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Endnotes 1. Bogmans, Christian, Andrea Pescatori and Ervina Prifti, “Four Facts about Soaring Consumer Food Prices”, IMF Blog, 24 June 2021, https://www.imf.org/en/Blogs/Articles/2021/06/24/four-facts-about- soaring-consumer-food-prices; Hoffer, Brice, “On the rise: Growth of the global rental housing sector”, UBS, 2021, https://www.ubs.com/content/dam/assets/asset-management-reimagined/global/insights/ asset-class-perspectives/real-estate/docs/white-paper-on-the-rise.pdf. 2. Georgieva, Kristalina, Gita Gopinath and Ceyla Pazarbasioglu, “Why We Must Resist Geoeconomic Fragmentation – and How”, IMF Blog, 22 May 2022, https://www.imf.org/en/Blogs/Articles/2022/05/22/ blog-why-we-must-resist-geoeconomic-fragmentation. 3. Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Global Supply Chain Pressure Index, https://www.newyorkfed.org/ research/policy/gscpi#/interactive, accessed 27 October 2022. 4. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), FAOSTAT: Consumer Price Indices, https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/CP, accessed 27 October 2022. 5. Guénette, Justin-Damien and Jeetendra Khadan, 2022, “The energy shock could sap global growth for years”, World Bank blogs, 22 June 2022. 6. Anstey, Chris, “What's Happening in the World Economy: Unforgiving Mortgage Rates”, Bloomberg. com, 6 October 2022, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/newsletters/2022-10-06/what-s-happening- in-the-world-economy-unforgiving-mortgage-rates; Dickler, Jessica, “Another Interest Rate Hike from the Federal Reserve Is on the Way: Here's How It May Affect You”, CNBC, 31 October 2022, https://www. cnbc.com/2022/10/31/another-fed-rate-hike-is-onthe-way-heres-how-it-could-impact-you.html. 7. Zhou, Xiaoqing and Jim Dolmas, “Rent in昀氀ation expected to accelerate then moderate in mid-2023”, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, 16 August 2022. 8. Pearce, Graham, Kate Bravery, Adrienne Cernigoi, and Sumer Drall, “Risk and retirement: where are the future 昀椀nancial hotspots?”, Marsh McLennan, September 2022, https://www.marshmclennan.com/ insights/publications/2022/september/risk-and-retirement-where-are-the-future-昀椀nancial-hotspots.html. 9. Credit Suisse Research Institute, Global Wealth Report 2022: Leading perspectives to navigate the future, 2022, https://www.credit-suisse.com/about-us/en/reports-research/global-wealth-report. html#:~:text=Global%20Wealth%20Report%202022&text=Total%20global%20wealth%20grew%20 by,fastest%20annual%20rate%20ever%20recorded, accessed 14 November 2022; Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Total Household Debt Surpasses $16 trillion in Q2 2022; Mortgage, Auto Loan and Credit Card Balances Increase, 2 August 2022. 10. Gebreab, Efrem, Thomas Naadi, Ranga Sirilal and Becky Dale, “Fuel protests gripping more than 90 countries”, BBC, 17 October 2022, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-63185186. 11. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), War in Ukraine intensi昀椀es food security risks in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean, 8 September 2022, https://www.fao.org/support-to- investment/news/detail/en/c/1603647/. 12. Haq, Mifrah, “Pakistan Faces Hunger Crisis as Floods Wash Away Crops, Livestock”, Nikkei Asia, 13 September 2022, https://asia.nikkei.com/Economy/Natural-disasters/Pakistan-faces-hunger-crisis-as- 昀氀oods-wash-away-crops-livestock. 13. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), Crop prospects and food situation, September 2022, 14 November 2022, https://www.fao.org/3/cc2300en/cc2300en.pdf. 14. Hance, Jeremy, “Trouble in the tropics: The terrestrial insects of Brazil are in decline”, Mongabay, 5 October 2022; Jepsen, Sarina, “California Supreme Court let decision stand that bees can be protected by the California Endangered Species Act”, Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, 22 September 2022. 15. Trading Economics, In昀氀ation Rate, https://tradingeconomics.com/country-list/in昀氀ation- rate?continent=world, accessed 14 November 2022; Amaro, Silvia, “Euro zone in昀氀ation hits record high of 10.7% as growth slows sharply”, CNBC, 31 October 2022. 16. IMF, World Economic Outlook Report October 2022: Countering the cost-of-living crisis, October 2022, 2022, https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2022/10/11/world-economic-outlook- october-2022. 17. Bank of International Settlements, Central bank policy rates, https://www.bis.org/statistics/cbpol. htm?m=2679, accessed 27 October 2022. 18. IMF, World Economic Outlook Report October 2022: Countering the cost-of-living crisis, October 2022, 2022, https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2022/10/11/world-economic-outlook- october-2022. 19. Echavarria, Paulina Restrepo and Praew Grittayaphong, “Dollar-denominated public debt in Asia and Latin America”, Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis, 3 August 2021, https://www.stlouisfed.org/on-the- economy/2021/august/dollar-exposure-public-debt-asia-latin-america. 20. Beers, David, et. al, “BoC-BoE Sovereign Default Database: What’s new in 2022”, Bank of Canada, https://www.bankofcanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/san2022-11.pdf, accessed 14 November 2022. Global Risks Report 2023 26

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