MM
Medianet
Content thumbnail Medianet's 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report

Medianet's 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report

2024 Australian Media Landscape Report Medianet journalist survey

Contents. About the survey 04 Snapshot of the media industry 06 Snapshot of key findings 08 S ECTION 1: Work and employment of journalists 12 Current work and employment 13 Industry movement 20 Pay 21 Evaluation of pay 28 Top Insights | Pay, gender, job roles and topics 30 SECTION 2: Challenges for journalists and threats to the media 34 Personal challenges 35 Threats to public interest journalism 39 What journalists wished we knew 44 Top Insights | Gender and challenges 46 SECTION 3: Generative AI and the media 48 Journalists’ use of generative AI/Large Language Models 49 How generative AI/Large Language Models were used in the newsroom 52 Impact of AI/Large Language Models on journalists’ speed and efficiency 55 Concern about impacts of generative AI/Large Language Models on the media 56 Impact of generative AI/Large Language Models on journalists’ employment 58 Top Insight | AI awareness and usage in the newsroom 61 Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report

SECTION 4: Defamation, story content and motivations 62 Defamation 63 Journalists’ motivations for covering stories 70 Covering stories already reported 72 Honesty in journalism 74 Diversity and inclusion in the workplace 76 Top Insight | Journalist motivations 82 SECTION 5: Journalists’ sources and social media 86 Journalists’ story sources 87 Press releases 89 Social media 91 Changes to the social media landscape in 2023 95 Building professional relationships with PR 97 About Medianet 99 Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report

About the Welcome to the 昀椀ndings report for Survey participants were invited Medianet’s 2023 Australian Media to enter a draw to win a monetary survey Landscape survey. This survey was gift card. Responses were analysed conducted between September and con昀椀dentially with all identifying October 2023 to provide insights information about respondents into the work and preferences of removed to maintain anonymity. Australian journalists and help respond to some of the challenges Of the 844 respondents, 63% they are facing in the industry. of respondents worked in digital journalism, 49% worked in print, 16% Respondents were invited to worked in radio, 12% worked in TV participate via professional email and 11% worked in podcasting. addresses stored in Medianet’s contacts database. A total of 844 The information presented in this journalists participated in the report includes quantitative results, anonymous survey, providing a insights and quotes from respondents. comprehensive result which helps us Quotes were selected for re昀氀ecting understand more about the impacts of common themes shared among the current social and political climate many of the responses, but do not on media content, preferences, necessarily represent the views of decisions and experiences of Medianet. journalists, and trends or changes to the media landscape over the past few years. Media enquiries: Amrita Sidhu +61 481 177 686 [email protected] or [email protected] Acknowledgement of country: We acknowledge the Wurundjeri and Boonwurrung people as the Traditional Owners of the land on which this report was written. We recognise their continuing connection to lands, waters and communities and pay our respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures, and to Elders past, present and emerging. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 04

844 Respondents 63% Digital journalism 49% Print 16% Radio Please note: this survey was intended to provide a snapshot of the experiences of journalists, not a comprehensive study into the state of the media industry. 12% Responses received may not fully TV re昀氀ect an accurate sample of Australian journalists. Percentages were rounded to the nearest whole number. Where these do not add up to 100, this is 11% due to respondents being able to select Podcasting more than one answer to the question or to rounding. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 05

Snapshot of the media industry Under 23 2% 23-29 16% 30-39 29% 40-49 19% 50-59 19% 60-69 11% 70-79 4% 80+

Australian 70% (non-Indigenous) English 16% Scottish 5% Italian 4% New Zealander 3% Scottish 3% German 2% Greek 2% Indian 2% Chinese 2% Lebanese 1% Australian Aboriginal 1% South African 1% American 1% Sri Lankan

Snapshot of key 昀椀ndings 74 % of journalists had % not personally 80 used generative AI/LLMs in their work in 2023. of respondents said ‘Informing the public’ was the top factor driving journalists to cover stories in 2023, followed by raising awareness for issues and entertaining audiences/providing enjoyment. 19 % of journalists are not % aware of how AI is being 21 used in their newsrooms. of journalists said the outcome of high pro昀椀le defamation cases in 2023 had impacted their % journalism work. Journalists working for publicly/government funded media organisations 79 reported the highest rates of being affected by the outcomes of these defamation cases, both of respondents said they were concerned about positively and negatively. the impacts that generative AI/LLMs could have on the overall integrity or quality of journalism. 36 % 12 % of journalists said they have lost or know someone who has lost work in 2023 due to the adoption of AI. Sixty-seven percent of respondents said they of journalists believe that generative AI is believed generative AI/LLMs could potentially a threat to public journalism. replace aspects of their jobs. THE MEDIA LANDSCAPE Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 08

of respondents said there were % workplace policies in place at their media organisations to increase 41 diversity and representation. Of those who said there were policies in place, 78% said they believed their media organisation was effective in upholding them, and 13% said the policies were not effectively upheld. 38 % of male journalists who disclosed their pay received a salary of more than $100,000 in 2023, compared to 27% of % females and 14% of non-binary journalists. There was a 6% increase in journalists earning 66 more than $100,000 per year in 2023 compared to 2022. of journalists felt they were underpaid in 2023. Money was the most common ‘greatest challenge’ experienced by journalists in 2023. TV was the highest paid sector, with half In 2023, 46% of respondents (51%) of all journalists working in TV claimed ‘money’ to be receiving over $100,000 per year. their greatest challenge in comparison to 32% in 2022. EMPLOYMENT AND WORK Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 09

turn your stories Press releases were the second most used story % source, used by 81% of journalists. 89 into headlines Most journalists Facebook remained the (89%) who use 51% 36,000+ 9,000+ most used social media press releases platform by journalists said their PR of releases are pitched Australian & New contact updates per professionally in 2023. contacts email directly to newsrooms Zealand media contacts month on average them directly with by our in-house editor and outlets 47 % press releases. of survey respondents Pia said they were less likely Pia’s PR Company to cover a story that had already been covered by another media organisation. There was a signi昀椀cant drop in professional Twitter/X usage in 2023, with 58% of respondents saying they used the platform, down from 69% in 2022. Informing the public, raising Find media contacts. Send press releases. Track your success. Industry and professional contacts awareness for issues and remained the top story source entertaining audiences/providing Medianet has everything you need to make PR simple, with for journalists (used by 86% of enjoyment were found to be the top respondents in 2023). three factors driving journalists to market-leading tech that’s superbly easy to use. cover stories in 2023. KEY FINDINGS FOR PR medianet.com.au Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 10

turn your stories into headlines 51% 36,000+ 9,000+ of releases are pitched Australian & New contact updates per directly to newsrooms Zealand media contacts month on average by our in-house editor and outlets Pia Pia’s PR Company Find media contacts. Send press releases. Track your success. Medianet has everything you need to make PR simple, with market-leading tech that’s superbly easy to use. medianet.com.au Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 11

01 Work and employment of journalists Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 12

Current Of all survey respondents, 63% The majority of respondents (69%) worked in digital media, 49% in print, were employed full-time in 2023. The work and 16% in radio, 12% in TV and 11% next most common employment types employment in podcasting. As found in previous were freelance (19%) and part-time years, a large proportion of journalists (13%). worked across more than one platform of media (39%). Almost half (45%) worked at independent media organisations, The percentage of survey with 41% at commercial, 11% at respondents working in print media public/government funded media, and rose in 2023, a change to trends in 11% at community media. recent years. Conversely, there was a decrease in respondents working in Sixty-昀椀ve percent of the surveyed radio compared to previous years. journalists worked in the city, 31% worked regionally and 13% worked in More than half of survey respondents the suburbs. (58%) worked in traditional journalist or reporter roles. Politics, entertainment and health were the three most covered topic or subject areas by journalists surveyed Male journalists were more highly in 2023. represented in decision making roles such as chief-of-staff and editor, compared to female or non binary journalists. They were also more highly represented in photojournalist or cameraperson, publisher and presenter or announcer positions. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 13

