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In parallel, national and global health institutions Acting today and systems need to be strengthened in the face of multiple challenges. Innovation in care delivery, It is essential that we embed hard-earned lessons in staf昀椀ng and funding models are required for health preparedness for the next iteration of health crises. systems to provide disease prevention, early A continued focus on public health policy and detection and complex care cost-effectively for interventions can have outsized impacts at national an increasingly frail and chronically ill population. and regional levels, as a great deal of chronic There is also potential for healthcare to reap the 48 disease burden is, in fact, preventable. Realizing advantages of technological advances and digital public health gains will require governments and transformation that other sectors have embraced, business to promote the conditions that underpin such as augmenting capacity with technology and wellbeing and encourage healthy lifestyles, such combining virtual and in-person care to reduce as good food, clean air, secure housing and social costs. cohesion. Opportunities to strengthen public health exist Public health agencies, healthcare providers and across countries, too, especially in the areas of funders can play a key role by improving interactions pandemic surveillance and preparedness, scienti昀椀c and coordination between different parts of the collaboration, and in mitigating global threat drivers health system to share information, expand capacity such as climate change and AMR. It is essential and improve overall population health. Planning for that health nationalism is avoided in the face the long run will help governments better assess of the geopolitical and security considerations and manage health system risks, as will aligning already underway today. Continued collaboration policies that directly or indirectly affect health (such and information 昀氀ows in the 昀椀eld of healthcare, as agricultural policies that drive antibiotic use and pharmaceuticals and life sciences underpin efforts increase AMR risk). Governments and businesses to ensure that our understanding and capability can will also need to add a health dimension to crisis continue to effectively address emerging health risks. preparedness plans to withstand emerging risks. 2.4 Human security: new weapons, new con昀氀icts GRPS results suggest that economic and information clashes between global powers. Prior to 2022, warfare will continue to pose a more severe threat militarization had fallen in all regions, with recent than hot con昀氀ict over the next decade. Interstate data showing an overall decline in nearly 70% of the con昀氀ict and Use of weapons of mass destruction countries covered by the Global Peace Index 2022 49 were ranked lower in anticipated severity over the past 15 years. Even between 2021 and compared to “Geoeconomic confrontation” and 2022, the holdings of nuclear and heavy weapons, Misinformation and disinformation over the military expenditure, weapons imports and armed 10-year time frame (Figure 2.2). services personnel rates declined (Figure 2.6). Yet the world still became less peaceful, with more violent Past decades were de昀椀ned by the non-deployment demonstrations, external con昀氀ict and intense internal 50 of humanity’s most powerful weapons and no direct con昀氀icts during the same 昀椀fteen-year period. Global Risks Report 2023 38

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