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The Metaverse Overview : Vision, Technology, and Tactics | Technology 2. Technology Metaverse Characteristic Tech Cluster Role Tech Category XR Hologram Technology is the core element underpinning realization of the Metaverse, enabling Immersive Experience, High Simulation Simulation Interactive Path to the Metaverse Technology Technology Virtual-Real Interface BCI Sensing the creation of all of the components and experiences of the virtual world. Many Technology clusters of enabling technologies support the Metaverse, each cluster has several Machine Computer Real-time Operation, Artificial Algorithm Support Learning Vision Digital subcategories, and each subcategory can support multiple Metaverse functions. For Multi-dimensional Interaction Intelligence Content Production Smart NLP Twin the convenience of this discussion, we use the sequence of key user scenarios in the Voice Metaverse as the spine of the following summary of technical categories. These key Creation The Most Intuitive Game Engine 3D Engine Efficient Content Production & Interaction Way to Present Real-Time scenarios correspond to the key features of the Metaverse. After identifying the main Platform Virtual-Real interface Rendering Digital Twin supporting technologies, we describe the current stage of each major category. Blockchain The Core Code of Distributed Consensus Data Identity & Rules Technology the Metaverse Storage MechanismTransmission & (including NFTs) Identity and Authen- Distributed Timestamp Authentication tication Mechanisms Ledger Technology Mechanism 2.1 Technology clusters that use cloud computing, high the environment (air, temperature, Basic Support corresponding to Metaverse performance computing, wireless and humidity), physical equipment Network & 5G/6G Edge Computing Ensure Large-scale Users Stay Online Computing Network Environ- Technology features communication (5G and 6G). In (machine malfunctions, energy Technology ment & Data Cloud Computing IoT Technology The sequence of user access to the addition to enabling interactions, AI consumption), biometric identification Processing Metaverse and its corresponding algorithms will underpin most other (plant growth, animal signs). technologies have the following technologies. clusters: Interaction – high simulation • Access, which emphasizes Access – Immersive experiences interaction immersive experiences driven by XR. Convenient access and a realistic This covers interactions between immersive experience are one of people and people or people and the • Interaction, which focuses on high the core features of the Metaverse. physical world, including blooming simulation interactions between The technologies that support this in flowers, a change in the shape of different users or objects, driven consumer scenarios are XR-based, a palm when shaking hands, and mainly by AI and supported by game including access and somatosensory damage to vehicles when they collide. engines. devices, holographic imaging 3D engines, real-time rendering, digital • Digital content, the creation of technology, and brain-computer twins, spatial computing, and other virtual objects or spaces using digital interaction. There are also other more technologies drive these interactions. twins, real-time rendering, and 3D advanced forms of access equipment engines. technology, such as computer vision, There is also language-, text-, and speech recognition, NLP and other image-based interaction and feedback • Rules and identity, which support algorithms behind these. between people in the Metaverse, mutual recognition and interactions which typically requires AI of varying between different users and entities In manufacturing scenarios, digital degrees of sophistication. in the virtual world, typically based twins and sensing technologies that on blockchain. simulate and perceive the physical Content – creating virtual objects • Large-scale, continuous online world are the main supporting and spatial content availability to ensure continuous technologies. The immersive Metaverse content creation operation and real-time feedback of experience of the physical world technologies include game engines the virtual world as if it were the real mainly relies on sensors and digital (providing important technical support world. This requires a large number twin technology to realize perception for digital content), 3D modelling of high-speed computing and and simulation. Sensors include (for building high-speed and high- information transmission capabilities physical and biological perception of quality materials), real-time rendering 24

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