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Endnotes 1. Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), The global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services, 2019, https://ipbes.net/sites/default/ 昀椀les/2020-02/ipbes_global_assessment_report_summary_for_policymakers_en.pdf. 2. Surminski, Swenja, Claudio Saf昀椀oti and Sumer Drall, “Embracing Nature: How Businesses Can Engage with New Environmental Imperatives”, Marsh McLennan, 27 September 2022, https://www.marshmclennan. com/content/dam/mmc-web/insights/publications/2022/september/Marsh%20McLennan%20 Embracing%20Nature_Sep27.pdf. 3. World Wildlife Foundation (WWF), Living Planet Report 2022: Building a nature-positive society, 2022, https://ww昀氀pr.awsassets.panda.org/downloads/lpr_2022_full_report.pdf; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah, Badariah Haji Din, Siow-Hooi Tan and Hasan Zahid, “Impact of climate change on biodiversity loss: global evidence”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 9, 3 August 2021, pp. 1073-1081. 4. World Wildlife Foundation (WWF), Living Planet Report 2022: Building a nature-positive society, 2022, https://ww昀氀pr.awsassets.panda.org/downloads/lpr_2022_full_report.pdf. 5. Pörtner, Hans-Otto (Ed.), et al., Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2022, https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg2/. 6. Ibid. 7. Over one-昀椀fth of the total buffer pool has been depleted in less than a decade. See: Badgley, Grayson, et. al, “California’s forest carbon offsets buffer pool is severely undercapitalized”, Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, 5 August 2022. 8. Gatti, Luciana V,. et al., “Amazonia as a carbon source linked to deforestation and climate change”, Nature, vol. 595, 2021, pp. 388-393; World Meteorological Organization, Greenhouse Gas Bulletin, 2022; Hook, Leslie and Chris Campbell, “Methane hunters: what explains the surge in the potent greenhouse gases?”, Financial Times, 23 August 2022. 9. World Wildlife Foundation (WWF), Living Planet Report 2022: Building a nature-positive society, 2022, https://ww昀氀pr.awsassets.panda.org/downloads/lpr_2022_full_report.pdf. 10. Kenneth Research, Vertical Farming Market Analysis 2022-2033, 31 October 2022. 11. Weidner, Till, “A holistic look at vertical farming’s carbon footprint and land use”, Agritecture, 9 May 2022. https://www.agritecture.com/blog/2022/5/9/a-holistic-look-at-vertical-farmings-carbon-footprint-and-land- use; Weidner, Till, Aidon Yang, Florian Forster and Michael W. Hamm, “Regional conditions shape the food- energy-land nexus of low-carbon indoor farming”, Nature Food, vol. 3, 2022, pp. 206-216, https://www. nature.com/articles/s43016-022-00461-7. 12. Lambin, Eric F. and Patrick Meyfroidt, “Global Land Use Change, Economic Globalization, and the Looming Land Scarcity”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, vol. 9, 2011, pp. 3465–3472, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1100480108. 13. Tilman, David, Michael Clark, David R. Williams, Kaitlin Kimmel, Stephen Polasky and Craig Packer, “Future Threats to Biodiversity and Pathways to Their Prevention”, Nature, vol. 546, no. 7656, 2017, pp. 73–81, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22900. 14. White, Natasha, “Debt-for-Nature swaps gain traction among developing countries”, Bloomberg, 7 November 2022, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2022-11-07/debt-for-nature-swaps-offer- option-for-developing-countries?leadSource=uverify%20wall. 15. Baldwin, Clare, Marc Jones and Simon Jesspo, “Bankers bet billions on new wave of debt-for-nature deals”, Reuters, 17 November 2022, https://www.reuters.com/business/cop/bankers-bet-billions-new- wave-debt-for-nature-deals-2022-11-17/. 16. Karlsruher Institut für Technologie. “Trade-off between biodiversity and food security in land use”, Science Daily, 18 February 2022, https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/02/220218100712.htm. 17. Tzay, José Francisco Calí, “Indigenous Peoples Still Suffer from Poverty, Climate Change and Loss of Ancestral Lands, Delegates Highlight in Third Committee”, United Nations General Assembly Seventy- Seventh Session, 16th Meeting, New York, 12 October 2022, https://press.un.org/en/2022/gashc4350. doc.htm. 18. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Biodiversity for Food and Agriculture, 2019, https://www.fao.org/state-of-biodiversity-for-food-agriculture/en/,. 19. Gasparatos, Alexandros, et al., “Renewable energy and biodiversity: Implications for transitioning to a Green Economy”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 70, 2017, pp 161-184, https://www. sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116304622#s0060. 20. Kang, Dake, Victoria Milko and Lori Hinnant, “'The Sacri昀椀ce Zone': Myanmar bears cost of green energy”, AP News, 9 August 2022, https://apnews.com/article/technology-forests-myanmar-75df22e8d7431a675 7ea4a426fbde94c; UN Environment Programme (UNDEP), Can the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s mineral resources provide a pathway to peace?, 20 September 2022; Global Witness, Myanmar’s poisoned mountains, 9 August 2022, https://www.globalwitness.org/en/campaigns/natural-resource-governance/ myanmars-poisoned-mountains/. Global Risks Report 2023 50

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