Digital 63% Print 49% Radio 16% TV 12% Podcasting 11% Other 2% FIGURE 5: Sector of the media industry Digital Print 62% 52% 62% 49% 64% 44% 63% 49% Radio TV 20% 14% 19% 15% 21% 13% 16% 12% Podcast No data 2020 12% 2021 10% 2022 11% 2023 FIGURE 6: Sector of the media industry over time Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 14

Journalist/reporter 58% Editor 32% Producer 14% Presenter/announcer 10% Publisher 9% Blogger 7% Photojournalist/cameraperson 6% Columnist 5% Chief-of-staff 4% Other 6% FIGURE 7: Role in the media Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 15

Blogger Photojournalist/cameraperson 7% 5% 6% 8% 13% 0% Chief-of-sta昀昀 Presenter/announcer 2% 7% 6% 13% 13% 0% Columnist Producer 5% 12% 5% 15% 13% 25% Editor Publisher 29% 8% 36% 12% 38% 0% Journalist/reporter 60% 56% 75% Female Male Non-binary FIGURE 8: Role in the media (gender) Please note: Data from respondents who identified their gender as non-binary may not accurately reflect this demographic due to a small sample size. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 16

5% Full-time 69% 8% 0% Freelance 19% 7% Part-time 13% 13% 0% Contractor 6% Casual 2% 12% 15% 25% Unemployed

Politics 40% Entertainment 39% Health 39% Business 36% Lifestyle 35% Education 33% Music or arts 33% Regional news 31% Courts/crime 28% National news 28% Sports 28% Tech 26% Indigenous affairs 24% FIGURE 11: Journalists’ topic/subject area Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 18

Agriculture 24% Science 24% Food 23% Property 23% Travel 23% Finance 23% Industry news 20% International news/foreign affairs 20% Beauty/fashion 15% Automotive 11% Religion 8% Other 8% FIGURE 11 continued Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 19

Industry Of all survey respondents, 45% said Compared to 2022 there was a their job or role had changed in some similar total amount of change in the movement way in 2023, including changing jobs industry, but less journalists changing in the industry, changing roles at the roles or starting new jobs. same organisation, getting additional work, and starting a ‘side hustle’. Seven percent said they had started looking for a job outside of journalism. No change 48% Got additional work 15% Changed roles at same organisation 14% New job in the industry 9% Started looking for a job outside of journalism 7% Started a ‘side hustle’ 7% Started looking for a new journalism job 7% Other 4% FIGURE 11: Job changes in 2023 No change Changed roles at same organisation 47% 17% 48% 14% New job in the industry Started looking for a job outside of journalism 17% 7% 9% 7% Started looking for a new journalism job 2022 6% 2023 7% FIGURE 12: Job changes in 2022 & 2023 Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 20

Pay The most common pay bracket for media were the lowest paid in journalists in 2023 was between general, and those working for public $80,000 to $99,999 per year, followed or government funded media were by $60,000 to $79,999 per year. The the most highly represented in the percentage of respondents who were pay bracket of $60,000 to $99,999 paid over $100,000 per year increased per year. Journalists working for from 25% to 31% in 2023. These commercial media organisations had results are not adjusted for in昀氀ation, the highest percentage of pay above and do not account for respondents’ $100,000 per year. employment types, for example part- time compared to full-time. TV was the highest paid sector, with half (51%) of all journalists working The 2023 survey once again in TV receiving over $100,000 per highlighted a signi昀椀cant gender pay year. This was followed by podcasting gap in the media industry. Female and (36% paid over $100,000 per year), non-binary journalists were more digital (31%), print (29%) and then highly represented than men in the radio (27%). below $60,000 per year pay bracket (see 昀椀gure 15). Thirty-eight percent Chief-of-staff was the highest of male journalists who disclosed their paid role, with 64% earning over pay received a salary of more than $100,000 per year. This was followed $100,000 in 2023, compared to 27% by presenters or announcers and of females and 14% of non-binary publishers, with 40% of journalists journalists. in each of these roles earning over $100,000 per year. Columnists, There was also a signi昀椀cant difference bloggers and photojournalists or in pay depending on the locations camerapersons had the highest journalists worked. Journalists working proportions of journalists earning in the city received far higher salaries under $60,000 per year. overall compared to regional or suburban journalists, while journalists working in the suburbs were much more likely to fall into the pay bracket of below $60,000 per year. Journalists working for community 38% of male journalists who disclosed their pay received a salary of more than $100,000 in 2023, compared to 27% of females and 14% of non-binary journalists. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 21

Less than $10,000 p.a. 6% $10,000 to $19,999 p.a. 3% $20,000 to $39,999 p.a. 6% $40,000 to $59,999 p.a. 10% $60,000 to $79,999 p.a. 20% $80,000 to $99,999 p.a. 24% $100,000 to $119,999 p.a. 15% $120,000 to $139,999 p.a. 7% $140,000 to $159,999 p.a. 5% $160,000 to $199,999 p.a. 1% $200,000 to $300,000 p.a. 2% More than $300,000 p.a.

Less than $60,000 p.a. Less than $60,000 p.a. 34% 27% 28% 22% 25% 43% $60,000 to $99,999 p.a. $60,000 to $99,999 p.a. 44% 46% 47% 40% 44% 43% More than $100,000 p.a. More than $100,000 p.a. 22% 27% 25% 38% 31% 14% 2021 Female 2022 Male 2023 Non-binary FIGURE 14: Pay based on year FIGURE 15: Pay based on gender (those who disclosed) (those who disclosed) Please note: Data from respondents who identified their gender as non-binary may not accurately reflect this demographic due to a small sample size. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 23

47% 44% 40% 39% 37% 34% 23% 17% 19% City Regional Suburbs FIGURE 16: Pay based on journalist location Less than $60,000 $60,000 to $99,999 More than $100,000 p.a. p.a. p.a. Less than $60,000 p.a. $60,000 to $100,000 p.a. 34% 40% 16% 46% 8% 60% 49% 39% More than $100,000 p.a. 26% Independent 38% Commercial 32% Publicly/government funded 12% Community media FIGURE 17: Pay based on journalists’ media organisation type (those who disclosed) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 24

Less than $60,000 p.a. $60,000 to $99,999 p.a. 12% 37% 23% 50% 29% 42% 26% 43% 27% 37% More than $100,000 p.a. 51% TV 27% Radio 29% Print 31% Digital 36% Podcasting FIGURE 18: Pay based on journalists’ sector (those who disclosed) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 25

Less than $60,000 p.a. $60,000 to $99,999 p.a. 26% 47% 20% 45% 16% 49% 25% 35% 36% 24% 54% 20% 47% 36% 58% 14% 0% 36% More than $100,000 p.a. Journalist/reporter 27% 35% Editor 35% Producer 40% Presenter/announcer 40% Publisher 26% Blogger 17% Photojournalist/camerperson 28% Columnist 64% Chief-of-staff FIGURE 19: Pay based on journalists’ role (those who disclosed) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 26

Sixty-six percent of respondents felt they were underpaid in 2023. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 27

