GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 51.74 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 n. a. Population sex ratio female/male 1.02 Early marriage % 2.20 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 0.47 29.20 Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 5.90 5.76 11.66 Right to divorce Equal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 105.00 21.00 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) 3.80 Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) 37.90 Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms 11.80 STEM Graduates 25.83 74.17 0.35 Firms with female top managers % firms 17.90 Share of workers in informal sector % workers 3.30 Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary 62.13 37.87 1.64 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities 62.55 37.45 1.67 Advancement of women to leadership roles 5.00 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law 54.12 45.88 1.18 Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 5.30 5.90 5.60 Education 77.49 22.51 3.44 Workers employed part-time % of employed people 56.20 30.98 42.82 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction 23.40 76.60 0.31 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare 75.63 24.37 3.10 and care work % 15.90 10.07 n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies 9.88 90.12 0.11 Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 2.29 2.58 4.87 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information 70.34 29.66 2.37 Access to financial services Equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Equal rights Vocational training 22.02 26.44 0.83 Access to land assets Equal rights Access to non-land assets Equal rights PhD graduates 0.43 0.79 0.60 Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1919, 1948 Graduates from tertiary education 69.00 43.33 55.81 Number of female heads of state to date number 1 Seats held in upper house % total seats 45.00 Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women 24.00 Election list quotas for women, national Yes Party membership quotas, voluntary Yes Births attended by skilled personnel % live births n. a. Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 5.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 1.55 Access to justice Equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Equal rights Reproductive autonomy Equal rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 108

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Belize 0.696 89th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Belize score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.696 89th 0.695 95th 0.720 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.720 49th 0.727 48th E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.090 0.996 l t i o o P n 0.996 52nd 0.997 45th Health and Survival 0.980 1st 0.980 1st 0.980 Health Political Empowerment 0.090 126th 0.075 133rd Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 49th 0.720 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 114th 0.642 -27.05 48.56 75.61 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) - - - - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 54th 0.682 -3.31 7.10 10.41 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 41st 0.650 -21.19 39.42 60.61 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 1st 1.000 1.60 49.20 50.80 Educational Attainment 52nd 0.996 - - - - Literacy rate % - - - - - 0-100 Enrolment in primary education % 82nd 0.994 -0.58 91.35 91.93 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 1st 1.000 2.55 86.97 89.52 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 1st 1.000 11.64 17.42 29.06 Health and Survival 1st 0.980 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 1st 1.060 - - Political Empowerment 126th 0.090 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 116th 0.185 -68.80 15.60 84.40 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 113th 0.133 -76.47 11.77 88.24 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 80th 0.000 -50.00 0 50.00 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 109

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Belize 0.696 89th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 2.49 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 8.76 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 22.25 Population sex ratio female/male 0.99 Early marriage % 17.50 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 1.29 n. a. Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 0.20 0.20 0.41 Right to divorce Equal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 98.00 0 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms n. a. STEM Graduates 41.83 58.17 0.72 Firms with female top managers % firms n. a. Share of workers in informal sector % workers n. a. Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary 35.29 64.71 0.55 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities 71.43 28.57 2.50 Advancement of women to leadership roles n. a. Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law 68.63 31.37 2.19 Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 15.44 7.03 10.43 Education 83.27 16.73 4.98 Workers employed part-time % of employed people 44.38 34.75 38.39 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction 9.09 90.91 0.10 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare 69.86 30.14 2.32 and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies 19.44 80.56 0.24 Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 0.06 0.09 0.14 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics 52.83 47.17 1.12 Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information 69.81 30.19 2.31 Access to financial services Equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Equal rights Vocational training 3.27 3.71 0.88 Access to land assets Equal rights Access to non-land assets Equal rights PhD graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1954, 1981 Graduates from tertiary education 9.56 3.98 6.77 Number of female heads of state to date number 0 Seats held in upper house % total seats 42.90 Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women n. a. Election list quotas for women, national n. a. Party membership quotas, voluntary n. a. Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 94.60 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 36.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 2.00 Access to justice Equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Restricted rights Reproductive autonomy Restricted rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 110

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Benin 0.616 138th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Benin score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.616 138th 0.612 138th 0.530 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.530 129th 0.596 114th E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.159 0.802 l t i o o P n 0.802 139th 0.790 138th Health and Survival 0.973 61st 0.973 65th 0.973 Health Political Empowerment 0.159 92nd 0.090 126th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 129th 0.530 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 63rd 0.812 -13.11 56.62 69.73 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) 61st 0.651 - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 115th 0.516 -2.12 2.26 4.38 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 129th 0.159 -72.51 13.75 86.25 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 138th 0.235 -61.97 19.02 80.98 Educational Attainment 139th 0.802 - - - - Literacy rate % 140th 0.615 - - 0-100 Enrolment in primary education % 104th 0.940 -5.72 90.38 96.09 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 134th 0.832 -8.80 43.45 52.25 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 131st 0.514 -7.09 7.51 14.60 Health and Survival 61st 0.973 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 71st 1.039 - - Political Empowerment 92nd 0.159 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 79th 0.346 -48.60 25.70 74.30 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 86th 0.211 -65.22 17.39 82.61 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 80th 0.000 -50.00 0 50.00 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 111

