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Appendix A Technical Notes: Global Risks Perception Survey 2022-2023 A “global risk” is the possibility of the occurrence To ensure legibility, the names of some of the global of an event or condition which, if it occurs, would risks have been abbreviated in the 昀椀gures. negatively impact a signi昀椀cant proportion of global The portion of the full name used in the abbreviation GDP, population or natural resources. is in bold. Table A.1 presents the list of 32 global risks and de昀椀nitions adopted in the Global Risks Perception Survey 2022-2023. TABLE A.1 De昀椀nitions of global risks Global risks Description Asset bubble bursts Prices for housing, investment funds, shares and other assets become increasingly disconnected from the real economy, leading to a severe drop in demand and prices. Includes, but is not limited to: cryptocurrencies, energy prices, housing prices, and stock markets. Collapse of a systemically important Collapse of a systemically important global industry or supply chain with an impact on the global economy, industry or supply chain financial markets or society leading to an abrupt shock to the supply and demand of systemically important goods and services at a global scale. Includes, but is not limited to: energy, food and fast-moving consumer goods. Debt crises Corporate or public finances struggle to service debt accumulation, resulting in mass bankruptcies or insolvencies, liquidity crises or defaults and sovereign debt crises. Failure to stabilize price trajectories Inability to control the general price level of goods and services, including commodities. Inclusive of an unmanageable increase (inflation) or decrease (deflation) of prices. Proliferation of illicit economic activity Global proliferation of illicit economic activities and potential violence that undermine economic advancement and growth due to organized crime or the illicit activities of businesses. Includes, but is not limited to: illicit financial flows (e.g. tax evasion); and illicit trade and trafficking (e.g. counterfeiting, human trafficking, wildlife trade). Prolonged economic downturn Near-zero or slow global growth lasting for many years leading to periods of stagnation; or a global contraction (recession or depression). Biodiversity loss and ecosystem Severe consequences for the environment, humankind and economic activity due to destruction of natural collapse capital stemming from a result of species extinction or reduction spanning both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Failure of climate-change adaption Failure of governments, businesses and individuals to enforce, enact or invest in effective climate-change measures to adapt to climate change, such as a lack of climate-resilient infrastructure. Failure to mitigate climate change Failure of governments, businesses and individuals to enforce, enact or invest in effective climate-change mitigation measures, such as the decarbonization of economic activity. Large-scale environmental damage Loss of human life, financial loss and/or damage to ecosystems as a result of human activity and/or failure to incidents co-exist with animal ecosystems. Inclusive of deregulation of industrial accidents, oil spills and radioactive contamination. Natural disasters and extreme weather Loss of human life, damage to ecosystems, destruction of property and/or financial loss at a global scale due events to extreme weather events. Inclusive of land-based (e.g. earthquakes, volcanos wildfires), water-based (e.g. floods), atmospheric (e.g. heat-waves), and extra-terrestrial based (e.g. comet strikes and geomagnetic storms). Risk categories Economic Environmental Geopolitical Societal Technological Global Risks Report 2023 74

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