Evaluation The 2023 Media Landscape Many also suggested that they felt Report found 84% of journalists do that with their skills they would be of pay at least an hour or two of unpaid better paid in other industries, or that work each week. their pay does not re昀氀ect the number of extra hours they are expected to Respondents to the latest survey work. Many also said that they did not were asked to evaluate how fairly they think their pay accurately re昀氀ected were paid in their work. Almost half the skills and responsibilities their (47%) believed they were somewhat role required. underpaid. Thirty percent said they were paid fairly, while 19% said they Several said they are not paid enough were grossly underpaid. Less than 2% or barely paid enough to cover rent of respondents said they thought they and other basic living expenses. were overpaid. Gender did not appear to have a Sixty-six percent of respondents felt signi昀椀cant impact on respondents’ they were underpaid in 2023. evaluation of their pay, despite signi昀椀cant gender pay differences Many respondents, particularly (see page 29). freelance journalists, pointed out that their rates or wage had not changed Money was the most common much in several years or even ‘greatest challenge’ experienced by decades, despite in昀氀ation. journalists in 2023 (see page 36). Freelance rates have not increased in the decades of work I have done, in fact I am earning less. I work long hours, need to have For the amount of stress, diligence, constant/昀氀exible availability and yet, work hours, time spent honing I struggle to pay rent… If I didn’t love my craft for editorial and legal the work I do 昀椀ercely, it would not be judgement, ability to 昀椀le and respond worth the wages. quickly in an on-air environment without supervision, the fact I have a university degree and almost 10 years in journalism I believe I should be earning more money. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 28

Grossly overpaid

TOP INSIGHTS: WHICH SECTOR HAS THE MOST WHAT TOPICS PAY THE MOST? INSECURE WORKFORCE? Pay, gender, The salary ranges of journalists When looking at each media sector, covering Politics, Health, Business TV had the highest rate of full-time job roles and and Education were higher ($80,000 employees with more than three- -$ 99,000 p.a was the leading salary quarters of respondents in TV (76%) topics range for these journalists) compared working in full-time roles. with salary ranges for journalists covering Entertainment, Lifestyle In contrast, while the survey showed and Sport ($60,000-79,000 p.a was a lift in respondents working in print the leading salary range for these media compared with last year’s journalists). results, print media had the most insecure workforce across all media Almost three quarters of respondents types — even more so than podcasts. covering Sport-related news (74%) Almost a quarter of respondents still earn under $100,000 per year, working in the print medium said they this is interesting given the commercial were freelancers. value of sports content. There was a similar trend in respondents that cover Entertainment news (typically an industry with more commercial value/ advertising power) where 73% were paid less than $100,000 per annum. There was a similar trend in entertainment news (typically an industry with more commercial value/ advertising power) where 73% were paid less than $100,000 per annum. Print media had the most insecure workforce across all media types — even more so than podcasts. Almost a quarter of respondents working in the print medium said they were freelancers. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 30

WILL WORKING IN THE CITY HELP YOU MAKE MORE CASH AS A The mid to high salary ranges were JOURNALIST? the most highly represented by those working in the city (79%), compared to the mid-range with 59% of Across all survey respondents, respondents working in the city. 65% worked in a city. Of these For those in the low range (below respondents, 61% were on a low or $60,000 p.a), this dropped again with middle income (below $100,000 p.a). 42% of respondents working in the city, compared to 40% of respondents Seventy-six percent of respondents who worked regionally. in the highest salary bracket (above $140,000 p.a) reported that they There is a clear correlation between work in the city. As the salary ranges those on a higher salary and those drop, we can see the proportion of working in the city. those working in the city drop as well while the proportion of respondents working in regional or suburban areas increased for those in the mid to low salary ranges. There is a clear correlation between those on a higher salary and those working in the city. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 31

GENDER, JOB ROLE AND Of respondents identifying as women PERCEPTION OF SALARY who claimed to feel underpaid, just 21% said they earn more than In terms of feeling underpaid, $10,000 per year. Just over half of sentiments were fairly consistent women you feel underpaid (59%) between men and women. are in full time employment, with 41% working on a part time, casual, Two thirds of respondents (67%) freelance or contract basis. Of identifying as female and two thirds of respondents identifying as men who respondents identifying as men (68%) claimed to feel underpaid, 31% earn recorded they were either “grossly more than $100,000 per year and underpaid” or “somewhat underpaid.” Those identifying as 70% are in full time employment. Only a third work part-time, casual, non-binary recorded feeling freelance or contract basis. underpaid in 75% of responses. Of men who said they feel underpaid, 69% earn under $100,000 p.a and 31% earn more than $100,000 p.a. Of these respondents, 70% are in full- time employment while only a third work on a part-time, casual, freelance or contract basis. While women and non-binary respondents are more likely to have lower salary ranges and more job insecurity, men are still more likely to feel like they are being underpaid. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 32

This indicates that while women Columnists, publishers and bloggers and non-binary respondents are more feel the biggest gap between what likely to have lower salary ranges and they should be versus what they more job insecurity, are being paid. Chief of staff, editors men (who have higher salary ranges and producers on the other hand and more job security probability) had much lower rates of respondents are still more likely to feel like they are who feel they are not being being underpaid. remunerated accordingly. Chief-of-staff had the lowest number of respondents saying they are grossly underpaid, (18% of all chiefs-of-staff). Producers (16% of all producers) and editors (17% of all editors) also had lower rates of respondents saying they are ‘grossly underpaid.’ Columnists, publishers and bloggers feel the biggest gap between what they should be versus what they are being paid. Chief of staff, editors and producers on the other hand had much lower rates of respondents who feel they are not being remunerated accordingly. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 33

02 Challenges for journalists and threats to the media Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 34

Personal challenges 43 % of respondents found the greatest challenge was money, a jump from 36% in the 2022 survey and 18% in 2021. Money, changes to workload and in 2023. Similarly, female journalists uncertainty about the future were were more likely to have experienced the three most common greatest this challenge than male or non-binary challenges experienced by journalists respondents (see page 23 for 昀椀ndings in 2023. on the gender pay gap). Sixty-six percent of respondents felt they were The greatest challenge for 43% of underpaid in 2023 (see page 29). respondents was money, a jump from 36% in the 2022 survey and Ten percent of respondents reported 18% in 2021. There was a strong experiencing no challenges in 2023. correlation between money as a greatest challenge and age, with younger journalists far more likely to report being challenged by money Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 35

Money 43% Change in workload 31% Uncertainty about the future 29% Mental health 25% Career stagnation 22% Lack of peer contact 13% Job security 12% Providing more caregiving e.g. childcare 9% Working from home 6% Other 5% No challenges this year 10% FIGURE 22: Greatest challenges experienced by journalists in 2023 12% 18% 36% 43% 2020 2021 2022 2023 FIGURE 23: Money as a greatest challenge (year) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 36

Under 23 60% 23-29 58% 30-39 45% 40-49 43% 50-59 38% 60-69 25% 70-79 26% 80+ 0% FIGURE 24: Money as a greatest challenge (age) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 37

Money Change in workload 45% 31% 40% 30% 25% 50% Uncertainty about the future Mental health 30% 27% 27% 23% 25% 50% Career stagnation Job security 23% 13% 21% 12% 0% 0% Lack of peer contact Providing more caregiving e.g. childcare 13% 11% 12% 6% 13% 0% Working from home No challenges this year 5% 8% 6% 12% 13% 13% Female Male Non-binary FIGURE 25: Greatest challenges experienced by journalists in 2023 (gender) Please note: Data from respondents who identified their gender as non-binary may not accurately reflect this demographic due to a small sample size. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 38