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Benin 0.616 138th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 17.14 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 3.32 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 32.30 Population sex ratio female/male 1.00 Early marriage % 16.60 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 2.76 n. a. Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 6.66 6.69 13.35 Right to divorce Near-equal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 98.00 3.00 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms 21.30 STEM Graduates 54.88 45.12 1.22 Firms with female top managers % firms 25.90 Share of workers in informal sector % workers 96.90 Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary 60.51 39.49 1.53 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities 56.09 43.91 1.28 Advancement of women to leadership roles 4.79 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law 61.35 38.65 1.59 Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 1.79 1.28 1.52 Education n. a. n. a. n. a. Workers employed part-time % of employed people n. a. n. a. n. a. Engineering, Manuf. & Construction 54.64 45.36 1.20 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare 63.67 36.33 1.75 and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies 55.07 44.93 1.23 Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 1.47 1.67 3.15 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information 61.49 38.51 1.60 Access to financial services Near-equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Uneven rights Vocational training 0.99 2.07 0.48 Access to land assets Near-equal rights Access to non-land assets Near-equal rights PhD graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1960 Graduates from tertiary education n. a. n. a. n. a. Number of female heads of state to date number 0 Seats held in upper house % total seats n. a. Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women 68.60 Election list quotas for women, national Yes Party membership quotas, voluntary Yes Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 78.10 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 397.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 5.05 Access to justice Near-equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Restricted rights Reproductive autonomy Uneven rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 112

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Bhutan 0.682 103rd 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Bhutan score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.682 103rd 0.637 126th 0.708 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.708 59th 0.537 126th E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.093 0.963 l t i o o P n 0.963 109th 0.955 111th Health and Survival 0.962 122nd 0.962 125th 0.962 Health Political Empowerment 0.093 125th 0.093 125th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 59th 0.708 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 15th 0.893 -7.80 65.30 73.10 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) - - - - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 48th 0.690 -3.96 8.81 12.77 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 38th 0.659 -20.58 39.72 60.29 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 119th 0.498 -33.51 33.25 66.75 Educational Attainment 109th 0.963 - - - - Literacy rate % 125th 0.807 - - 0-100 Enrolment in primary education % 1st 1.000 2.85 94.94 97.80 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 1st 1.000 11.00 84.71 95.71 0-200 Enrolment in tertiary education % 1st 1.000 0.66 22.96 23.62 Health and Survival 122nd 0.962 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 132nd 1.004 - - Political Empowerment 125th 0.093 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 110th 0.211 -65.20 17.40 82.60 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 123rd 0.111 -80.00 10.00 90.00 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 80th 0.000 -50.00 0 50.00 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 113

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Bhutan 0.682 103rd Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 2.54 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 10.91 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 n. a. Population sex ratio female/male 0.89 Early marriage % 16.30 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 0.64 n. a. Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 0.37 0.41 0.78 Right to divorce Restricted rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 60.00 14.00 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms 32.80 STEM Graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Firms with female top managers % firms 26.30 Share of workers in informal sector % workers n. a. Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary 15.48 84.52 0.18 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities 56.86 43.14 1.32 Advancement of women to leadership roles 5.54 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law n. a. n. a. n. a. Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 6.43 3.94 5.17 Education n. a. n. a. n. a. Workers employed part-time % of employed people 9.91 4.14 6.90 Engineering, Manuf. & Construction 24.91 75.09 0.33 Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare 52.63 47.37 1.11 and care work % 15.00 5.90 n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies n. a. n. a. n. a. Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 0.15 0.16 0.31 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to financial services Equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Equal rights Vocational training n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to land assets Near-equal rights Access to non-land assets Equal rights PhD graduates 0.11 0.27 0.20 Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1953, 2008 Graduates from tertiary education n. a. n. a. n. a. Number of female heads of state to date number 0 Seats held in upper house % total seats 16.00 Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women 26.50 Election list quotas for women, national n. a. Party membership quotas, voluntary n. a. Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 96.30 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 183.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 1.43 Access to justice Equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Equal rights Reproductive autonomy Uneven rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 114

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Bolivia 0.730 56th 2023 Global Gender Gap Index 2023 Edition Overview 2023 2022 Bolivia score Index and Subindex Score Rank Score Rank average score Economy Global Gender Gap Index 0.730 56th 0.734 51st 0.658 Economic Participation and Opportunity 0.658 90th 0.642 97th E d s u c c i Educational Attainment t a i 0.317 0.984 l t i o o P n 0.984 92nd 0.980 91st Health and Survival 0.962 125th 0.962 128th 0.962 Health Political Empowerment 0.317 42nd 0.352 36th Global Gender Gap Index Indicators 2023 Compare with Difference Min Global average Indicator Rank Score* F-M Female vs Male Max 0 1 Min Max Economic Participation and Opportunity 90th 0.658 - - - 0-100 Labour-force participation rate % 50th 0.840 -13.53 71.21 84.74 - Wage equality for similar work 1-7 (best) 114th 0.539 - - 0-150 Estimated earned income int'l $ 1,000 80th 0.628 -3.67 6.21 9.88 0-100 Legislators, senior officials and managers % 72nd 0.542 -29.68 35.16 64.84 0-100 Professional and technical workers % 89th 0.853 -7.91 46.04 53.96 Educational Attainment 92nd 0.984 - - - - Literacy rate % 106th 0.929 - - 0-100 Enrolment in primary education % 1st 1.000 0.46 95.59 96.05 0-200 Enrolment in secondary education % 82nd 0.996 -0.33 91.84 92.17 - Enrolment in tertiary education % - - - - - Health and Survival 125th 0.962 - - - - Sex ratio at birth** % 1st 0.944 - - - Healthy life expectancy** years 135th 1.002 - - Political Empowerment 42nd 0.317 - - - 0-100 Women in parliament % 10th 0.859 -7.60 46.20 53.80 0-100 Women in ministerial positions % 109th 0.143 -75.00 12.50 87.50 0-50 Years with female/male head of state (last 50) 59th 0.034 -46.68 1.66 48.34 Global Gender Gap Report 2023 115

Economy Profile Score Rank Page 2 of 2 Bolivia 0.730 56th Complementary Targets and Contextual Indicators 2023 General indicators Family and care Unit Unit Indicator Value Indicator Value GDPUS$ billions Public spending on family benefits % GPD 40.41 n. a. GDP per capita constant '17, intl. $ 1000 8.05 Unmet family planning % women 15-49 23.20 Population sex ratio female/male 0.99 Early marriage % 12.00 Population growth rate % Mean age of women at birth of first child years 1.19 n. a. Indicator Million people Female Male Value Indicator 0-1 (Equal rights) Value Total population 6.10 6.13 12.22 Right to divorce Equal rights Work participation and leadership Days Indicator Female Male Value Unit Indicator Value Length of parental leave 90.00 3.00 0 Gender pay gap % (OECD countries only) n. a. Education and skills Share of women's membership in boards % (OECD countries only) n. a. Attainment % Graduates Female Male Parity Firms with female majority ownership % firms 41.60 STEM Graduates n. a. n. a. n. a. Firms with female top managers % firms 26.30 Share of workers in informal sector % workers 81.50 Agri., Forestry, Fisheries & Veterinary n. a. n. a. n. a. 1-7 (best) Indicator Value Arts & Humanities n. a. n. a. n. a. Advancement of women to leadership roles 3.63 Indicator Unit Female Male Value Business, Admin. & Law n. a. n. a. n. a. Unemployed adults % of labour force (15-64) 6.12 4.86 5.45 Education n. a. n. a. n. a. Workers employed part-time % of employed people n. a. n. a. n. a. Engineering, Manuf. & Construction n. a. n. a. n. a. Proportion of time spent on unpaid domestic Health & Welfare n. a. n. a. n. a. and care work % n. a. n. a. n. a. Information & Comm. Technologies n. a. n. a. n. a. Million people Indicator Female Male Value Labour-force 2.43 2.73 5.16 Natural Sci., Mathematics & Statistics n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to finance 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Social Sci., Journalism & Information n. a. n. a. n. a. Access to financial services Equal rights Inheritance rights for widows and daughters Near-equal rights Vocational training 28.21 29.04 0.97 Access to land assets Near-equal rights Access to non-land assets Near-equal rights PhD graduates 0.07 0.17 0.12 Civil and political freedom Unit Indicator Value Graduates % Female Male Value Year women received right to vote year 1938, 1952 Graduates from tertiary education n. a. n. a. n. a. Number of female heads of state to date number 2 Seats held in upper house % total seats 55.60 Health Unit Indicator Value Indicator Yes/No Value Prevalence of gender violence in lifetime % women 64.10 Election list quotas for women, national Yes Party membership quotas, voluntary Yes Births attended by skilled personnel % live births 81.10 Maternal mortality deaths per 100,000 live births 155.00 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Total fertility rate births per woman 2.65 Access to justice Near-equal rights 0-1 (Equal rights) Indicator Value Freedom of movement Equal rights Reproductive autonomy Near-equal rights *Scores are on a 0 to 1 scale, where 1 represents the optimal situation or “parity”. Please see Appendix A and B for detailed methodology, definitions, sources and periods. **For all indicators, except the two health indicators, parity is benchmarked at 1. In the case of sex ratio at birth, the gender parity benchmark is set at 0.944 (see Klasen and Wink, 2003). In the case of healthy life expectancy the gender parity benchmark is set at 1.06, given women's longer life expectancy. Global Gender Gap Report 2023 116

Economy Profile Score Rank Index Edition (imparity = 0, parity = 1) (out of 146 countries) Bosnia and Her2egovina 0.698 86th 2023 Globa