吀栀reats Survey respondents were asked Some respondents suggested that to identify factors that they think journalism has become more partisan to public threatened public interest journalism or divisive in recent years, highlighting interest in 2023. The top factors identi昀椀ed this as a threat to were an increase in disinformation or public interest journalism, in journalism ‘fake news’ and lack of resources and particular, impacting trust between staff, identi昀椀ed as a threat by 70% the public/audiences and media. Some and 68% of respondents respectively. journalists were very distrustful of This was followed by declining trust in media organisations themselves, media organisations (62%), the closure citing alleged political agendas or of media organisations or newsrooms ideologies. (56%) and the concentration of media ownership (47%). Many also noted how the quality of journalism is impacted by staff Two percent of journalists responded shortages and tight budgets. Several that they did not feel there had pointed out the threat of Australian been any threats to public interest defamation laws or recent court journalism in 2023. outcomes (see more on page 64). Seventy percent of journalists said Compared to results from the 2022 an increase in disinformation or ‘fake survey, concern about the impact of news’ threatened public interest concentration of media ownership journalism in 2023. on public interest journalism has declined signi昀椀cantly from 57% to Many respondents said they believed 47% of survey respondents in 2023. social media was threatening public Concern related to all other factors interest journalism, in particular remained relatively steady. diverting funding from traditional media outlets and propagating misinformation among the public. The monetisation of journalism following the collapse of traditional advertising models due to social media was presented by respondents as an ongoing challenge to the industry. The media landscape has become far too sensationalist, tabloid and fear-mongering. News is driven by opinion and political agenda. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 39

Increase in disinformation/’fake news’ 70% Lack of resources and staff 68% Declining trust in media organisations 62% Closure of media companies/newsrooms 56% Concentration of media ownership 47% Generative AI/LLMs 36% Right to access information 24% Intrusion of privacy 9% Public interest journalism has not been threatened 2% Other 7% FIGURE 26: Biggest threats to public interest journalism in 2023 Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 40

Investigative journalism takes time and costs money. Organisations are driven by the 24 hour news cycle and end up competing with click bait. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 41

Closure of media companies/newsrooms Concentration of media ownership 60% 57% 56% 47% Increase in disinformation Intrusion of privacy 71% 12% 70% 9% Lack of resources and sta昀昀 Right to access information 69% 26% 68% 24% 2022 2023 FIGURE 27: Biggest threats to public interest journalism (year) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 42

My boss will actively tell me not to 昀椀le stories if he doesn’t think people will read them, even if they’re in the public interest. 吀栀is is extremely depressing and it’s the main reason I’m considering leaving journalism. A lot of people receive a lot of their Journalism is more ideological and news through social media now where partisan on left and right, hence the there are no controls, no fact checking… public’s growing scepticism. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 43

What Respondents were asked to comment their communities under dif昀椀cult on anything they wished the general conditions. Lots of respondents said journalists public knew about their work as they wished the public understood wished we journalists. Despite this being an how much the media relies on open question with no suggested subscriptions or other support from knew multiple choice answers, several audiences, and that the quality of strong common themes emerged. the news or media content could be A very signi昀椀cant proportion of improved through this public support. journalists (approximately 45%) said they wished the public understood Some also noted how the time that their work is driven by genuinely pressures caused by lack of funding good intentions and ethics to report and resources can impact the quality accurately and fairly, and the media is of the news, and wished there was not operating under some ideological more understanding and empathy agenda or ‘conspiracy’. These from the public for mistakes made responses highlighted how hard because of this. individual journalists strive to deliver news ethically to the communities Several said they wished the they work in, and how they often feel public understood that a lot of misjudged or ostracised by the public editorial decisions such as clickbait for their work in the media. headlines were decided by people in management/editor positions, and Many (approximately 29%) said they not the journalists themselves. On the wished the public knew how much other hand, many said they felt the effort, time, skill and care went into general public did not understand the their journalism work. It was noted by level of independence and integrity many respondents that journalists are their media organisations had. often ‘overworked and underpaid’, and are doing the best they can to serve Most of us are doing the jobs of about 3+ We have a commitment to countering people nowadays. We are going to make the misinformation being disseminated mistakes because we are humans doing by bad actors and the failure of social an incredible amount of work across media but we are doing it out of goodwill multiple platforms with little day-to-day and we need 昀椀nancial support. editorial support. Be kind. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 44

Pretty much every journalist I have met is motivated to help people — almost all could be earning a lot more elsewhere. It takes time to research and write Journalists on the whole take their stories, take photos, etc — that is why it ethical responsibility to be accurate and is behind a paywall. balanced very seriously. There’s no hidden agenda or conspiracy. It ain’t as easy as people think it is. We don’t make up stories, everything People don’t understand the signi昀椀cant is veri昀椀ed and we don’t try to make mental toll the work takes… The trauma something out of a story that is not you absorb on the job is dif昀椀cult to deal true. We respond to what the audience with. It’s exacerbated by insecure work. wants, not the other way around. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 45

TOP INSIGHTS: ‘Money’ was the leading personal Men are more disillusioned this Gender and challenge for journalists again in 2023 year with 21% of male respondents across all genders. In 2022, 38% of recording “career stagnation” as challenges female respondents noted ‘money’ as their greatest challenge - up from a challenge, this has increased to 45% 16% in 2022. Women recording this of female respondents in 2023. as their top challenge increased to 23% from 21%. In 2022 35% of men recorded ‘money’ as a challenge, this has increased to Men are also more uncertain this year 40% in 2023. with 28% recording this key challenge in 2023, up from 25% in 2022. In The other personal challenges that 2023, 30% of women claimed to be have seen material increases across uncertain about the future, up from genders include ‘Career stagnation’ 29% in 2022. and ‘Uncertainty about the future’. The proportion of non-binary respondents recording ‘no challenges’ increased this year to 13% from 8% last year. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 46

The proportion of men saying ‘I have Aside from money, which continued not experienced any challenges this as the leading greatest challenge year’ dropped to 11% from 16% across respondents, those areas that in 2022. Women recording this saw a material increase in responses response dropped slightly to 8% from compared with 2022 tended to 9% in 2022. demonstrate career disillusionment, uncertainty and existential concerns In contrast, the proportion of non- rather than practical challenges. binary respondents recording ‘no There was an increase particularly in challenges’ increased this year to 13% men identifying with these personal from 8% last year. Note: it’s important challenges in 2023 compared with the to acknowledge the low number of previous year. respondents that identify as non- binary. Compared to responses in 2022, respondents demonstrated an increase in career disillusionment, uncertainty and existential concerns rather than practical challenges. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 47

03 Generative AI and the media Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 48

Journalists’ % use of generative AI 74 of journalists had not personally used generative AI/LLMs in their work. 2023 saw major breakthroughs in podcasting had by far the highest in the development and uptake of uptake of AI/LLMs professionally generative AI or Large Language (38% of podcasters had used it). Models such as ChatGPT. Journalists working for independent The majority of journalists (74%) media organisations reported the had not personally used generative highest rates of professional use of AI/LLMs in their work. AI/LLMs. From the 25% of respondents that claimed to have used generative AI in their journalism work, those working I tested [AI] a couple of times for writing articles, but the results were dreadfully boring. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 49

FIGURE 28: Journalists’ use of generative AI/LLMs Have not used 74% Have used 25% Not sure 1% Digital 28% Print 22% Radio 16% TV 12% Podcasting 38% FIGURE 29: Journalists’ professional use of generative AI/LLMs (platform) Independent 29% Commercial 23% Publicly/government funded 21% Community media 24% FIGURE 30: Journalists’ professional use of generative AI/LLMs (organisation type) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 50

Have used Under 23 years 30% 25% 23-29 years 26% 30-39 years 27% 40-49 years 27% 50-59 years 15% 60-69 years 6% 70-79 years 0% 80+ years FIGURE 31: Journalists’ use of generative AI/LLMs (age) It’s like having your own intern/assistant to help with menial writing tasks. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 51

How Only 15% of respondents said Other common responses included generative AI/LLMs were de昀椀nitely journalists using it for question generative being used in their newsroom in 2023. ideas for interviews, transcribing AI/Large Nine percent said they were being interviews and story inspiration. used to write or produce draft stories/ Some respondents said they had Language articles which were then edited and used it to generate content including published by a human. Seven percent articles but generally smaller items Models said these programs were used to such as captions or timelines, which analyse data and trends in the news they would then edit themselves. were used industry and 6% said they were used Others had used it to change the tone in the to 昀椀nd story ideas. of an article to suit a new audience. Several said they have tried it in their newsroom Only 2% of journalists said generative journalism work but did not think it AI/LLMs were being used to write or was adequate to use professionally produce full stories/articles. yet. Others suggested they had used it for admin related tasks that were Journalists were given the unrelated to creating media content, opportunity to express how they have such as drafting emails. personally used AI professionally in an open-ended question. From those For journalists working in podcasting responses, 16% said that they had and radio, generative AI/LLMs had used it to research stories, 13% said been used by some for audio editing they had used it to generate headlines and transcribing. ideas, and 10% said they had used it to summarise or edit content. Many of those who had used it said they still need to fact-check all the information provided by the AI/LLMs, or edit the tone of the content themselves. 16% said they had used it to research stories, 13% said they had used it to generate headline ideas, and 10% said they had used it to summarise or edit content. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 52

I’ve used AI to create the framework of simple explainer articles or reword certain paragraphs. It is a great tool for overcoming writer’s block. ChatGPT saves a lot of time and is AI is a friend who checks over my work. helpful to get some ideas started when My prompts centre around “Without I have a creative block, but it lacks a changing my words or tone, how does human element and requires a lot of this read?”. Love it. tweaking and fact checking. I use it as a research tool - it can [I have used it] to proof read and generate summarise evidence on a complex topic. headlines and slugs for testing. They I don’t use it to write things - it is not a always require tweaking before using. good writer! Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 53

Not used 36% N/A 30% Not sure 19% To write/produce/draft stories/articles 9% To analyse data and trends in the news industry 7% To find story ideas 6% To automate fact-checking and verification processes 4% To finish articles/stories generated by a journalist 2% To write/produce full stories/articles 2% To generate real-time news updates based on social media data 1% To decide what stories are published 1% Other 8% FIGURE 32: Uses of generative AI/LLMs in newsrooms in 2023 Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 54

Impact of More than half of respondents (59%) in their speed and ef昀椀ciency, 3% said the integration of generative AI/ reporting a signi昀椀cant improvement, generative LLMs had not in昀氀uenced their news and 1% saying their speed and AI/Large gathering process. Seventeen percent ef昀椀ciency had decreased due to the of respondents said it had, with integration of generative AI/LLMs. Language 13% reporting a slight improvement Models on journalists’ speed and e昀케ciency FIGURE 33: Impact of generative AI/LLMs on speed and efficiency of journalists No in昀氀uence Signi昀椀cant 59% improvement N/A 3% 23% Decrease in speed Slight improvement and ef昀椀ciency 13% 1% Other 1% Search functionality has the potential If anything a journalist’s job now to improve, however the risk of results includes fact-checking not only their being generated images and therefore own stories, but the meandering unusable has risen. Additional caution outputs of these overblown and and scrutiny is required. strangely dei昀椀ed algorithms. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 55

Concern More than three quarters (79%) Thirty six percent of respondents of respondents said they were cited it as a threat to public interest about concerned about the impact that journalism in 2023 (see page 40). impacts of generative AI/LLMs could have on the overall integrity or quality of generative journalism. This included 41% who said they were somewhat concerned, AI/Large 20% who were fairly concerned and 18% who were extremely concerned. Language Fourteen percent of respondents Models on were not concerned about the the media possible impacts. AI deals only with knowledge that already exists online. It cannot investigate, scrutinise and provide fresh information. Not concerned 14% Somewhat concerned 41% Fairly concerned 20% Extremely concerned 18% Not sure 7% Other

吀栀e alleged “threat” has been massively overblown and is only a danger to lazy journalists. I know it will affect the credibility This is the biggest challenge to this of news and stories while media industry in a generation. More needs to and journalists will 昀椀nd their work be done to harness it proactively and being questioned. transparently. I think, ultimately, it will become There is immense danger of ‘Garbage in another tool journalists use (once Garbage out’... [when] AI starts to con昀椀rm it can be relied upon), rather than a misinformation and disinformation, and replacement for journalists. is cited as an authoritative source. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 57

Impact of The majority of respondents had not Journalists working in podcasting and or did not know any journalists who radio reported the highest rates of generative had lost work due to the uptake of having lost work due to the impacts AI/Large generative AI/LLMs. of generative AI/LLMs, followed by digital journalists. Similarly, journalists Language Four percent of survey respondents working in podcasting had far higher said they had lost work in 2023 due to rates of belief that generative AI/ Models on the uptake of generative AI/LLMs. LLMs could replace certain aspects of their jobs. These journalists also journalists’ Eight percent said they knew reported the highest uptake in employment someone who had lost work due to professional use of AI/LLMs (see page the uptake of generative AI/LLMs, 3% 50). Interestingly, those in radio had personally had lost work, and 1% had low uptake, despite the high loss of both lost work and knew someone work. who had. Respondents employed casually Sixty-seven percent of respondents reported the highest rates of having said they believed that generative lost work due to the integration of AI/LLMs could potentially replace AI/LLMs (10%). This was followed by aspects of their jobs. Fifteen percent respondents working in freelance and were unsure. contractor roles. AI not only means that content can be written by anyone, I am worried that AI as part of Search will stop people coming to our outlets to read articles because they will get the info from search pages. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 58

FIGURE 35: Effect of generative AI/LLMs on journalists’ employment Not affected L ost work personally 87% and knew someone Personally lost work who had lost work 3% 1% Knew someone who Other had lost work 1% 8% Digital 5% Print 3% Radio 7% TV 2% Podcasting 8% FIGURE 36: Lost work due to generative AI/LLMs (platform) It’s taking away the jobs that used to be Journalists rely on voiceover work to an entry point for young journalists, and get extra money. AI has taken away the regular bread-and-butter stuff that this option for many. freelancers rely upon. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 59

Full-time 3% Freelance 8% Part-time 4% Contractor 6% Casual 10% FIGURE 37: Lost work due to generative AI/LLMs (employment status) FIGURE 38: Belief that generative AI/LLMS could replace aspects of journalism jobs Yes Not sure 67% 15% No 18% Digital 67% Print 62% Radio 71% TV 60% Podcasting 79% FIGURE 39: Belief that generative AI/LLMS could replace aspects of journalism jobs (platform)) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 60

TOP INSIGHTS: Many respondents said they were entertainment reporters claiming to concerned about the impact of AI on have used AI tools in their work, this AI awareness journalism. There was a disconnect group also had the highest volume and usage however, between the stated of respondents noting they were concerns and the material impact of concerned about the impact of AI. in the AI on their jobs and livelihood. Even less, 11%, knew of someone who had lost their job to AI. newsroom For example, of those in the entertainment and lifestyle sectors, more than 80% of respondents said they were concerned about the impact on quality. Despite only 23% of Many respondents said they were concerned about the impact of AI on journalism. There was a disconnect however, between the stated concerns and the material impact of AI on their jobs and livelihood. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 61

04 Defamation, story content and motivations Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 62

Defamation In Medianet’s 2022 survey, half Many respondents said that despite of journalists (49%) said they had some recent defamation case withheld from publishing information outcomes supporting the work of that they knew to be true because of the media, their organisation has fear of defamation. This represented still become more risk averse when 57% of all journalists who said pursuing stories involving a high publishing stories was relevant to pro昀椀le person, due to the risk of costs their work. associated with legal action taken against them. In the 2023 survey, respondents were asked about how the outcome Many commented that while their of high pro昀椀le defamation cases over appetite for pursuing high risk public the past 12 months had impacted the interest stories had not been affected, appetite to pursue high risk public their editor or newsroom has become interest stories. more cautious. Twenty-one percent of journalists Journalists working for publicly/ said the outcome of high pro昀椀le government funded media defamation cases in 2023 had organisations reported the highest impacted their journalism work. rates of being affected by the outcomes of these defamation The majority of respondents cases, both positively and negatively. (65%) said it had not affected their Journalists working for commercial journalism work. Of the 87% of and community media organisations respondents who said this was were the least affected. relevant to their area of work, 15% said it had somewhat negatively Respondents reporting on politics or affected their journalism work, 4% religion reported the highest rates said it had a signi昀椀cant negative affect of being affected by the outcomes on their journalism work. of these cases. This was followed by those working in the topic of courts and crimes, international news or foreign affairs, Indigenous affairs or national news. Our lawyers are extremely risk averse. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 63

Not affected journalism work 65% Signi昀椀cantly negatively affected journalism work 4% Somewhat negatively affected journalism work 13% Somewhat positively affected journalism work 3% Signi昀椀cantly positively affected journalism work 1% N/A 13% Other 1% FIGURE 40: Impact of high profile defamation cases on appetite to pursue public interest/high risk stories Independent Commercial 19% 16% 3% 4% 65% 66% Publicly/government funded Community media 22% 19% 5% 0% 58% 66% Negatively affected Positively affected Not affected FIGURE 41: Impact of high profile defamation cases on appetite to pursue public interest/high risk stories (organisation type) It just heightens the focus on accuracy and checking and makes more work, often for the better. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 64

Journalists, particularly those who are young and full of ideas, won’t want to risk their livelihoods and future pursuing a story that will likely end up in a defamation suit. The recent changes to defamation laws Watching the ways in which people in - eg, the public interest defence but, power weaponise defamation law and perhaps more importantly, the need for other legal tools in order to silence a concerns notice before a suit can be criticism and suffocate information that launched, has removed some barriers to damages them makes me pretty de昀氀ated fearless reporting. as a journalist. Truth, it turns out, does not always win - money does. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 65

Agriculture Automotive 17% 20% 3% 3% 67% 67% 11% 10% 2% 0% Beauty/fashion Business 15% 18% 4% 5% 62% 64% 18% 11% 1% 2% Courts/crime Education 23% 21% 6% 5% 62% 62% 8% 10% 1% 2% Entertainment Finance 22% 21% 3% 4% 60% 65% 14% 8% 1% 2% Negatively affected Positively affected Not affected N/A Other FIGURE 42: Impact of high profile defamation cases on appetite to pursue public interest/high risk stories (topic area) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 66

Food Health 15% 18% 3% 4% 65% 63% 16% 14% 1% 1% Indigenous a昀昀airs International news/foreign a昀昀airs 23% 23% 6% 6% 62% 62% 7% 8% 2% 1% Industry news Lifestyle 18% 15% 3% 2% 68% 68% 9% 14% 2% 1% Music or arts National news 21% 23% 3% 6% 60% 60% 14% 9% 2% 2% Politics Property 24% 22% 6% 5% 60% 64% 10% 8% 2% 1% FIGURE 42 continued Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 67

Regional news Religion 20% 29% 3% 1% 66% 61% 9% 6% 2% 3% Science Sports 19% 19% 6% 3% 62% 66% 12% 10% 1% 2% Tech Travel 19% 13% 5% 3% 63% 69% 12% 14% 1% 1% FIGURE 42 continued The win for media in the Ben Roberts Smith defamation case was a victory for public interest journalism. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 68

[It has] made my employer more fearful and more conservative about commissioning and executing stories. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 69

Journalists’ Informing the public, raising working for publicly/government awareness for issues and entertaining funded organisations were more motivations audiences/providing enjoyment highly motivated by informing the for covering were found to be the top three factors public, holding people accountable driving journalists to cover stories in and exposing wrongdoing than other stories 2023. journalists. Journalists working for commercial organisations were Journalists working for community more motivated by generating ‘clicks’ media organisations were more or audience engagement for their commonly motivated by raising organisation, while respondents awareness for issues, shaping policy from independent organisations had and agenda and building their personal marginally higher rates of being public pro昀椀le, than journalists at driven by entertaining audiences or other media organisations. Those providing enjoyment. Informing the public, raising awareness for issues and entertaining audiences/ providing enjoyment were found to be the top three factors driving journalists to cover stories in 2023. Informing the public 80% Raising awareness for issues 64% Entertaining audiences/providing enjoyment 49% Holding people accountable 40% Generating clicks/engagement for the media organisation 36% Exposing wrongdoing 32% Shaping policy/agenda 21% Building personal public pro昀椀le 15% N/A 3% Other 3% FIGURE 43: Factors driving journalists to cover stories Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 70

Informing the public Raising awareness for issues 84% 67% 80% 63% 89% 68% 86% 78% Entertaining audiences/providing enjoyment Generating clicks/engagement for the media organisation 51% 38% 48% 41% 49% 36% 49% 27% Holding people accountable Exposing wrongdoing 37% 28% 44% 35% 53% 41% 37% 26% Shaping policy/agenda Building personal public pro昀椀le 20% 16% 21% 16% 27% 12% 31% 21% Independent Commercial Publicly/government funded Community media FIGURE 44: Factors driving journalists to cover stories (media organisation type) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 71

Covering Almost half (47%) of survey Journalists working in podcasting were respondents said they were less likely the least likely to cover stories that stories to cover a story that had already had already been reported, followed already been covered by another media by those in TV. Radio was the platform organisation, however 37% said it on which the highest percentage of reported depends. Only 13% of respondents journalists said they would be more said they were more likely to cover a likely to cover a story that had already story that had already been covered. been reported in the media. Almost half (47%) of survey respondents said they were less likely to cover a story that had already been covered by another media organisation, however 37% said it depends. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 72

Significantly more likely 4% Somewhat more likely 9% Depends 37% Somewhat less likely 30% Significantly less likely 17% N/A 3% Other

Honesty in Journalists were asked if they had Many referenced how important ever lied to a story source to get it is for them to maintain ethical journalism information. The overwhelming standards of truth and honesty in majority (95%) said they had not. their journalism work. Ninety-昀椀ve percent of journalists Others pointed out that “white lies” said they have never lied to a source to were common in the industry, such as get information. pretending to align with someone’s politics or enjoy an entertainer’s Many pointed out how they would not show. Others said they had pretended risk jeopardising trust or relationships to know either more or less than they they have built with sources or actually did in order to corroborate a community, or harming their information. reputation as a journalist. Integrity is all we have, when that is gone, so is our value and worth to the world as media. Never lied 95% Have lied 2% N/A 3% Other

Digital 2% Print 3% Radio 0% TV 2% Podcasting 3% FIGURE 49: Have lied to a source to get information (journalists’ platform) All journalists need to strategically omit We are a small publication, and I information when speaking to different live in the same town as the people sources in order to corroborate or I interact with. I am not going to double-check information. jeopardise personal principles for stories. I said to an artist I liked their work, to Trust and honesty are the bedrock of get an interview and a story. They were journalism. awful, but my article said I loved it. [There are] no lies to be nasty or tricky.” [Lying is] an unconscionable thing to My journalism involves building and do. I would rather lose the scoop of my nurturing connections in the fashion career than lie to someone, anyone, to industry. Lying isn’t worth getting a get information. story. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 75

Diversity % and inclusion in the workplace 41 of journalists said there were policies in place at their workplace to support diversity and inclusion. Medianet’s 2022 survey revealed a Of those who said there were policies high proportion (22%) of respondents in place, 78% said they believed their who reported being of an ethnic media organisation was effective in background had experienced racial upholding them, and 13% said the discrimination, prejudice or abuse as policies were not effectively upheld. part of their media work . Surveyed journalists were also asked to identify A higher percentage of journalists how they think the media industry working for TV and radio worked at or their workplace could improve organisations with policies in place to representation and support for increase diversity and representation. people of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds (CALD). The The majority of respondents (87%) overwhelming majority of responses who worked at public/government suggested more diverse hiring is funded organisations said policies to needed, particularly in management increase diversity and representation or board positions. were in place, a drastic outlier to commercial, independent and 2023 survey respondents were community media organisations. asked if there are any workplace However, of respondents who said policies in place at their media these policies were in place at their organisations to increase diversity work, those working at community and and representation. Forty-one independent media organisations had percent of respondents said there higher rates of responding that these were, 27% were not sure, and 19% policies were being upheld effectively. said there were no policies in place. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 76

Responses were analysed based on Some journalists said that despite ethnicity and categorised into two some diverse hiring at their groups: journalists who described organisations, this was mostly their ethnic background as either tokenistic and there is little diversity being Australian non-Indigenous, within higher management positions. English, Scottish, Irish, New Zealander, American or Canadian, or all other Others said there were policies in ethnic backgrounds. Nine percent of place at their media organisation to respondents from this second more encourage not only diverse or inclusive ethnically diverse group said their employment, but also diverse sources organisations were very ineffective for stories, with accompanying imagery at upholding diversity and inclusion also re昀氀ecting this. policies, more than double that of the 昀椀rst group (4%). Several said that their organisation was too small, for example just one or Several respondents said that they two journalists, to have such policies in believe it is more important that place formally. employment decisions be based on merit rather than diversity, suggesting that some people hired because of diversity policies were incapable of performing the job. Some said that despite their media organisations trying to platform diverse voices, often these contributors were not provided with adequate editorial support or mentorship to be successful in their journalism work. There’s quite a bit done [to encourage diversity and inclusion] at the lower levels but management is all white and mostly male. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 77

FIGURE 50: Policies in place at media organisations to increase diversity and representation Yes N/A 41% 11% No Other 19% 2% Not sure 27% Digital 41% Print 33% Radio 58% TV 52% Podcasting 44% FIGURE 51: Organisations with policies to increase diversity and representation (journalists’ platform) We have quotas for indigenous roles and other CALD roles. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 78

I have witnessed signi昀椀cant sexism and racism at my workplace. It has been brought up to higher ups, who encourage you not to be troublemaker by raising issues. I’m one of few with brown faces in the The only thing that should ever matter is of昀椀ce. merit. I am disabled and gender diverse and I think there are genuine efforts to have faced signi昀椀cant discrimination improve diversity and inclusion in due to these attributes. our newsroom - committees, regular monitoring of these, efforts to address imbalance - but the changes will take time to undo decades of systemic imbalance. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 79

36% Independent 39% Commercial 87% Publicly/government funded 37% Community media FIGURE 52: Organisations with policies to increase diversity and representation (journalists’ organisation) Very ineffective 5% Somewhat ineffective 8% Not sure 8% Somewhat effective 48% Very effective 30% Other

It’s often left to the CALD staff to ensure diversity processes are pursued. E昀昀ective Australian non-Indigenous, English, Scottish, 87% Irish, New Zealand, American, Canadian 73% 4% 75% 9% 94% 9% 49% Ine昀昀ective 29% 7% All other ethnicities 18% 16% 9% 6% 11% 3% 49% 28% Very ineffective Somewhat ineffective Independent Not sure Commercial Somewhat effective Publicly/government funded Very effective Community media FIGURE 55: Media organisations’ FIGURE 54: Media organisations’ efficacy at efficacy at upholding policies upholding policies (journalists’ organisations) (journalists’ ethnicity) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 81

SALARY AND MOTIVATIONS TOP INSIGHTS: Interestingly, those on a low salary range had a much lower proportion of Journalist Respondents across all salary ranges respondents who recorded ‘building tended to record ‘informing the your public pro昀椀le’ as a key motivation motivations public’ as a key motivation behind (24%). This indicates that despite their work. Those with high salaries respondents recording low salary (above $140,000 p.a) tended to ranges/being dissatis昀椀ed with their record public interest journalism as jobs, the motivation to provide public key motivations, including informing interest journalism remains more the public (78%), ‘raising awareness important than their own professional of issues’ (72%), and ‘holding people pro昀椀les. accountable’ (57%). Those on a high or mid-high salary tended to also still consider ‘building your public pro昀椀le’ as important (46% and 36% respectively). Despite those on a low salary range recording being dissatisfied with their jobs, the motivation to provide public interest journalism remains more important to them than their own professional profiles. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 82

吀栀ose on a high or mid- high salary tended to also still consider ‘building your public pro昀椀le’ as important (46% and 36% respectively).

JOURNALIST PERCEPTION AND • Personal values & public interest PUBLIC SENTIMENT Emphasis on the importance of journalism to the public interest Of all survey respondents, 43% and motivation of journalists provided a response to the free-form pursuing human connections and question ‘Is there something you wish public interest stories. the general public knew about your work as a journalist?’ • Experience & skill required The amount of experience and These responses were all coded into skill that goes into producing the following categories: • Research/accuracy content (outside of those emphasising research/accuracy). The amount of research, • Tech disrup琀椀on accuracy and truth checking Comments referring to the that is required to produce high impact of tech. quality news today. Also included responses emphasising the • Other rigorous fact checking process Comments that were unable to that most journalists undertake. be categorised. • Workload/burnout This also includes references to pay cuts/overtime. • Editorial/Commercial agenda The in昀氀uence of editorial agenda or commercial agenda (including subscriptions, advertising, clicks etc.) on journalist’s work. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 84

THE RESULTS 36% 28% of responses fell under the ‘Research/ of responses fell under the accuracy required’ category ‘Workload/burnout’ category 15% 12% of responses fell under the ‘Editorial/ of responses fell under the ‘Personal Commercial agenda’ category values and public interest’ category 7% 2% responses fell under the ‘Experience of responses fell under the & skills required’ category ‘Other’ category Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 85

05 Journalists’ sources and social media Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 86

Journalists’ % story sources 86 of journalists indicated that industry and professional contacts were the top story sources for 2023. Over time, industry and professional The most signi昀椀cant change to the contacts have remained the top story story sources of journalists in 2023 source for journalists (used by 86% of was a 9% drop in journalists using respondents in 2023). PR agencies and publicists. Press releases were the second most used story source, used by 81% of journalists. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 87

General public Industry and professional contacts 62% 88% 66% 88% 72% 90% 72% 86% Other news media PR agencies/publicists 65% 59% 67% 60% 70% 67% 65% 58% Press releases Social media 82% 77% 82% 71% 86% 76% 81% 73% O昀케cial documents e.g. government docs Journals/peer-reviewed articles No data No data 69% 54% 72% 60% 72% 58% Search engines e.g. Google Generative AI/LLMS No data No data 75% No data 81% No data 75% 7% 2020 2021 2022 2023 FIGURE 56: Story sources used by journalists (year) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 88

Press % releases 81 of journalists used press releases as a story source in 2023. Of the 683 survey respondents (81%) About two-thirds (67%) said they who used press releases to source receive emails or pitches from a stories in 2023, the majority (89%) press release distribution service, said their PR contacts email them while 35% receive press releases directly with press releases. from their editor or chief-of-staff and 32% 昀椀nd them online on a press release platform. Media now is dependent on press releases as there is not enough time or resources to hunt independently for stories. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 89

2020 82% 2021 82% 2022 86% 2023 81% FIGURE 57: Journalists’ use of press releases to source stories (year) Emailed directly from PR contacts 89% Emails/pitches from a press release distribution service 67% Sent from an editor/chief-of-staff 35% A press release platform 32% Other 2% FIGURE 58: Where journalists found press releases in 2023 Use the information on the release for most of the story 13% Write/produce the story using some information from the release 55% Use the release as background information only 29% N/A 1% Other 2% FIGURE 59: Journalists’ use of press releases in stories in 2023 (those who use press releases) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 90

Of the 81% of respondents who said they used press releases as story sources, more than half (55%) said they tend to write or produce the story themselves using some information from the release. Of the 81% of respondents who nine percent said they use the release said they used press releases as as background information only, and story sources, more than half (55%) 13% said they use the information on said they tend to write or produce the release for most of the story. the story themselves using some information from the release. Twenty- Social media The use of social media professionally Facebook continued to be the by journalists remained high in 2023, most commonly used platform by with 96% of respondents having journalists professionally in 2023. used social media in their media Twitter/X usage has dropped work. Almost three quarters (73%) signi昀椀cantly (see page 94) from being of journalists in 2023 used social the second most used by journalists media as a story source, while nearly in 2022 to being the 4th most used. all respondents (96%) used social Instagram and LinkedIn are now the media in some way in their work as second and third most used platforms journalists (for example sharing their respectively. Use of TikTok as a story own articles/content). source rose steadily again in 2023. Use of TikTok as a story source rose steadily again in 2023. 2020 77% 2021 71% 2022 76% 2023 73% FIGURE 60: Journalists’ using social media as a story source Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 91

Facebook 76% Instagram 67% LinkedIn 60% Twitter/X 58% YouTube 34%* TikTok 26% WhatsApp 22% Threads 13% Reddit 12% Pinterest 6% FIGURE 61: Professional social media usage by journalists in 2023 *YouTube was added as a response option following the publication of the survey. Results have been scaled to reflect this. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 92

Signal 5% Snapchat 3% Wikr 1% Clubhouse

Facebook 88% 83% 80% 81% 76% Twitter/X 73% 73% 69% 69% 58% Instagram 64% 61% 62% 67% 67% LinkedIn 48% 54% 61% 62% 60% TikTok 2019 No data 2020 No data 2021 14% 2022 20% 2023 26% FIGURE 62: Professional social media usage by journalists (year) Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 94

Changes to 2023 saw the widely publicised launch There was a signi昀椀cant drop in of the new social media platform professional Twitter/X usage in the social Threads. More than half of journalists 2023, with 58% of respondents media in 2023 (57%) had not used the saying they used the platform, down platform at all, while 21% had created from 69% in 2022. Ten percent landscape an account but not used it. Thirteen identi昀椀ed having either recently percent of respondents said they had deleted their account or stopped in 2023 used Threads as a story source, and a using it in 2023. A quarter of further 6% had used it in some other respondents (26%) said they still capacity for their journalism work in have an account but rarely used 2023 (19% altogether). Twitter/X in 2023. Just 1% said they had switched to the platform Threads instead. The platform formerly known as Twitter also received signi昀椀cant Thirty-昀椀ve percent of journalists said publicity in 2023, following the they were active users of the platform company’s acquisition by Elon Musk in their work in 2023. in 2022 and subsequent rebrand to X in July 2023. Some users closed their accounts or decided to boycott the platform due to concern that it had facilitated an increase in hate speech or misinformation. There was a significant drop in professional Twitter/X usage in 2023, with 58% of respondents saying they used the platform, down from 69% in 2022. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 95

Have not used it 57% Created an account but not used it 21% Created an account and used it 19% N/A 1% Other 2% FIGURE 63: Journalists’ professional use of Threads in 2023 (of those who use social media professionally) 2019 73% 2020 73% 2021 69% 2022 69% 2023 58% FIGURE 64: Journalists’ using Twitter/X Active user 35% Have an account but rarely use it 26% Don’t use it 24% Have an account but stopped using it in 2023 8% Recently deleted account 2% Switched to Threads 1% N/A 2% Other 2% FIGURE 65: Journalists’ professional use of Twitter/X in 2023 Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 96

Building Respondents in 2023 were Making contact only when necessary asked about the best ways for PR was found to be preferred over regular professional professionals to build a strong working contact via email or phone. relationships relationship with journalists. Providing story or interview exclusives and with PR sending personalised story pitches were the top two ways, preferred by 62% and 61% of journalists respectively. This was followed by sending press releases, one of the best ways to build a strong professional relationship according to 48% of respondents. PR who are familiar with a person’s work, or an outlet’s specific tone and coverage area, will have more success and foster better connections with journalists. What is major news in your niche is There is a 昀椀ne line between enough/ often completely irrelevant to the rest too much contact. Trusted PR folks of my audience. are invaluable. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 97

Providing story/interview exclusives 62% Sending personalised story pitches 61% Sending press releases 48% Contact only when necessary 45% Regular contact over email or phone 29% Attending networking events 14% N/A - don’t work with PR 5% Other 3% FIGURE 66: How PR can build a strong working relationship with journalists Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 98

About Medianet is ANZ’s #1 Media Intelligence pla琀昀orm with a suite of PR and communica琀椀ons solu琀椀ons that help Medianet organisa琀椀ons connect with their target audience and achieve earned media success. Medianet’s suite of PR services include a comprehensive database of Australia and New Zealand journalists, a press release distribution platform, sophisticated media analysis and reporting insights, and much more. Our unique relationships with Australian newsrooms is like no other, and we’ve built trusted partnerships with a community of media contacts where you can 昀椀nd insightful information – no matter your passion or vertical. Our mission is to empower our customers with the incredible bene昀椀ts of earned media, while assisting journalists to tell the stories that matter. medianet.com.au Our mission is to empower our customers with the incredible bene昀椀ts of earned media, while assisting journalists to tell the stories that matter. Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 99

Contact Us 1300 616 813 Contact Us [email protected] Sydney Melbourne Sydney Melbourne Level 3, 2 Holt Street Level 8, 40 City Road Level 3, 2 Holt Street Level 8, 40 City Road Surry Hills NSW 2010 Southbank VIC 3006 Surry Hills NSW 2010 Southbank VIC 3006 Medianet 2024 Australian Media Landscape Report 100 contact contact